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Institute of Medicine (US) Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine; Yong PL, Saunders RS, Olsen LA, editors. The Healthcare Imperative: Lowering Costs and Improving Outcomes: Workshop Series Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2010.

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The Healthcare Imperative: Lowering Costs and Improving Outcomes: Workshop Series Summary.

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Appendix DSpeaker Biographies

Gerard F. Anderson, Ph.D., is Professor of Health Policy and Management and Professor of International Health at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Hospital Finance and Management, and co-Director of the Johns Hopkins Program for Medical Technology and Practice Assessment. Dr. Anderson is currently conducting research on chronic conditions, comparative insurance systems in developing countries, medical education, health care payment reform, and technology diffusion. He has directed reviews of healthcare systems for the World Bank and USAID in multiple countries. He has authored two books on healthcare payment policy, published over 200 peer-reviewed articles, testified in Congress over 40 times as an individual witness, and serves on multiple editorial committees. Prior to his arrival at Johns Hopkins, Dr. Anderson held various positions in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, where he helped to develop Medicare prospective payment legislation.

Joseph Antos, Ph.D., is Wilson H. Taylor Scholar in Health Care and Retirement Policy at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI). He is also a Commissioner of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission and an Adjunct Professor at the School of Public Health of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Prior to joining AEI, he was Assistant Director for Health and Human Resources at the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), and he held senior positions in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Office of Management and Budget, and the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. He also has extensive experience as an adviser to the U.S. Agency for International Development, the World Bank, and governments in Europe and Asia. Dr. Antos has written, lectured, and testified before Congress on the economics of health policy, including Medicare and broader health system reform, healthcare financing, health insurance regulation, and the uninsured. He is the editor, with Alice Rivlin, of Restoring Fiscal Sanity 2007: The Health Spending Challenge (Brookings Institution Press, 2007). He is past chairman of the Coalition for Health Services Research, a member of CBO’s panel of health advisers, and he serves on a variety of professional boards. He earned his Ph.D. in economics in 1974 from the University of Rochester, his M.A. in economics in 1971 from the University of Rochester, and his B.A. in mathematics from Cornell University in 1968.

Michael Bailit, M.B.A., founded Bailit Health Purchasing, LLC in 1997 and has worked with a wide array of government agencies and purchasing coalitions across the United States since. His professional interests focus on how purchasers and regulators can influence healthcare markets to operate as effectively and efficiently as possible. Bailit has worked with clients on performance assessment activities, vendor management, chronic care model/medical home strategy design and implementation, reimbursement system design, and the use of incentives to motivate desired performance. His work has also included assistance with strategic planning activities for systems and programs. Prior to founding Bailit Health Purchasing, Bailit served as Assistant Commissioner for Benefit Plans in the Massachusetts Division of Medical Assistance, the state Medicaid agency. His responsibilities included the management of all of the Division’s benefit plans, including the HMO, behavioral health, primary care case management, and senior care programs. For each of these programs he designed and supervised the execution of procurements as well as ongoing vendor performance management. He was also responsible for new managed care program development for the Division, including the Division’s HCFA 1115 health reform waiver and its 1115 Medicare-Medicaid dual-eligible waiver. While with Massachusetts, he served as chair of the HCFA (now CMS) Medicaid Managed Care Technical Advisory Group. Also while with Massachusetts, Michael founded the Massachusetts Healthcare Purchaser Group and served as its chairman and president from 1993–1996. The MHPG is a statewide coalition of public and private purchasers of health insurance and is the leading voice of purchasers in the Commonwealth. Previously, Michael worked for Digital Equipment Corporation and was engaged in health and welfare benefit planning and management activities for Digital’s 60,000 U.S. employees. Michael earned a B.A. degree from Wesleyan University and earned an M.B.A. from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.

John M. Bertko, F.S.A., MAAA, is currently Adjunct Staff at RAND, a Visiting Scholar at the Brookings Institution, and the retired Chief Actuary of Humana Inc., where he managed the corporate actuarial group and directed work by actuarial staff for Humana’s major business units, including developing Part D, Medicare Advantage, and consumer-driven health care products. He has extensive experience with risk adjustment and has served in several public policy advisory roles. He currently serves on the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and on the panel of health advisors for the Congressional Budget Office. He served the American Academy of Actuaries as a board member from 1994 to 1996 and as vice president for the health practice council from 1995 to 1996. He is a Fellow of the Society of Actuaries and a member of the American Academy of Actuaries. He has a B.S. in mathematics from Case Western Reserve University.

Maureen Bisognano, M.S., is Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), an independent not-for-profit organization helping to lead the improvement of health care throughout the world. She is a prominent authority on improving health-care systems, whose expertise has been recognized by her elected membership to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and by her appointment to the Commonwealth Fund’s Commission on a High Performance Health System, among other distinctions. Ms. Bisognano advises healthcare leaders around the world, is a frequent speaker at major healthcare conferences on quality improvement, and is a tireless advocate for change. She is also an Instructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and a Research Associate in the Division of Social Medicine and Health Inequalities at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Prior to joining IHI, Ms. Bisognano was Senior Vice President of the Juran Institute, where she consulted with senior management on the implementation of total quality management in healthcare settings. Before that, she served as Chief Executive Officer of the Massachusetts Respiratory Hospital in Braintree, MA, where she implemented a hospital-wide strategic plan that improved the quality of care while simultaneously reducing costs. Ms. Bisognano began her career in health care in 1973 as a staff nurse at Quincy City Hospital. She was Director of Nursing at Quincy City Hospital from 1981 to 1982, Director of Patient Services from 1982 to 1986, and Chief Operating Officer from 1986 to 1987. She holds a B.S. degree from the State University of New York and an M.S. degree from Boston University.

Randall R. Bovbjerg, J.D., is a Senior Fellow in the Health Policy Center of the Urban Institute. He has studied prevention of medical injury, tort reform, and non-judicial alternatives including medical discipline, along with many other topics in health policy, currently including state health reform and the relevance of the Federal Employees Health Benefits program for national refom. His first health policy publication was a 1975 Duke Law Journal article on HMOs and malpractice. Most recently, he has coauthored a forthcoming paper on health reform cost containment, which has a section on liability reform. He also co-drafted chapter 6 of the Institute of Medicine’s 2000 book To Err Is Human and during 1992–1994 chaired the Advisory Panel on Defensive Medicine for the Office of Technology Assessment. He recently served on the Patient Safety Workgroup of the Federation of State Medical Boards and on JCAHO’s taskforce on alternatives to tort litigation. He has also taught at Duke and Johns Hopkins Universities and worked as a state insurance regulator in Massachusetts.

Cory S, Capps, Ph.D., a Principal at Bates White, has more than 10 years experience as an economist specializing in industrial organization, empirical methods, and antitrust, with a focus on the healthcare industry. He has advised both private firms and government agencies on issues relating to hospital market power and competition, and he has experience analyzing joint ventures, group purchasing organizations, price-fixing and market allocation, and vertical foreclosure. Recently, Dr. Capps served as an outside expert in a Department of Justice investigation of a proposed merger in the healthcare sector. Prior to joining Bates White, Dr. Capps was a Staff Economist at the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ) where he concentrated in the analysis of competition in healthcare markets, including merger and civil nonmerger investigations of hospitals, physicians, nurses, insurers, home health agencies, and ambulatory surgery centers. While at the DOJ, he provided written testimony on geographic market definition before the DOJ/FTC Hearings on Healthcare Competition, Policy, and Law. And he provided oral testimony on for-profit and nonprofit hospital market power and pricing before the DOJ/FTC Hearings on Healthcare Competition, Policy, and Law. In addition to Dr. Capps’ broad healthcare experience, he has conducted economic analysis for investigations and cases involving a variety of industries such as airlines, semiconductors, newspapers, online content providers, and genetically modified crops. Dr. Capps has also provided economic consulting services to corporations on business and strategy issues. Dr. Capps’ academic career includes professorships at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and at Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management. He has published widely in journals including RAND Journal of Economics, Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Journal of Health Economics, Antitrust Bulletin, Health Affairs, and Health Economics, Policy and Law.

Lisa Carrara, has proven herself in a variety of underwriting, sales support, and product development management positions. She has been in her current role as Head of Aexcel Product Development since July 2003. She also acquired responsibility for Group Insurance Product Development in mid-2005. Lisa began her career in a fast-track professional rotational development program where she had several assignments within medical claim as well as customer team financial underwriting. After several years in National Accounts Sales Support learning the complexities of selling managed care to jumbo accounts, she transitioned to a start-up opportunity managing Aetna’s first “24-hour” line of coverage, which combined non-occupational medical and group disability with workers’ compensation coverage. She moved to Aetna Group Insurance (life, disability, and long-term care) in 1996 where she assumed a number of management positions with increasing responsibility, including Proposal Unit Manager, Northeast Underwriting Director, Head of Key Accounts Underwriting, and Head of Product and Solutions Development until her final stop as Head of Multi-Channel Distribution specializing in alternate distribution channels. Carrara has specialized in various start-up opportunities over her Aetna career. Specifically, the 24-hour product in National Accounts, the Group Insurance Proposal Unit, consolidation of Key Accounts segment for underwriting of renewals and presale activity, a focused Group Insurance Product Development team separate from the Product Management team, an entirely new business segment called Multi-Channel Distribution, and lastly, the Aexcel Network Product were all start-up business areas for Aetna.

Lawrence Casalino, Ph.D., is Chief of the Division of Outcomes and Effectiveness Research in the Department of Public Health at Weill Cornell Medical College. Previously, he worked for 20 years as a family physician in private practice, obtained a Ph.D. in health services research at the University of California, Berkeley, and served as an Associate Professor at the University of Chicago. He is the recipient of an Investigator Award in Health Policy Research from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Dr. Casalino studies the organization of physician practice, the use of organized processes to improve the quality of care, and physician relations with hospitals and health plans, as well as the public and private policies that influence physicians, hospitals, and health plans.

Amitabh Chandra, Ph.D., is Professor of Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. He is a Research Fellow at the IZA Institute in Bonn, Germany, and at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His current research focuses on productivity and expenditure growth in health care, racial disparities in health care, and the economics of neonatal health and cardiovascular care. His research has been supported by the National Institute of Aging and the National Institute of Child Health and Development, and has been published in the American Economic Review, the Journal of Political Economy, the Journal of Labor Economics, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Circulation, the American Heart Journal, and Health Affairs. He serves as an editor of the Journal of Human Resources, Economics Letters, and the American Economic Journal-Applied. He has been a faculty member at Dartmouth and MIT, and has been a consultant to the National Academy of Science, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the RAND Corporation. He is the recipient of an Outstanding Teacher Award, the first-prize recipient of the Upjohn Institute’s International Dissertation Research Award, the Kenneth Arrow Award for best paper in health economics, and the Eugene Garfield Award for the impact of medical research.

Niteesh K. Choudhry, M.D., Ph.D., is Assistant Professor at Harvard Medical School and Associate Physician in the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics and the Hospitalist Program at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. His research focuses on increasing the appropriate use of evidence-based medications for the treatment of common chronic conditions, such as coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, by reducing barriers to medication access and adherence. He is particularly interested in the impact of medication costs and financial incentives on medication use and is leading several randomized trials and large observational studies to explore these issues further. Dr. Choudhry attended McGill University and then received his M.D. and did his residency training in Internal Medicine at the University of Toronto. He served as Chief Medical Resident for the Toronto General and Toronto Western Hospitals and was later the Director of the Medical Clerkship Program at the Toronto General Hospital. He did his Ph.D. in health policy at Harvard University, with a concentration in statistics and the evaluative sciences, and was a Fellow in Pharmaceutical Policy Research at Harvard Medical School.

