TABLE 6-1Matrix for Classifying Categories of Prevention

Primary PreventionSecondary PreventionTertiary Prevention
Clinical preventionBehavioral counseling by clinicians; immunizationsTesting by clinicians for early detection of cancer, heart disease, and other conditionsChronic illness care and disease management administered by clinicians
Community- or population- based preventionAltering the community and environment to promote healthy lifestyles and reduce risks for disease and injuriesScreening fairs and other community venues for disease testingSelf-care; disease management at home, work, school

NOTE: primary prevention = controlling modifiable risk factors to avert the occurrence of disease; secondary prevention = the early detection of disease before it manifests clinical symptoms; tertiary prevention = the control of existing diseases to prevent more serious complications.

From: 6, Missed Prevention Opportunities

Cover of The Healthcare Imperative
The Healthcare Imperative: Lowering Costs and Improving Outcomes: Workshop Series Summary.
Institute of Medicine (US) Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine; Yong PL, Saunders RS, Olsen LA, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2010.
Copyright © 2010, National Academy of Sciences.

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