Carolyn M. Clancy, M.D., is Director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Prior to 2002, she was Director of the Agency’s Center for Outcomes and Effectiveness Research (COER). Dr. Clancy, a general internist and health services researcher, is a graduate of Boston College and the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Following clinical training in internal medicine, Dr. Clancy was a Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Fellow at the University of Pennsylvania. She was also an Assistant Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine at the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond before joining AHRQ in 1990. Dr. Clancy holds an academic appointment at George Washington University School of Medicine (Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Medicine), is the Senior Associate Editor of Health Services Research and serves on multiple editorial boards (currently Annals of Family Medicine, American Journal of Medical Quality, and Medical Care Research and Review). She has published widely in peer-reviewed journals and has edited or contributed to seven books. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine and was elected a Master of the American College of Physicians in 2004.

David M. Cutler, Ph.D., has developed an impressive record of achievement in both academia and the public sector. He served as Assistant Professor of Economics from 1991 to 1995, was named John L. Loeb Associate Professor of Social Sciences in 1995, and received tenure in 1997. He is currently the Otto Eckstein Professor of Applied Economics in the Department of Economics and Kennedy School of Government and recently completed a 5-year term as Associate Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences for Social Sciences. Honored for his scholarly work and singled out for outstanding mentorship of graduate students, Professor Cutler’s work in health economics and public economics has earned him significant academic and public acclaim. Professor Cutler served on the Council of Economic Advisers and the National Economic Council during the Clinton administration and was senior health care advisor to Barack Obama’s presidential campaign. Professor Cutler also advised the presidential campaign of Bill Bradley. Among other affiliations, Professor Cutler has held positions with the National Institutes of Health and the National Academy of Sciences. Currently, Professor Cutler is a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research and a member of the Institute of Medicine. Professor Cutler is the author of Your Money Or Your Life: Strong Medicine for America’s Health Care System, published by Oxford University Press. This book, and Professor Cutler’s ideas, were the subject of a feature article in the New York Times Magazine, The Quality Cure, by Roger Lowenstein. Cutler was recently named 1 of the 30 people who could have a powerful impact on health care by Modern Healthcare magazine and 1 of the 50 most influential men aged 45 and younger by Details magazine.

Adam Darkins, M.B., Ch.B., M.D., MPHM, FRCS, leads the National Care Coordination/Telehealth Program within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Care Coordination/Telehealth within VA involves the use of health informatics, telehealth, and disease management technologies to enhance and extend care and case management. Under his leadership, VA has developed the clinical, technological, and business underpinnings to successfully implement and sustain enterprise-wide telehealth-based services that improve access to care for patients, reduce utilization of healthcare resources, and are associated with very high levels of patient satisfaction. VA is seen as a national/international leader in telehealth with over 200,000 patients receiving care annually. The mission of these programs is to provide the right care in the right place at the right time to the appropriate patient. The associated aim is that of providing care for patients in the most convenient setting whenever safe, appropriate, effective, and cost-effective. The VA experience shows telehealth can bring about transformative change in the management of high incidence chronic diseases in the population, ones that pose an ever-increasing challenge for all healthcare systems. Darkins has worked in health services development using new information technologies in the United States and United Kingdom since 1991 and has a clinical background in neurosurgery.

Nancy Davenport-Ennis, cancer survivor, is the Founder and Chief Executive Officer of two organizations she founded in 1996, National Patient Advocate Foundation (NPAF), a policy organization, headquartered in Washington, DC, that seeks to improve access to care through regulatory and policy initiatives at the state and federal levels and Patient Advocate Foundation (PAF), a 501(c)3 direct patient services non-profit organization, headquartered in Newport News, Virginia, that provides professional case management services to insured, under-insured, and un-insured patients diagnosed with chronic, debilitating, and life-threatening conditions. PAF also has an office in Mission Valley, California and home office case management support in Iowa, Tennessee, Nevada, and New York. Davenport-Ennis was recently appointed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to serve on the Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs) Committee. She was also appointed by the National Institutes of Health to serve on its Open Ended Working Group (OEWG). In the past, she has been appointed to, or has served on, several national committees including an appointment by the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services as a Commissioner on the American Health Information Community (AHIC), with Health and Human Services (HHS) serving as Co-Chair of the Consumer Empowerment Working Group for AHIC, Directors Consumer Liaison Group (DCLG) with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), a voting seat on the Medicare Coverage Advisory Committee (MCAC) at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Access to Quality Cancer Care Team, a committee of C-Change, One Voice Against Cancer, Virginia Governor’s Government & Regulatory Reform Task Force, Virginia Attorney General’s Regulatory and Government Reform Task Force-Healthcare Working Group, Health Information Technology Council for Virginia, and the Mayor’s Committee on Medicaid and Physician Recruitment in New-port News, VA. Ms. Davenport-Ennis is the recipient of the 2005 Women in Business Achievement Award presented by Anthem and Business Week. Davenport-Ennis was honored with the 1989 Outstanding Young Woman of America Award, the Association of Community Cancer Centers Advocate of the Year Award, and the U.S. Oncology Medal of Honor Award. Ms. Davenport-Ennis was also appointed to the Governor’s Commission on the Uninsured in Virginia. Davenport-Ennis was also named as a Paul Harris Fellow by the National Rotary Foundation. Davenport-Ennis holds a B.A. degree in English from Campbell University. She resides in Yorktown, Virginia with her husband, John H. Ennis, Jr. and has two daughters and four grandchildren.

Karen Davis, Ph.D., is President of the Commonwealth Fund, a national philanthropy engaged in health and social policy research. Previously, she served as Chairman of the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, where she was also a Professor of Economics. She was Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health Policy in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services from 1977–1980. Prior to that, she was a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, a Visiting Scholar at Harvard University, and an Assistant Professor of Economics at Rice University. Among many other honors and awards, Dr. Davis received the AcademyHealth Distinguished Investigator Award in 2006 and was honored by the Institute of Medicine with the Adam Yarmolinsky Medal in 2007. She is on the board of directors of the Geisinger Health System and serves on the Panel of Health Advisors for the Congressional Budget Office.

Wendy Everett, Sc.D., plays a leading role in creating NEHI’s lasting partnerships with other successful national health policy organizations. As President, she works with the board to create NEHI’s vision and strategy, and to communicate it to the outside world. She also provides direction and oversight for NEHI’s many reports and initiatives. Dr. Everett was appointed as the first President of the New England Healthcare Institute (NEHI) in July 2002. With over 30 years of experience in the healthcare field, Dr. Everett brings a unique perspective to NEHI. She has held executive positions at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center and at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. In the 1980s, she directed a national demonstration program for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and subsequently was the Program Director for the National Program in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention for the Kaiser Family Foundation. She has served as a consultant to many state and national philanthropic foundations. In the mid 1990s, she became a Director of the Institute for the Future, leading the Health and Health Care research team for 6 years and overseeing the creation of 10-year, national forecasts in health/health care. She is a Trustee of many health care and philanthropic boards. Dr. Everett holds two bachelor of science degrees and master’s and doctoral degrees in health policy and management from Harvard University.

Roger Feldman, Ph.D., is the Blue Cross Professor of Health Insurance and Professor of Economics at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Feldman was a Marshall Scholar at the London School of Economics and holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Rochester. His research examines the organization, financing, and delivery of health care with a focus on health insurance and competition. He also studies competition among healthcare providers and insurers. Currently, he is evaluating the effect of consumer-directed health plans on medical care utilization and personal savings decisions. Dr. Feldman’s experience in healthcare policy includes serving on the Senior Staff of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers, where he was the lead author of a chapter in the 1985 Economic Report of the President. From 1988 to 1992, he directed one of the four national research centers sponsored by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). He advised CMS on the design of a demonstration of competitive pricing for Medicare health plans and is evaluating the competitive pricing program for durable medical equipment in Medicare. Dr. Feldman is a regular contributor to journals of economics and health services research. He has advised government agencies and has been a consultant to federal and state antitrust agencies. His research has received four “best paper” awards from the Association for Health Services Research and the National Institute for Health Care Management.

Timothy G. Ferris, M.D., M.P.H., is a practicing general internist and pediatrician and the medical director of the Mass General Physicians Organization. He is formally the Vice Chair for Quality for Partners Pediatrics and Mass General Hospital for Children. He is also a Senior Scientist in the Partners/MGH Institute for Health Policy and an Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. His research has focused on the measurement and improvement of healthcare quality for adults and children, particularly focused on the roles of financing and health information technology. In addition to quality improvement interventions, he has published studies on the effects of the organization and financing of care on the costs and quality of care, risk adjustment of quality measures, and disparities in health care. He has over 50 publications including those in journals such as the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, Pediatrics, and Health Affairs. Dr. Ferris has been leading efforts at Partners Healthcare to improve the care of patients with multiple chronic conditions with specific responsibility for design, oversight, and evaluation of programs to improve quality and efficiency of care for high-risk patients such as those with heart failure. Dr. Ferris has been a member of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Health Care Quality and Effectiveness Research study section, has chaired two Technical Advisory Panels for the National Quality Forum, sits on the Quality and Safety subcommittee to the Board of the National Association of Children’s Hospitals and Related Institutions (NACHRI), and consulted to the World Health Organization.

Elliott S. Fisher, M.D., M.P.H., is Professor of Medicine and Community and Family Medicine at the Dartmouth Medical School, and Director of Health Policy Research at Dartmouth’s Center for the Evaluative Clinical Sciences. He is also Co-Director of the VA Outcomes Group, a research and training program for physicians, at the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in White River Junction, Vermont. Dr. Fisher received his A.B. from Harvard University, his M.D. from Harvard Medical School, and his M.P.H. from the University of Washington. Dr. Fisher has broad expertise in the use of Medicare databases and survey research methods for health system evaluation. His research interests lie in three areas: (1) he has worked to clarify the limitations of administrative databases and develop methods to overcome them; (2) he has also developed approaches to resource allocation based upon the principles of benchmarking, initially as a means of addressing inequities in the levels of hospital resources across communities in Oregon and more recently as applied to the U.S. physician supply; (3) most recently, he has focused on the health implications of the uneven distribution of healthcare resources. His current research, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, examines the potential adverse consequences of increasing capacity in health care. Dr. Fisher publishes in professional journals such as the Journal of the American Medical Association and the New England Journal of Medicine. Some of his more recent publications include Variations in the Longitudinal Efficiency of Academic Medical Centers, Health Affairs, 2004; and The Implications of Regional Variations in Medicare Spending, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2003.

Thomas J. Flottemesch, Ph.D., is a Research Associate at HealthPartners Research Foundation with advanced degrees in economics and statistics. His particular areas of expertise are cost effectiveness analysis, econometric methods, operations/decision modeling, and health information technology. For the past 5 years, Dr. Flottemesch has worked on the Prevention Priorities Project where he has led construction of cost-effectiveness models of obesity prevention, dietary interventions, and cervical cancer and colorectal cancer screening. In addition, he has conducted econometrics analyses of tobacco use, dental care, hospital costs, chronic disease care, and patient-centered medical home (PCMH) implementation. Dr. Flottemesch has also served as consultant to hospitals where he has applied sophisticated decision support models to assess patient flow and hospital staffing patterns and has interfaced these models with existing HIT systems. These findings were presented at a didactic session of the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine’s annual meeting. His current interests are in the areas of modeling the cost-effectiveness of preventive services, developing robust measures of primary care efficiency, and determining the impact of health information technology upon quality of care and provider performance.

G. Scott Gazelle M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., is Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School and Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health. He serves as Director of Partners Radiology, the MGH Institute for Technology Assessment, the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center Program in Cancer Outcomes Research Training, and he is Co-Director and Associate Vice Chair for Research in the MGH Department of Radiology. He is also Senior Scientist at the Partners Institute for Health Policy. Dr. Gazelle has been President of the Association of University Radiologists, the Radiology Research Alliance, and the New England Roentgen Ray Society. He has also been Chair of the American College of Radiology Commission on Research and Technology Assessment and the RSNA Research Development Committee. He is nationally and internationally known for his research evaluating the benefits, costs, and appropriate use of new medical technologies. Locally, he has been active in the development and implementation of guidelines for the appropriate use of imaging technologies. He has also led efforts at Partners HealthCare System to improve quality and safety in radiology and to develop approaches that can be used to measure and document performance improvement. Dr. Gazelle has authored more than 180 scientific articles, published two textbooks and presented numerous papers, lectures, and workshops nationally and internationally.

Richard J. Gilfillan, M.D., is former President and CEO of Geisinger Health Plan and Executive Vice President for System Insurance Operations at the Geisinger Health System. Dr. Gilfillan was responsible for Geisinger’s three managed care companies that provide a full spectrum of health benefit programs for individuals, employers, and Medicare beneficiaries. With $1 billion in revenues, GHP and its affiliated companies provide health coverage to more than 225,000 members. He began his career as a family practitioner for the Georgetown University Community Health Plan. After establishing a family practice group in Massachusetts, he became Medical Director for Medigroup Central HMO, a Blue Cross of New Jersey managed care company in 1985. He was Chief Medical Officer for Independence Blue Cross from 1992 until 1995, when he became the general manager of their AmeriHealth New Jersey managed care subsidiary. Prior to joining Geisinger, Dr. Gilfillan was the Senior Vice President for National Network Management at Coventry Health Care. Dr. Gilfillan received his undergraduate and medical degrees from Georgetown University in Washington, DC. He completed a family practice residency at Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis. He also earned an MBA from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Gilfillan has served on numerous community and corporate boards.

Dana Goldman, Ph.D., holds the RAND Chair in Health Economics and is Director of Health Economics at RAND. He is also a Professor of Health Services and Radiology at UCLA. His research interests combine applied microeconomics and medical issues, with a special interest in the role that medical technology and health insurance play in determining health-related outcomes. His work has been published in leading medical, economic, statistics, and health policy journals with funding from both the public and private sectors, including the National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging, National Cancer Institute, National Science Foundation, Amgen, Merck, Genentech, California Healthcare Foundation, Smith Richardson Foundation, Department of Defense, Department of Labor, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Most recently, he is the Director of the RAND Roybal Center for Health Policy Simulation designed to provide better estimates of the impact of health policy changes. Dr. Goldman serves on several editorial boards including Health Affairs and the American Journal of Managed Care. He was the recipient of the National Institute for Health Care Management Research Foundation award for excellence in health policy, and the Alice S. Hersh New Investigator Award that recognizes the outstanding contributions of a young scholar to the field of health services research. He is also a Research Associate with the National Bureau of Economic Research. Dr. Goldman received his B.A. from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University.

James L. Heffernan, M.B.A., is the Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer of the Massachusetts General Physicians Organization (MGPO). He received his bachelors degree from Boston University and his M.B.A. with a Sloan Certificate from Cornell University. Heffernan has been with the MGPO for 14 years and is responsible for finance, budgeting, payment analysis, and the professional billing office. He is involved in strategic initiatives involving physician compliance, growth, billing compliance, and physician work life issues. Heffernan co-chairs the Partners Healthcare System Finance Information Systems Steering Committee that has set the standard for enterprise-wide system solutions for finance and accounting, materials management, revenue cycle, and business intelligence tools. Prior to returning to Boston, Heffernan worked in Cleveland where he progressed though the senior management positions in finance, operations, and strategic planning for two hospital systems. He was the first financial officer for a start-up hospital in Cleveland. He has been a key member of several hospital mergers including a rather unique merger of a hospital into a Blue Cross plan. Heffernan has started three physician management corporations to deal with primary care and mental health risk contracting. He established a hospital based primary care practice that was recognized by the Ohio State Medical Association as a model for “clinics without walls” in the Midwest. He is the past-President of the Massachusetts Rhode Island Chapter of HFMA. Heffernan has written for the Mass Media and HFMA National Magazine. He is a contributing author to the HFMA study guide for Financial Management of Physicians Practices and is also a contributing author to the AHRQ published paper on the design of the MGPO quality incentive program in Advances in Patient Safety.

Jack Hoadley, Ph.D., is a Health Policy Analyst and Researcher with over 25 years experience in this field. He joined Georgetown University’s Health Policy Institute as a Research Professor in January 2002, where he is conducting research projects on health financing topics, including Medicare and Medicaid, with a particular focus on prescription drug issues. Recent projects have included studies of the use of formularies by Medicare drug plans, the impact of the Medicare drug benefit’s coverage gap, options for simplifying and standardizing Medicare’s drug benefit and its managed-care program, the use of evidence-based medicine to manage pharmacy costs for Medicaid, and an evaluation of recent changes to Florida’s Medicaid program. He is trained as a Ph.D. in political science and has worked in both academic and government settings. Prior to arriving at Georgetown, he held positions at the Department of Health and Human Services in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), the Physician Payment Review Commission (PPRC) and its successor, the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC), and the National Health Policy Forum.

Thomas J. Hoerger, Ph.D., Senior Fellow in Health Economics, appointed in September 2005, is the Director of the RTI-UNC Center of Excellence in Health Promotion Economics. He specializes in health economics, health-care reform, and cost-effectiveness analysis. Dr. Hoerger has led numerous research projects for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). He has developed models for examining the cost-effectiveness of health promotion interventions and estimated the costs of diabetes, vision loss, and other conditions. He has directed a series of projects to design, implement, and evaluate competitive bidding for Medicare services. The purpose of the CDC-sponsored RTI-UNC Center of Excellence in Health Promotion Economics is to develop, evaluate, and implement health promotion recommendations, programs, and policies; to evaluate their cost-effectiveness; and, consequently, to improve upon efforts to promote health and prevent disease, disability, and injury. Dr. Hoerger holds a Ph.D. in economics from Northwestern University and a B.A. in economics from Carleton College.

Jason Hwang, M.D., M.B.A., is an internal medicine physician and Executive Director of Healthcare at Innosight Institute, a non-profit social innovation think tank based in San Francisco. Together with Professor Clayton M. Christensen of Harvard Business School and the late Jerome H. Grossman of the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, he is co-author of The Innovator’s Prescription: A Disruptive Solution for Health Care. Previously, Dr. Hwang taught as Chief Resident and Clinical Instructor at the University of California, Irvine, where he received multiple recognitions for his clinical work. He has also served as a clinician with the Southern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Group and the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Long Beach, California. Dr. Hwang received his B.S. and M.D. from the University of Michigan and his M.B.A. from Harvard Business School.

George J. Isham, M.D., M.S., is responsible for quality, utilization management, health promotion and disease prevention, research, and health professionals’ education at HealthPartners. He is active in strategic planning and policy issues. He is a founding board member of the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement, a collaborative of Twin Cities medical groups and health plans that is implementing clinical practice guidelines in Minnesota. Isham is a past member of the board of directors of the American’s Health Insurance Plans and he is currently on the board of directors of the Alliance of Community Health Plans. He is past Co-Chair and current member of the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s (NCQA) Committee on Performance Measurement which oversees health plan quality measurement standards. He has served on the Center for Disease Control’s (CDC’s) Task Force on Community Preventive Services and on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s (AHRQ’s) Advisory Board for the National Guideline Clearinghouse. He has served on the Institute of Medicine’s Board on Population Health and Public Health Services and chaired the committee that authored the report Priority Areas for National Action, Transforming Health Care Quality. In 2003, Isham was appointed as a lifetime National Associate of the National Academies of Science in recognition of his contributions to the work of the Institute of Medicine. Epidemic of Care, published in April 2003, with co-author George Halvorson, is Isham’s examination of the impending healthcare crisis with suggestions on ways to solve it. Prior to his current position, Isham was Medical Director for MedCenters Health Plan in Minneapolis and Executive Director for University Health Care, Inc., in Madison, Wisconsin. His practice experience as a primary care physician includes 8 years at the Freeport Clinic in Freeport, Illinois, and 3.5 years as Clinical Assistant Professor in Medicine at the University of Wisconsin.

William F. Jessee, M.D., FACMPE, is President and Chief Executive Officer of the Medical Group Management Association (MGMA), the nation’s leading voice for group medical practice. Before joining MGMA in 1999, Dr. Jessee served for 3 years as Vice President for Quality and Managed Care Standards at the American Medical Association (AMA), where he led the AMA’s activities in clinical guidelines, quality improvement, and accreditation. He also holds academic appointments as Clinical Professor of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver, and as Adjunct Professor of Health Policy and Administration at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill. Previously, Dr. Jessee was CEO of UNIVA Health Network, a regional integrated delivery system in Louisville, Kentucky. He also has served as Vice President of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations from 1986–1991 and 1993–1994. From 1991–1993 he was corporate Vice President for Quality Management at Humana, Inc. Dr. Jessee was a full-time academician as Associate Professor of Health Policy and Administration at the University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill from 1980–1986. He received his undergraduate degree at Stanford University and his medical degree at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. He took residency training in pediatrics at Indiana University Hospitals, Indianapolis, and completed his training in preventive medicine at the University of Maryland Hospital, Baltimore. He is a Fellow in the American College of Preventive Medicine; an Honorary Fellow of the American College of Medical Quality; and a board certified Medical Practice Executive and Fellow of the American College of Medical Practice Executives. Dr. Jessee serves as Immediate Past Chair of the Board of Directors of Exempla Health System (Denver); Treasurer of the Board of the National Patient Safety Foundation (NPSF); Immediate Past Chair of the Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAHME); and Secretary of the Board of the E-Health Initiative. Dr. Jessee was a founding board member of the International Society for Quality in Health Care, which he served as President from 1989 to 1991, and as a board member from 1985 to 1993. The Society named him a Life Member and Fellow in 1993. He also served on the National Advisory Council to the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) from 2000 until 2002.

Ashish Jha, M.D., M.P.H., is Associate Professor of Health Policy at the Harvard School of Public Health, Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, and Staff Physician at VA Boston Healthcare System and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. He is currently also serving as a senior advisor to the Under Secretary for Health of the Veterans Health Administration, focusing on areas of clinical quality and patient safety. Dr. Jha received his M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School in 1997 and trained in internal medicine at the University of California, San Francisco where he also served as Chief Medical Resident. He completed his General Medicine fellowship from Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School and received his M.P.H. in Clinical Effectiveness from Harvard School of Public Health in 2004. He joined the faculty in July 2004. Dr. Jha’s main professional interests are in quality and safety of medical care, racial disparities in health care, and the impact of information technology in these areas. He has worked in areas evaluating the quality of hospital care, especially hospitals that care for large minority populations; the impact of health information technology and public reporting on quality of care; and delineating the relationship between hospital quality and efficiency. Much of his current work focuses on the current state of health information technology use in the United States and the impact it has on the quality, safety, and efficiency of health care.

James G. Kahn, M.D., M.P.H., is Professor of Health Policy and Epidemiology at the University of California, San Francisco, based in the Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies and at the Institute for Global Health. Dr. Kahn is an expert in policy modeling in health care, cost-effectiveness analysis, and evidence-based medicine. His work focuses on the use of cost-effectiveness analysis to inform decision making in public health and medicine with a particular focus on HIV in the developing world. Dr. Kahn is a leading expert on administrative costs in the U.S. healthcare system. In 2005, Dr. Kahn and colleagues published a study in Health Affairs titled The Cost of Health Insurance Administration in California: Insurer, Physician, and Hospital Estimates. This was the first study to quantify U.S. healthcare administration costs by setting (i.e., insurer, hospital, and physician groups) and within setting by functional department (e.g., billing). Dr. Kahn and colleagues recently published a follow-up study on administrative costs in a large multi-specialty group practice, providing the most detailed analysis to date of billing and insurance-related administrative activities and costs for physicians. Dr. Kahn has served on or presented to several IOM committees, and has advised the World Health Organization and other government agencies and foundations on a variety of economic issues in health care. He has published more than 100 articles, reports, and book chapters.

Gary S. Kaplan, M.D., FACP, FACMPE, FACPE, has served as Chairman and CEO of the Virginia Mason Health System since 2000. Dr. Kaplan received his medical degree from the University of Michigan and is board-certified in internal medicine. Since Dr. Kaplan became Chairman and CEO, Virginia Mason has received significant national and international recognition, including HealthGrades’ “Distinguished Hospital Award for Clinical Excellence” for 3 consecutive years. Recently, Virginia Mason was one of 26 hospitals and seven children’s hospitals named 2008 Top Hospitals in the nation by the Leapfrog Group. Virginia Mason was the only hospital in the Pacific Northwest to be listed. Virginia Mason is also a national leader in deploying the Toyota Production System to healthcare management—reducing the high costs of health care while improving quality, safety, and efficiency. In addition to his patient-care duties and position as CEO, Dr. Kaplan is a Clinical Professor at the University of Washington and has been recognized for his service and contribution to many regional and national boards, including the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, the Medical Group Management Association, the National Patient Safety Foundation, the American Heart Association—King County Division, the Seattle Foundation, and the Washington Healthcare Forum. In 2007, Dr. Kaplan was designated a fellow in the American College of Physician Executives and was named the 18th most influential U.S. physician leader in health care by Modern Healthcare magazine. Recently, Dr. Kaplan was named 41st on Modern Healthcare’s list of “100 Most Powerful People in Health Care.” Dr. Kaplan joined Bill Gates, ranked third, as the only other leader from Washington state to make the list.

Rainu Kaushal, M.D., M.P.H., is the Chief of the Division of Quality and Medical Informatics at Weill Cornell Medical College. Dr. Kaushal is an expert in quality, patient safety, and health information technology (health IT). Dr. Kaushal is engaged in research, patient care, management, and operations activities, all geared toward using health IT to optimize the value of health care today. In 2005, Dr. Kaushal founded and became the Executive Director of the Health Information Technology Evaluation Collaborative (HITEC), a consortium of four universities in New York State, to conduct rigorous evaluations of initiatives being undertaken as part of a novel and ambitious $250 million New York State program called “HEAL NY.” In 2006, Dr. Kaushal became the first Chief of the Division of Quality and Medical Informatics at Weill Cornell, a dynamic new Division established by the Medical College to address the importance of health IT as a cornerstone of healthcare reform. In addition, Dr. Kaushal serves as the Director of Pediatric Quality and Safety at the Komansky Center for Children’s Health at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, striving to translate research learning into operational improvements. Dr. Kaushal has published more than 60 scholarly publications and is a frequent invited speaker. She has served on numerous national advisory committees focused on health information technology and/or patient safety. Dr. Kaushal has formally consulted with other researchers on methodological issues as well as with policy makers on state and federal issues. Finally, Dr. Kaushal has served on editorial boards for healthcare journals and on several study sections for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Linda L. Kloss, M.A., R.H.I.A., is Chief Executive Officer of the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA), the professional association of more than 53,000 members serving the health information management (HIM) community. Founded in 1928, AHIMA today has a staff of 145 and is comprised of 52 component state chapters and the AHIMA Foundation. Kloss serves on the board of directors for AHIMA and the Foundation. AHIMA also maintains an office in Brussels. In her role at AHIMA, Kloss is responsible for delivering services to the fast changing HIM community, promoting its mission and values, and executing the Association’s strategic plan. She also oversees AHIMA’s industry outreach and partnership activities with key stakeholder organizations. Kloss led the Association’s efforts to cofound the Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology, a private industry initiative to accelerate the adoption of interoperable healthcare technology, and serves on its board of trustees. Kloss also serves on the Steering Committee of Connecting for Health, a collaborative sponsored by the Markle Foundation and is a convener of the Healthcare Administrative Simplification Coalition. She also served on the board of directors for National Alliance for Health Information Technology and the Leadership Council of the e-Health Initiative. Prior to joining AHIMA in 1995, Kloss served as one of the founding officers for MediQual Systems, Inc., a developer of computer-based clinical performance improvement technology and data tools and InterQual, Inc., a quality improvement consulting and education company. Her health information management leadership experience also includes both academic and practice positions. Kloss holds an M.A. degree in organizational development with a concentration in change leadership from DePaul University in Chicago, and a B.S. degree in medical record science from the College of St. Scholastica where she served on its board of trustees. Other designations include Certified Association Executive (CAE). She was recently named by Modern Healthcare as one of the top 25 influential women in health care, and has been on its list of the most 100 influential in health care from 2002 to 2007.

Jeffrey C. Lerner, Ph.D., has served since 2001 as President and Chief Executive Officer. Prior to this, he held the position of Vice President for Strategic Planning for 17 years. He has conceived of, secured funding for, and implemented numerous programs in technology assessment. For example, he was the first Center Director of ECRI Institute’s Evidence-based Practice Center (EPC) under the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and Coordinator of the Technical Expert Panel of the National Guideline Clearinghouse™ (a project sponsored by AHRQ in cooperation with the American Medical Association and the American Association of Health Plans). He also served as a member of the Medicare Coverage Advisory Committee (MCAC) until 2003 and is currently on the Advisory Board of the U.S. Cochrane Collaboration Center. Dr. Lerner maintains a special interest in assistive technology for the disabled and has served as principal investigator on projects for the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Easter Seals Society. He was the first Director of ECRI Institute’s Center for Healthcare Environmental Management™, which offers programs worldwide. He developed ECRI Institute’s annual technology assessment educational conference. Dr. Lerner was a member of the Technical Board of the Milbank Memorial Fund in New York and is a member of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention in Rockville, Maryland. He serves on the board of directors of the Philadelphia Academies, Inc., a program for high school students living in poverty areas. He is also on the Executive Board of the Greater Philadelphia Life Sciences Congress; and a former President of the Board of the Health Strategy Network, a society of healthcare planners and managers. He is an associate editor of the Journal of Ambulatory Care Management. He is an Adjunct Senior Fellow of the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics of the University of Pennsylvania and a Population Health Associate of the Jefferson School of Population Health.

Jeffrey Levi, Ph.D., is Executive Director of Trust for America’s Health (TFAH), where he leads the organization’s advocacy efforts on behalf of a modernized public health system. Dr. Levi oversees TFAH’s work on a range of public health policy issues, including its annual reports assessing the nation’s public health preparedness, investment in public health infrastructure, and response to chronic diseases such as obesity. Dr. Levi is also an Associate Professor at the George Washington University’s Department of Health Policy. He has also served as an associate editor of the American Journal of Public Health, and Deputy Director of the White House Office of National AIDS Policy. Dr. Levi received a B.A. from Oberlin College, an M.A. from Cornell University, and a Ph.D. from the George Washington University.

Peter K. Lindenauer, M.D., M.Sc., FACP, is Director of the Center for Quality of Care Research at Baystate Medical Center, Medical Director of Clinical Decision Support and Quality Informatics for Baystate Health, and Associate Professor of Medicine at the Tufts University School of Medicine. Dr. Lindenauer’s research focuses on measuring the quality and outcomes of hospital care for patients with common medical conditions, and the design and evaluation of interventions to improve care delivery. His work has been published in The New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, Annals of Internal Medicine, Health Affairs, Medical Care, and leading general internal medicine and subspecialty journals. Dr. Lindenauer is a graduate of the University of Chicago, the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, and completed an internship, residency, and chief residency in internal medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. He received an M.Sc. degree in Health Planning and Financing from the London School of Economics and Political Science and is the 2008 recipient of the excellence in research award from the Society of Hospital Medicine.

Harold S. Luft, Ph.D., is Director of the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute and Esselstyn Professor Emeritus of Health Policy and Health Economics and former Director of the Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies at UCSF. He received his degrees in economics from Harvard University. His research has covered HMOs, hospital competition, volume, quality and outcomes of hospital care, risk assessment and risk adjustment, and healthcare reform. An elected member of the Institute of Medicine, he served on its Council, that of the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, and the Board of AcademyHealth. He was co-editor of Health Services Research. Author or editor of five books and over 200 articles in scientific journals, his Total Cure: The Antidote to the Health Care Crisis, was published by Harvard University Press in October.

Michelle J. Lyn, M.B.A., M.H.A., is Chief of the Division of Community Health of the Department of Community & Family Medicine, and Associate Director of the Duke Center for Community Research of the Duke Translational Medicine Institute. Prior to Duke, Ms. Lyn worked in the Durham Public School system, designed the first, highly successful school-based clinic, and then joined the Duke faculty, assuming a leadership role in the development and expansion of a wide range of collaborative, community-engaged disease prevention and health promotion activities. Ms. Lyn was instrumental in crafting the Local Access to Coordinated Healthcare (LATCH) program, serving over 16,000 uninsured Durham residents; neighborhood clinics; and the Just for Us Program, which cares for chronically ill homebound seniors in their homes. She is principal investigator for projects that extend the Division’s reach to vulnerable children in Durham schools, including a grant which established group psychotherapy in two high schools, and another which provides bilingual mental health and acculturation services to immigrant children and their families in Durham elementary schools. Ms. Lyn also planned and managed the Division’s educational programs for trainees at all levels, as well as for faculty at Duke and across the United States regarding community-engaged service and research. She served as the founding Program Director for Duke’s Master of Health Sciences in Clinical Leadership, the Community Health Leadership Program, the Community Health Fellowship, and course Director for the Community Health Elective in the School of Medicine. The Division has launched and currently operates 37 collaborative, community-based clinical, care management, research, and educational programs across Durham, the region, and the state of North Carolina. In 2008, Ms. Lyn was appointed Associate Director of the Duke Center for Community Research, of the Duke Translational Medicine Institute, where she directs a team of faculty and professional staff in the research, educational, and liaison activities of the Center. She serves on the Operational Leadership Team for the Durham Health Innovations initiative, which plans innovative Duke-Durham partnered approaches to improving health in Durham County.

Linda M. Magno, M.A., is Director of the Medicare Demonstrations Group in the Office of Research, Development and Information at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). This group is responsible for developing, implementing, and managing Medicare demonstrations of new benefits, payment methodologies, and models of healthcare delivery for the nation’s 44 million elderly and disabled Medicare beneficiaries. Prior to her current position, Ms. Magno served as Managing Director for Policy Development and Director of Regulatory Affairs at the American Hospital Association in Washington, DC. She started her career at the CMS’s predecessor agency, the Health Care Financing Administration, where she was responsible for early implementation of and refinements to the inpatient prospective payment system for hospitals. Ms. Magno has a Master’s degree in public affairs from Princeton University and a Bachelor’s degree in political science from the University of California at Berkeley.

Mark B. McClellan, M.D., Ph.D., became the Director of the Engelberg Center for Healthcare Reform at the Brookings Institution in July 2007. The Center studies ways to provide practical solutions for access, quality, and financing challenges facing the U.S. healthcare system. In addition, Dr. McClellan is the Leonard D. Schaeffer Chair in Health Policy Studies. Dr. McClellan has a highly distinguished record in public service and in academic research. He is the former Administrator for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (2004–2006) and the former Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (2002–2004). He also served as a member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers and Senior Director for Health Care Policy at the White House (2001–2002). In these positions, he developed and implemented major reforms in health policy. Dr. McClellan was also an Associate Professor of Economics and Associate Professor of Medicine (with tenure) at Stanford University, from which he was on leave during his government service. He directed Stanford’s Program on Health Outcomes Research and was also associate editor of the Journal of Health Economics, and co-principal investigator of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a longitudinal study of the health and economic status of older Americans. His academic research has been concerned with the effectiveness of medical treatments in improving health, the economic and policy factors influencing medical treatment decisions and health outcomes, the impact of new technologies on public health and medical expenditures, and the relationship between health status and economic well being. Dr. McClellan is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. A graduate of the University of Texas at Austin, Dr. McClellan earned his M.P.A. from Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government in 1991, his M.D. from the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology in 1992, and his Ph.D. in economics from MIT in 1993.

J. Michael McGinnis, M.D., M.P.P., is a physician, epidemiologist, and long-time contributor to national and international health programs and policy. He now is Senior Scholar and Director of the Institute of Medicine’s Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care, as well as an elected IOM member. Much of his policy leadership stems from his four-Administration tenure, perhaps unique among federal appointees, with continuous service through the Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton administrations as the key point person for disease prevention and health promotion. Several still prominent initiatives were launched under his guidance, including the Healthy People national goals and objectives process, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Internationally, he served as epidemiologist and State Director for the successful WHO smallpox eradication program in India, and more recently as Chair of the international task force to rebuild the health and human services sector in post-war in Bosnia.

Elizabeth A. McGlynn, Ph.D., is Associate Director for RAND Health and holds the RAND Distinguished Chair in Health Care Quality. Dr. McGlynn is an internationally known expert on methods for assessing and reporting on quality of healthcare delivery. Dr. McGlynn is leading RAND Health’s COMPARE initiative, which is developing a comprehensive method for evaluating health reform proposals. She is conducting research on the methodological and policy issues associated with implementing measures of efficiency and effectiveness of care at the individual physician level for payment and public reporting. She recently led a project for the state of Massachusetts to evaluate policy options for controlling the increase in healthcare spending. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine and serves on several national advisory committees.

Diane E. Meier, M.D., FACP., is Director of the Center to Advance Palliative Care (CAPC), a national organization devoted to increasing the number and quality of palliative care programs in the United States. Under her leadership the number of palliative care programs in U.S. hospitals has more than doubled in the last 5 years. She is also Director of the Lilian and Benjamin Hertzberg Palliative Care Institute; Professor of Geriatrics and Internal Medicine; and Catherine Gaisman Professor of Medical Ethics at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Dr. Meier is the recipient of numerous awards, including a 2008 MacArthur Fellowship, the National Institute on Aging Academic Career Leadership Award, the Open Society Institute Faculty Scholar’s Award of the Project on Death in America, the Founders Award of the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, and the Alexander Richman Commemorative Award for Humanism in Medicine. She is the Principal Investigator of an NCI-funded 5-year multisite study on the outcomes of hospital palliative care services in cancer patients. Dr. Meier has published extensively in all major peer-reviewed medical journals, including the New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association. She edited the first textbook on geriatric palliative care, as well as four editions of Geriatric Medicine, and has contributed to more than 20 books on the subject of geriatrics and palliative care. As one of the leading figures in the field of palliative medicine, Dr. Meier has appeared numerous times on television and in print, including ABC World News Tonight, Open Mind with Richard Hefner, the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, USA Today, the New York Daily News, Newsday, the New Yorker, and Newsweek. She figured prominently in the Bill Moyers series On Our Own Terms: Dying in America, a four-part documentary aired on PBS.

David O. Meltzer, M.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Medicine and an associated faculty member in the Harris School and the Department of Economics. Meltzer’s research explores problems in health economics and public policy with a focus on the theoretical foundations of medical cost-effectiveness analysis and the effects of managed care and medical specialization on the cost and quality of care, especially in teaching hospitals. Meltzer is currently completing a randomized trial comparing the use of doctors who specialize in inpatient care (“hospitalists”) with traditional physicians in six academic medical centers. Meltzer received his M.D. and Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago and completed his residency in internal medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. He is Director of the Center for Health and the Social Sciences at the University of Chicago and also Co-Director of the Program on Outcomes Research Training and the M.D./Ph.D. program in the social sciences. He serves on the faculty of the Graduate Program in Health Administration and Policy, the Population Research Center, and the Center on Aging. Meltzer is a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, elected member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, and past President of the Society for Medical Decision Making. He has served on panels examining the future of Medicare for the National Academy of Social Insurance and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and U.S. organ allocation policy for the Institute of Medicine (IOM). He recently served on an IOM panel examining the effectiveness of the U.S. drug safety system and current serves on the HHS Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Healthy People 2020, which aims to established health objectives for the U.S. population.

Harold D. Miller, M.S., is the Executive Director of the Center for Health-care Quality and Payment Reform and the President and CEO of the Network for Regional Healthcare Improvement. Miller has been working at both the regional and national levels on initiatives to improve the quality of healthcare services and to change the fundamental structure of healthcare payment systems in order to support improved value. Miller also serves as Adjunct Professor of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University’s Heinz School of Public Policy and Management, where he was Associate Dean from 1987 to 1992. Miller organized the Network for Regional Healthcare Improvement’s national Summits on Healthcare Payment Reform in 2007 and 2008. His report Creating Payment Systems to Accelerate Value-Driven Health Care: Issues and Options for Policy Reform which was prepared for the 2007 Summit was published by the Commonwealth Fund in September 2007, and his summary of the recommendations of the 2007 Summit was published by the Jewish Healthcare Foundation as Incentives for Excellence: Rebuilding the Healthcare Payment System from the Ground Up in September 2007. His summary of the recommendations from the 2008 Payment Reform Summit, From Volume to Value: Transforming Healthcare Payment and Delivery Systems to Improve Quality and Reduce Costs, was published in November 2008 by NRHI and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and his overview of healthcare payment systems, Better Ways to Pay for Health Care: A Primer on Healthcare Payment Reform was published in January 2009 as part of the NRHI Payment Reform Series in conjunction with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He has also authored the Center for Healthcare Quality and Payment Reform’s publication series Paths to Payment Reform. Miller’s work with the Pittsburgh Regional Health Initiative (PRHI) demonstrating the significant financial penalties that hospitals can face if they reduce hospital-acquired infections was featured in Modern Healthcare magazine in December 2007. He designed and is currently leading a multi-year PRHI initiative to reduce preventable hospital admissions and readmissions through improved care for chronic disease patients. In 2007 and early 2008, he served as the Facilitator for the Minnesota Health Care Transformation Task Force, which prepared the recommendations that led to passage of Minnesota’s path-breaking healthcare reform legislation in May 2008.

Mark E. Miller, Ph.D., has more than 19 years of health policy experience. Dr. Miller has held several important policy, research, and management positions in health care. Dr. Miller served as Assistant Director of Health and Human Resources (HHR) at the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). Prior to CBO, Dr. Miller was the Deputy Director of Health Plans at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS, formerly the Health Care Financing Administration). Before CMS, Dr. Miller was the Health Financing Branch Chief at the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Prior to joining OMB, Dr. Miller was a Senior Research Associate at the Urban Institute. He earned a Ph.D. in public policy analysis from the State University of New York at Binghamton.

Dolores L. Mitchell, is the Executive Director of the Group Insurance Commission, the agency that provides life, health, disability, and dental and vision services to more than 300,000 state and certain municipalities, employees, retirees, and their dependents. She has been in that position since 1987, serving in the administrations of Governors Dukakis, Weld, Cellucci, Swift, Romney, and now Governor Patrick. Mrs. Mitchell is a member of a number of professional and community organizations, including the Massachusetts Health Data Consortium, of which she is a Director, the Greater Boston Big Sister Association, of which she is Board Chairman, the Massachusetts Health Council, and the Mass E-Health Collaborative of which she is a Director. Most recently, she is a member of the governing board of the Massachusetts health reform law, the Connector Authority, and its companion organization, the Quality and Cost Council, and last year was elected to the board of the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), the Hospital Quality Alliance (HQA), the Consumer/Purchaser Disclosure Group and the eHealth Initiative and eHealth Initiative Foundation. Mrs. Mitchell is a frequent speaker on health care, politics, women’s career issues, and related subjects.

R. Sean Morrison, M.D., is Professor of Geriatrics and Medicine, Hermann Merkin Professor of Palliative Care, and Vice Chair for Research in the Brookdale Department of Geriatrics at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. He is the Director of the National Palliative Care Research Center whose mission is to develop the knowledge base to meet the need of seriously ill patients and their families. Dr. Morrison received his M.D. from the University of Chicago in 1986 and completed residency training in internal medicine at the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center from 1990 to 1993. Subsequently, he completed a fellowship in geriatric medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (1993–1996), after which he joined the faculty at Mount Sinai in the Department of Geriatrics. He has received numerous awards for his research in geriatrics and palliative care, edited the first textbook on geriatric palliative care, and has published over 100 research articles in palliative care and geriatrics. His research focuses on decision making at the end of life, pain and symptom management in older adults, and health services research in palliative care. Dr. Morrison chaired the NIA-C Study Section of the National Institutes of Health (2007–2009) and is the Scientific Officer of the Palliative and End-of-Life Care Review Panel of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). He is the President-elect of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. In addition to his research and administrative activities, Dr. Morrison maintains an active clinical practice in which he cares for healthy older adults and for persons living with serious illness and their families. Dr. Morrison was featured on the Bill Moyers PBS series On Our Own Terms and is a frequent commentator on issues related to palliative care and geriatrics in the national media.

Andrew L. Naugle, M.B.A., is a principal in the Seattle office of Milliman. He joined the firm in 2000. Andrew’s area of expertise is healthcare operations. His experience spans more than 10 years in the healthcare industry. He specializes in the following: benchmarking, evaluating, and improving administrative operations for both payers and providers; technical writing and proposal development services conducting market research and surveys; writing requests for proposals and managing vendor selection processes; facilitating strategic planning and evaluation of strategic options; and designing and implementing policies and procedures. Naugle’s current research is focused on administrative expense analysis for health plans. He maintains the Milliman Health Plan Operations Benchmarks, which can be used to evaluate the staffing and cost levels of health plans, insurance companies, and third-party administrators. He also has considerable experience with public-sector programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, and TRICARE. He has assisted clients in the development of winning proposals for state and federal contracts. Naugle received his M.B.A. from the University of Notre Dame and his B.A. from Wabash College.

Mary D. Naylor, Ph.D., R.N., FAAN, is the Marian S. Ware Professor in Gerontology and Director of the New Courtland Center for Transitions and Health at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing. Since 1990, Dr. Naylor has led a multidisciplinary program of research designed to improve the quality of care, decrease unnecessary hospitalizations, and reduce healthcare costs for vulnerable, community-based elders. To date, Dr. Naylor and her research team have completed three National Institute of Nursing funded randomized clinical trials testing and refining the Transitional Care Model, an innovative approach to addressing the needs of high risk chronically-ill elders and their family caregivers. With the support of several foundations, her research team has recently partnered with a major insurance organization and healthcare plan to translate this model into the “real world” of clinical practice and promote its widespread adoption. An ongoing clinical trial funded by the Marian S. Ware Alzheimer Program at PENN and the National Institute on Aging has expanded testing of this model of care among hospitalized cognitively impaired elders and their caregivers. Additionally, Dr. Naylor and colleagues are engaged in a study funded by the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute for Nursing Research that will examine over time the natural history of changes in health and quality of life among elders newly admitted to long term care settings or services. In the 1990s, Dr. Naylor co-led the establishment of a Program of All-Inclusive Care (PACE) at Penn’s School of Nursing. Dr. Naylor also is the National Program Director for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation sponsored Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI). The primary goal of INQRI is to generate, disseminate, and translate research that demonstrates nursing’s contribution to the quality of patient care.

Peter J. Neumann, Sc.D., is Director of the Center for the Evaluation of Value and Risk in Health at the Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies at Tufts Medical Center, and Professor of Medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine. Prior to joining Tufts, he was on the faculty of the Harvard School of Public Health for 10 years, most recently as Associate Professor of Policy and Decision Sciences. His research focuses on the use of cost-effectiveness analysis in healthcare decision making. He has conducted numerous economic evaluations of medical technologies, including evaluations of treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. He is the founder and Director of the Cost-Effectiveness Registry (www.cearegistry.org), a comprehensive database of cost-effectiveness analyses in health care. Dr. Neumann has contributed to the literature on the use of willingness to pay and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in valuing health benefits. His other research has focused on the Food and Drug Administration’s regulation of health economic information, and the role of clinical and economic evidence in informing public and private sector healthcare decisions, including those made by the Medicare program. He is the author or co-author of over 120 papers in the medical literature, and the author of Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Improve Health Care (Oxford University Press, 2005). He is a contributing editor of Health Affairs and member of the editorial board of Value in Health. Dr. Neumann has served as President of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR), and as a trustee of the Society for Medical Decision Making. He has also held several policy positions in Washington, including Special Assistant to the Administrator at the Health Care Financing Administration. He received his doctorate in health policy and management from Harvard University.

Len Nichols, Ph.D., a highly respected health economist and health policy analyst, directs the Health Policy Program at the New America Foundation, which aims to expand health insurance coverage to all Americans while reining in costs and improving the efficiency of the overall healthcare system. Before joining New America, Dr. Nichols was the Vice President of the Center for Studying Health System Change, a Principal Research Associate at the Urban Institute, and the Senior Advisor for Health Policy at the Office of Management and Budget during the Clinton reform efforts of 1993–1994. He has testified frequently before Congress and state legislators and has published widely in a variety of health related journals. Previously, Dr. Nichols was Chair of the Economics Department at Wellesley College, where he taught for 10 years. He also served as a member of the Competitive Pricing Advisory Commission (CPAC) and the 2001 Technical Review Panel for the Medicare Trustees Reports. He was on the advisory panel to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Covering America project and has been a consultant to the World Bank, the InterAmerican Development Bank, and the Pan American Health Organization. Dr. Nichols received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Illinois.

Margaret E. O’Kane, M.H.A., is the founding President of the National Committee for Quality Assurance and one of the nation’s leading advocates for improving healthcare quality through measurement, reporting, and accountability. With her leadership, NCQA has been widely recognized as a leader in the healthcare quality field; in 2005, NCQA received awards from the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship, the American Diabetes Association, and the American Pharmacists’ Association. Ms. O’Kane plays a key role in many efforts to improve healthcare quality. In 1999, she was elected as a member of the Institute of Medicine. The following year, Ms. O’Kane received the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Champion of Prevention award, the agency’s highest honor. She has frequently appeared on Modern Healthcare’s list of the 100 Most Powerful People in Healthcare, most recently in August 2008. She currently serves as co-chair of the National Priorities Partnership of the National Quality Forum, a group charged to develop broad-based consensus around national priorities and goals for healthcare performance measurement and public reporting. Ms. O’Kane holds a master’s degree in health administration and planning from the Johns Hopkins University.

Joseph Onek, M.A., currently serves as Senior Counsel to the Speaker of the House. He first entered government service as a law clerk to Chief Judge David L. Bazelon of the District of Columbia Circuit and Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, and as a staffer for U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy. In the Carter administration, he served as a member of the White House Domestic Policy Staff and as Deputy Counsel to the President. In the Clinton administration, he served as Principal Deputy Associate Attorney General and as Senior Coordinator for Rule of Law in the State Department. In the public interest world, Onek served as an attorney and then Director of the Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), as Senior Counsel and Director of the Liberty and Security Initiative at the Constitution Project, and as Senior Policy Analyst and Special Counsel at the Open Society Institute. Onek was also a partner in two Washington, DC law firms, specializing in health care and constitutional law. Onek is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and is Chairman of the Board of CLASP. He holds a B.A. from Harvard College, an M.A. from the London School of Economics, which he attended as a Marshall scholar, and an LLB from Yale Law School.

Peter R. Orszag, Ph.D., became Director of the Office of Management and Budget on January 21, 2009. Previously, he served as the Director of the Congressional Budget Office from January 2007 to December 2008, overseeing the agency’s work in providing objective, nonpartisan, and timely analyses of economic and budgetary issues—supervising the numerous analytical papers and cost estimates that the agency produces and, to present the results, frequently testifying before the Congress. Under his leadership, the agency significantly expanded its focus on areas such as health care and climate change. In previous government service, Orszag served as Special Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and as a staff economist and then Senior Advisor and Senior Economist at the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. Orszag was the Joseph A. Pechman Senior Fellow and Deputy Director of Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution. While at Brookings, he also served as Director of the Hamilton Project; Director of the Retirement Security Project; and Co-Director of the Tax Policy Center, a joint venture with the Urban Institute. Orszag graduated summa cum laude in economics from Princeton University and obtained a Ph.D. in economics from the London School of Economics, which he attended as a Marshall scholar. He has co-authored or co-edited a number of books, including Protecting the Homeland 2006/7 (2006); Aging Gracefully: Ideas to Improve Retirement Security in America (2006); Saving Social Security: A Balanced Approach (2004); and American Economic Policy in the 1990s (2002). Dr. Orszag is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies of Sciences.

Mary Kay Owens, R.Ph., C.Ph., is President and Principal Consultant for Southeastern Consultants, Inc. (SEC), a national pharmaceutical and healthcare consulting and data services firm. She is a pharmacist by training and holds a clinical affiliate faculty position at the University of Florida College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Health Care Administration and served as a consultant to the Florida Center for Medicaid Issues, a health policy analysis and research institute affiliated with the University of Florida College of Health Professions. Ms. Owens also served on various Medicaid Advisory Boards and recently provided services to the Florida Medicaid Reform Advisory Commission and the Ohio Commission to Reform Medicaid. Ms. Owens formerly served as the Director of the 1.8 million member Florida Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) Program and served as a senior healthcare claims investigator and auditor within the Florida Medicaid Division of the Agency for Health Care Administration. She served a 3-year term on the American Drug Utilization Review Steering Committee and formerly served as the committee’s national chairperson. She authored Medicaid Pharmacy Benefit Management published in the book Managed Care Pharmacy Practice, in nationwide distribution. She also authors healthcare policy issue briefs on Medicaid/Medicare, pharmacy journal articles, and provides content for CD-ROM educational products and Internet sites.

Anand K. Parekh, M.D., M.P.H., is Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health (Science and Medicine) in the Office of Public Health and Science at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In this capacity, he provides oversight, direction, and coordination of activities pertaining to (1) a range of emerging public health and science issues; (2) the continuum of medical research—including clinical science and health services research; and (3) issues requiring expert medical analysis and advice, particularly those concerning policy, planning, formulation, and presentation of public health issues affecting the Department. Dr. Parekh maintains a medical staff position at Holy Cross Hospital in Silver Spring, Maryland and practices at the Holy Cross Health Center—a low-cost adult medicine clinic for the uninsured. He is an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital. He also serves on the board of governors of the University of Michigan School of Public Health Alumni Society and is a member of the Presidential Scholars Alumni Society and the American College of Physicians.

Ronald A. Paulus, M.D., M.B.A., is Geisinger’s Chief Technology and Innovation Officer, responsible for ensuring system-wide innovation. His responsibilities include: Geisinger Ventures, the system’s new business formation and intellectual property commercialization function; and Clinical Innovation, leading the system’s initiatives focused on care transformation through patient activation, novel technologies, and care redesign. Prior to joining Geisinger Health System, Dr. Paulus was Chief Healthcare Officer for Quovadx, Inc., which acquired CareScience, Inc., a NASDAQ company providing clinical solutions to improve healthcare quality and efficiency where he had been President and CEO. Before joining CareScience, Dr. Paulus served as Vice President, Operations of Salick Health Care, Inc., a NASDAQ company providing oncology and dialysis services which was subsequently acquired by AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. Dr. Paulus received his M.D. degree from the School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, and his M.B.A., concentration in healthcare management, and B.S. in economics from the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.

Michael P. Pignone, M.D., M.P.H., is Associate Professor of Medicine and Chief of the Division of General Internal Medicine at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC). He also serves as the Director of the UNC Center for Excellence in Chronic Illness Care and the Co-Director of Medical Practice and Prevention Research at the Sheps Center for Health Services Research. He received his medical degree and residency training in primary care internal medicine from the University of California-San Francisco. He then completed fellowship training in clinical epidemiology and health services research through the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program and his Master’s degree in epidemiology from the UNC School of Public Health. Dr. Pignone’s research is focused on chronic disease prevention and treatment, as well as physician–patient communication and decision making in primary care settings. His main areas of interest include heart disease prevention, colorectal cancer screening, and management of common chronic conditions such as diabetes and heart failure. He has developed and tested interventions to mitigate literacy-related disparities and to improve the use of appropriate preventive services. His current cancer-related research focuses on the development, testing, and implementation of patient decision aids for colon cancer screening. He was recently awarded a K05 Established Investigator Award from the National Cancer Institute to study the use of economic techniques, including modeling, to improve cancer-related decision making.

Kim R. Pittenger, M.D., is the Deputy Chief of Satellites, Section Head of Virginia Mason Kirkland at the Virginia Mason Medical Center (VM). He is also the Chairman of the Best Practice Tactical Force and Director of the VM Evidence Based Medicine Course. From 2008 to 2009, he served as the VM Kaizen Fellow, where he engaged in production system training. He is also a graduate of Shingijutsu Genba Kaizen in 2003 and Japan Superflow Training in 2009. Dr. Pittenger completed his residency training in family medicine at University of Cincinnati and is board-certified in family medicine. His current work focuses on reforming health care from the inside by abolishing waste and defects, enabling the survival of reliable, responsive primary care in collaborative multispecialty groups.

Amita Rastogi, M.D., M.H.A., is Chief Medical Officer of Prometheus with Bridges to Excellence. She is working on developing a new form of physician reimbursement system that focuses on globally pricing episodes of care to foster high quality, efficient medical care. Prior to this, Dr. Rastogi was Senior Medical Director at Ingenix, a leading Health IT company, where she was instrumental in developing transparency tools to measure performance among hospitals and physicians around cost and quality. Dr. Rastogi is adept in the use of statistical models and risk-adjustment methodologies. She is a Mayo Clinic-trained cardiac surgeon, certified in heart and lung transplantation and has over 20 years of experience in the health care field. She received her Master’s in health administration degree from the Martin School of Public Policy and Administration, University of Kentucky. She is currently finishing her Master’s in health studies from the University of Chicago.

Robert D. Reischauer, Ph.D., M.I.A., a former Director of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and nationally known expert on the federal budget, Medicare, and Social Security, began his tenure as the second President of the Urban Institute in February 2000. He had been a Senior Fellow of Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution since 1995. From 1989 to 1995, he was the Director of the nonpartisan CBO. Mr. Reischauer served as the Urban Institute’s Senior Vice President from 1981 to 1986. He was the CBO’s Assistant Director for Human Resources and its Deputy Director between 1977 and 1981. Mr. Reischauer serves on the boards of several educational and nonprofit organizations. He was a member of the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission from 2000 to 2009 and was its Vice Chair from 2001 to 2008. He frequently contributes to the opinion pages of the nation’s major newspapers, comments on public policy developments on radio and television, and testifies before congressional committees. Mr. Reischauer holds an A.B. in political science from Harvard University and an M.I.A. and Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University.

Harry Reynolds, is a Vice President and Information Compliance officer at Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina. He has 30 years of experience in the technology and healthcare fields. He started his career with IBM, worked at two large teaching hospitals (Ohio State and UNC), and has been with Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina (BCBSNC) for the last 30 years. Reynolds has managed all aspects of information technology at BCBSNC, as well as managing a $500 million business unit that served 450,000 customers. He is currently responsible for administration and planning for information systems as well as the coordination of large enterprise-wide compliance projects. Reynolds currently serves as Chair on the National Committee for Vital Health Statistics (NCVHS) and Chair of the Council for Affordable Quality Healthcare (CAQH) CORE Initiative.

David R. Riemer, J.D., prepared Wisconsin’s first Medicaid rule for the administration of former Governor Patrick Lucey. As counsel to U.S. Senator Edward M. Kennedy’s Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research from 1978 to 1981, he worked with interest groups, federal agencies, and the staffs of other members of Congress in drafting legislation relating to prescription drug regulation and mental health policy. Returning to Wisconsin in 1983, Riemer worked with state agency officials and legislators in helping the Wisconsin Legislature’s Joint Committee on Finance to enact a budget that included several major health insurance reforms, including a major redesign of the state’s own employee health insurance plan, which introduced cost-conscious consumer choice; legalization of HMOs; expansion of certificate of need; and creation of a hospital rate-setting commission. Riemer worked for several years with a Milwaukee insurance company on healthcare cost containment. In 1988, when he returned to the public sector as Budget Director for the Mayor of Milwaukee—and for the next 13 years as the Mayor’s Director of Administration and Chief of Staff—Riemer coordinated the City of Milwaukee’s effort to restructure the city employee health insurance plan, again introducing cost-conscious consumer choice as the organizing principle. From 2004 through 2007, Riemer launched a major statewide initiative, called the Wisconsin Health Project, to bring together the warring factions in the state’s health insurance reform debate and to try to achieve as much consensus as possible on both the access and cost questions. Riemer currently works for Community Advocates, Inc., of Milwaukee, as Director of Policy and Planning. He directs the Community Advocates Public Policy Institute, and is active in health insurance reform efforts. In 2008, he coordinated a large group of stakeholders in AODA financing and treatment reform in obtaining support from the Open Society Institute and several Milwaukee-based foundations to launch the Milwaukee Addiction Treatment Initiative (MATI). The Community Advocates Public Policy Institute shortly afterwards created a Mental Health Policy Initiative.

Dean Rosen, J.D., is one of the nation’s top healthcare experts, having played a leading role in developing and advancing health policy for nearly 20 years in the nation’s capital. He has a deep understanding of America’s complex healthcare system and an equally intimate knowledge of politics and process. A partner at Mehlman Vogel Castagnetti, Inc., Rosen provides policy counsel and strategic advice to policy makers, business leaders, trade association executives, and not-for-profit organizations on a broad range of health issues. Prior to joining Mehlman Vogel Castagnetti, Inc., Rosen held a series of high-level positions in both government and the private sector. Rosen was the chief healthcare advisor to Senate Majority Leader William H. Frist, M.D. (R-TN). He served first as Staff Director for the United States Senate Subcommittee on Public Health, then as the majority leader’s health policy director. Previously, he was Senior Vice President of Policy and general counsel for the Health Insurance Association of America (HIAA). He came to HIAA from the House Ways and Means Health Subcommittee where, as majority counsel, he played a significant role in developing the Medicare provisions of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Rosen also served as health policy coordinator and majority counsel to the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources. There, he had principal responsibility for advising the Committee chair, Senator Nancy Kassebaum (R-KS), on a wide range of health care and employee benefit issues. Before entering the public sector, Rosen practiced law at Dow, Lohnes, and Albertson. Through his influential posts on Capitol Hill, Rosen helped shepherd through Congress a long list of major legislative accomplishments, including: The Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003; The Project Bioshield Act of 2004; The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005; The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA); The Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Rosen also holds several academic posts and is a sought after public speaker and press commentator.

Meredith B. Rosenthal, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Health Economics and Policy in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Rosenthal received her Ph.D. in health policy at Harvard University in 1998. Her research examines the design and impact of market-oriented health policy mechanisms, with a particular focus on the use of financial incentives to alter consumer and provider behavior. She is currently working on a body of research that examines alternative models for reforming physician and hospital payment. Specific empirical projects include evaluations of several Patient-Centered Medical Home pilots, pay-for-performance initiatives, and an episode-based payment system. Dr. Rosenthal’s work has been published in the New England Journal of Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association, Health Affairs, and numerous other peer-reviewed journals. Based on her work, Dr. Rosenthal has been called to testify before the U.S. Congress and the California and Massachusetts legislatures. In 2006, Dr. Rosenthal was awarded an Alfred P. Sloan Industry Studies Fellowship in recognition of her field-based research on physician incentives. Dr. Rosenthal is an appointed member of the Massachusetts Public Health Council, which promulgates regulations and advises the Commissioner of Public Health on policy matters.

Dick Salmon, M.D., Ph.D., Vice President and National Medical Executive for Network Performance Improvement and Quality, CIGNA HealthCare, is responsible for the company’s clinical network performance improvement initiatives and quality programs. Prior to this position, Dr. Salmon developed new care facilitation programs in case management and disease management. He previously was the New England Regional Medical Director, and President and General Manager of CIGNA New Hampshire. Before joining CIGNA HealthCare, Dr. Salmon was the Senior Vice President and Chief Medical Officer for HealthSource, a 3 million member HMO acquired by CIGNA in 1997. Dr. Salmon has worked extensively with managed care since 1984. His career began in academic medicine at Case Western Reserve University and the affiliated University Hospital, where he was an Assistant Professor of Family Medicine and Chief Resident in Family Practice. Dr. Salmon is board certified in family practice. He earned his medical degree and a Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from Case Western Reserve University.

Lewis G. Sandy, M.D., is Senior Vice President, Clinical Advancement, UnitedHealth Group. At UnitedHealth Group, a diversified health and well-being company, he leads efforts to promote efficient and effective health care, provide tools and information to doctors and patients to promote health, and foster the growth of evidence-based medicine. From 2003 to 2007, he was Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer of UnitedHealthcare, UnitedHealth Group’s largest business focusing on the commercial health benefits market. From 1997 to 2003, he was Executive Vice President of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), the nation’s largest health-focused private foundation. At RWJF, he was responsible for the Foundation’s program development and management, strategic planning and administrative operations. Prior to this, Sandy was a program vice president of the Foundation, and an active grantmaker in the Foundation’s workforce, health policy, and chronic care initiatives. An internist and former health center medical director at the Harvard Community Health Plan in Boston, Massachusetts, Dr. Sandy received his B.S. and M.D. degrees from the University of Michigan and an M.B.A. degree from Stanford University. A former Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar and Clinical Fellow in Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, Dr. Sandy served his internship and residency at the Beth Israel Hospital in Boston. He is a Senior Fellow of the University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management.

John Santa, M.D., M.P.H., is the Director of the Consumer Reports Health Ratings Center. The Ratings Center focuses on explicit approaches in evaluating and comparing health services, products, and practitioners. Dr. Santa was the administrator of the Office of Oregon Health Policy and Research from 2000 to 2003 during the administration of Governor John Kitzhaber, M.D. During that time, Oregon implemented an evidence-based approach to prescription drug purchasing that eventually came to be known as the Drug Effectiveness Review Project. During this same period, Dr. Santa served on the board of the Public Employees Benefit Board, Oregon’s largest private health benefits purchaser, serving as the Chair of the Benefit Design Committee and Chair of the Board. He previously worked in leadership positions for hospitals, physician groups, and health insurers. Dr. Santa has taught in multiple environments including medical school, residency training, and graduate courses in public health. Dr. Santa received his Bachelor’s degree from Stanford University in 1972, his M.D. from Tufts University in 1976, and M.P.H. from Portland State University in 2005. He has practiced primary care internal medicine in solo, group, and institutional settings, most recently at the Portland VA.

Lucy A. Savitz, Ph.D., M.B.A., is a Senior Scientist in the Institute for Health Care Delivery Research at Intermountain Healthcare with an Associate Professor appointment in Clinical Epidemiology in the School of Medicine, Adjunct Associate Professor of Nursing, and Associate Director of the CTSA Community Engagement Core at the University of Utah. She has been conducting applied, quasi-experimental studies in healthcare settings for over 2 decades with a focus on quality and safety. She also served as the lead contractor for the Alliance for Pediatric Quality, inventorying viable pediatric QI initiatives and achieving consensus among pediatric leaders in designating the top 10 improvement priorities for the profession. At Intermountain, Dr. Savitz has been involved in studying the effective spread of evidence-based care process models for mental health integration and care of the febrile infant. She was recently recruited to Intermountain Healthcare to bring her expertise to bear within the Intermountain Health-care system. She has served as a Senior Health Services Researcher at Abt Associates and RTI International. At RTI, Dr. Savitz oversaw complex, applied research initiatives, directing the AHRQ Master Task Orders, Accelerating Change and Transformation in Organizations and Networks (ACTION) and Integrated Delivery System Research Network (IDSRN). In this role, she represented the interests of five diverse integrated delivery systems across the United States and successfully led over two dozen applied research projects. Before embarking on a career in health services research, Dr. Savitz was an economist for the Colorado State Legislature and a Financial Planner for UNC Health Care. She is an expert in research knowledge utilization, implementation science, evaluation, and development of multifaceted dissemination tools. Dr. Savitz has co-authored more than a dozen book chapters and refereed publications, reviewed articles for refereed journals, and given numerous presentations on a variety of health research topics. Dr. Savitz’s research over the last several years has been largely funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. She teaches the Quality Improvement course for the School of Nursing’s doctoral program and the Health Services Research course in the School of Medicine at the University of Utah. At the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), where Dr. Savitz was on faculty in the 1990s, she continues to teach the health politics course in the Department of Health Policy and Management Executive Program and the social marketing module in the annual CDC Management Academy at UNC-CH.

Jonathan S. Skinner, Ph.D., is John Sloan Dickey Third Century Professor in Economics, and a Professor with the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice at Dartmouth Medical School. He received his Ph.D. in economics from UCLA and taught in the Economics Department at the University of Virginia prior to moving to Dartmouth. In 2001, he was awarded the first Dartmouth Student Council teaching award, and in 2007 was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He is also a Research Associate with the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and a former editor-in-chief of the Journal of Human Resources. His research interests include the economics of government transfer programs, technology growth and disparities in health care, and the savings behavior of aging baby boomers.

Frank A. Sloan, Ph.D., is J. Alexander McMahon Professor of Health Policy and Management and Professor of Economics at Duke University since 1993. He is the former Director of the Center for Health Policy, Law, and Management at Duke (CHPLM) that originated in 1998. He holds faculty appointments in five departments at Duke, with Economics the primary appointment. He did his undergraduate work at Oberlin College and received his Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. Before joining the faculty at Duke in July 1993, he was a research economist at the RAND Corporation and served on the faculties of the University of Florida and Vanderbilt University. He was Chair of the Department of Economics at Vanderbilt from 1986 to 1989. His current research interests include alcohol use and smoking prevention, long-term care, medical malpractice, and cost-effectiveness analyses of medical technologies. He also has a long-standing interest in hospitals, including regulation of hospitals, healthcare financing, and health manpower. He has served on several national advisory public and private groups. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and was formally a member of the Physician Payment Review Commission. He is the author of about 300 journal articles and book chapters and has co-authored and co-edited about 20 books. Recently published books are Medical Malpractice (MIT Press, 2008, coauthored with L. Chepke) and Incentives and Choice in Health Care (MIT Press, 2008, co-edited with H. Kasper).

Peter K. Smith, M.D., is Professor and Chief of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Duke University. He is a graduate of Princeton University (Phi Beta Kappa), Duke Medical School (AOA), and of the Duke General Surgery and Thoracic Surgery residencies. He has received the AHA Clinician Scientist Award, an NIH Research Career Development Award, and is currently the Duke PI in the NHLBI Cardiac Surgery Research Network. He has authored or coauthored 140 peer-reviewed publications. He has a long-standing interest in clinical databases and has managed the Duke Cardiac Surgery clinical database since 1987, collaborating with the STS National Cardiac Database since its inception. His most recent work has focused on comparative effectiveness of PCI and CABG and he is the surgeon member of the AHA/ACC Appropriateness Criteria Writing Committee. He has pioneered the use of clinical databases to improve the accuracy of the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule as the thoracic surgery member of the AMA Relative Value Update Committee (RUC). For this work, he received the Distinguished Service Award of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons in 2006.

Steven J. Spear, D.B.A., M.S., is author of the award-winning and critically acclaimed book, Chasing the Rabbit: How Market Leaders Outdistance the Competition. A Senior Lecturer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Spear is internationally known for his expertise in innovation, operational excellence, and organizational learning, with deep expertise in industry and health care, based, in part on his 1999 Harvard Business Review article, Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System, and his 2005 article, Fixing Healthcare from the Inside, Today, which was an HBR McKinsey Award winner and one of his five works to win a Shingo Research Prize. Spear helped develop and deploy the Alcoa Business System in the late 1990s and the Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative’s “Perfecting Patient Care” a few year’s after. He has worked with several other leading academic medical centers, and he is on a patient safety advisory panel for Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. Other clients have included Intel, Lockheed Martin, and Intuit, and he collaborates actively with Toyota and its North American suppliers. Spear has published in the New York Times, the Boston Globe, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Academic Medicine, and he has spoken to audiences ranging from the Association for Manufacturing Excellence to the Institute of Medicine. His degrees include a doctorate from Harvard Business School, Master’s in engineering and in management from MIT, and a Bachelor’s degree in economics from Princeton.

Glenn Steele, Jr., M.D., Ph.D., is President and Chief Executive Officer of Geisinger Health System. Dr. Steele previously served as the Dean of the Biological Sciences Division and the Pritzker School of Medicine and as Vice President for Medical Affairs at the University of Chicago, as well as the Richard T. Crane Professor in the Department of Surgery. Prior to that, he was the William V. McDermott Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, President and Chief Executive Officer of Deaconess Professional Practice Group, Boston, Massachusetts, and Chairman of the Department of Surgery at New England Deaconess Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts). Widely recognized for his investigations into the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer and colorectal cancer surgery, Dr. Steele is past Chairman of the American Board of Surgery. He serves on the editorial board of numerous prominent medical journals. His investigations have focused on the cell biology of gastrointestinal cancer and pre-cancer and most recently on innovations in healthcare delivery and financing. A prolific writer, he is the author or co-author of more than 460 scientific and professional articles. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and serves on their Committee on Reviewing Evidence to Identify Highly Effective Clinical Services (HECS), the New England Surgical Society, a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, the American Surgical Association, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and past President of the Society of Surgical Oncology. He was a member of the National Advisory Committee for Rural Health, and the Pennsylvania Cancer Control Consortium and is presently a member of the Healthcare Executives Network, the Alliance for Advancing Non-profit Health Care, the Commonwealth Fund’s Commission on a High Performance Health System, and the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s (NCQA) Committee on Performance Measurement. In addition, Dr. Steele was Chair for the American Hospital Association Systems Governing Council and now serves on the AHA Long-Range Policy Committee. He is currently Honorary Chair of the Pennsylvania March of Dimes Prematurity Campaign. Dr. Steele serves on several boards including Bucknell University’s Board of Trustees, Temple University School of Medicine’s Board of Visitors, the American Hospital Association’s Board of Trustees, Premier, Inc., the Healthcare Financial Management Association’s Healthcare Leadership Council, the HFMA Healthcare Leadership Council, the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute, the Global Conference Institute, and previously served on the Simon School of Business Advisory Board (University of Rochester) 2002–2007. In 2006, Dr. Steele received the CEO IT Achievement Award, given by Modern Healthcare and the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) for promoting health information technology. In 2007, Dr. Steele received AHA’s Grassroots Champion Award and was named to Modern Healthcare’s 50 Most Powerful Physician Executives in Healthcare.

Jennifer Sweeney, M.A., is the Director of Americans for Quality Health Care, a project of the National Partnership for Women & Families. Funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Americans for Quality Health Care promotes consumer involvement in the drive to improve heathcare quality and increase transparency. Sweeney sits on the Center for Medical Technology’s Patient Consumer Advisory Committee, AHRQ’s TalkingQuality Web site editorial board, and the Consumers United for Evidence-Based Healthcare steering committee. Prior to joining the National Partnership for Women and Families, Sweeney was the Director of Public Policy at Business and Professional Women/USA. As the organization’s top policy advisor, she worked to advance BPW/USA’s agenda on Capitol Hill, throughout the executive branch, and in coalition with partners from the business, women’s, and civil rights communities. She was also responsible for coordinating BPW/USA’s grassroots campaigns and facilitating BPW/PAC’s campaign contributions and endorsements. Before joining Business and Professional Women/USA, Sweeney was a Senior State Lobbyist with the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the nation’s leading group of professionals providing health care for women. While at ACOG, Sweeney led a successful campaign to increase the number of states with contraceptive equity laws. Prior to her work at ACOG, Sweeney was a Senior Research Consultant with the Corporate Executive Board, where she conducted “best-practice” benchmarking research on gender and diversity issues for Fortune 500 companies. Sweeney received a B.A. in English from Union College and an M.A. in women’s studies from the George Washington University. Sweeney has been active in the Women’s Information Network, Women in Government Relations, and Toastmasters International. She is the former Foundation Chair for the George Washington University’s Women’s Studies Endowment.

Robin J. Thomashauer, M.H.S.A., is Executive Director of CAQH, an unprecedented nonprofit alliance of health plans and trade associations that serves as a catalyst for industry collaboration on initiatives that simplify healthcare administration. Established in 2000, the organization promotes streamlined interactions between health plans, providers, and other stakeholders; reduces costs and frustrations associated with healthcare administration; and facilitates administrative healthcare information exchange. Ms. Thomashauer has overall responsibility for CAQH strategy, operations, and membership. She brings more than 30 years of experience in managed care operations and hospital administration, including responsibility for a broad range of operating and staff functions. Before joining CAQH, she was a Director in the health care practice at PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), with a primary focus on payer organizations. Prior to her position with PwC, Ms. Thomashauer held senior management positions with Kaiser Permanente, as well as in several teaching hospitals. Ms. Thomashauer holds an M.H.S.A. in hospital administration from the George Washington University, and a B.A. in social sciences from Colgate University. She is a Diplomate in the American College of Healthcare Executives and serves on the Adventist HealthCare Board of Trustees.

Kenneth E. Thorpe, Ph.D., is the Robert W. Woodruff Professor and Chair of the Department of Health Policy & Management, in the Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. He also co-directs the Emory Center on Health Outcomes and Quality. He was the Vanselow Professor of Health Policy and Director, Institute for Health Services Research at Tulane University. He was previously Professor of Health Policy and Administration at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, an Associate Professor and Director of the Program on Health Care Financing and Insurance at the Harvard University School of Public Health, and Assistant Professor of Public Policy and Public Health at Columbia University. Dr. Thorpe has also held visiting faculty positions at Pepperdine University and Duke University. Professor Thorpe was Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health Policy in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services from 1993 to 1995. In this capacity, he coordinated all financial estimates and program impacts of President Clinton’s healthcare reform proposals for the White House. He also directed the administration’s estimation efforts in dealing with congressional healthcare reform proposals during the 103rd and 104th sessions of Congress. As an academic, he has testified before several committees in the U.S. Senate and House on healthcare reform and insurance issues. In 1991, Professor Thorpe was awarded the Young Investigator Award presented to the most promising health services researcher in the country under age 40 by the Association for Health Services Research. He also received the Hettleman Award for academic and scholarly research at the University of North Carolina and was provided an “Up and Comers” award by Modern Healthcare.

N. Marcus Thygeson, M.D., serves as Vice President and Medical Director for Consumer Health Solutions. Thygeson works closely in partnership with the leadership of Sales and Account Services, Customer Service and Product Development, as well as Health, Medical, and Network Management, to help translate key account trends and requirements into product, service, and other solutions. Thygeson is also a Senior Fellow at the HealthPartners Research Foundation and is currently engaged in a Bush Medical Fellowship exploring the application of complex systems science to healthcare improvement, with a particular focus on reducing overuse and misuse and promoting affordability. Prior to joining HealthPartners, Thygeson served as the Medical Director for Definity Health; he was responsible for personal care support strategy and operations, and supporting consumer activation, network strategy, and provider relations. Prior to joining Definity Health, Thygeson was the Chief Medical Officer of Mywayhealth, another consumer driven healthcare benefit plan. Before Mywayhealth, Thygeson held a number of medical management positions at Alta Bates Medical Center, in Berkeley, California, and served from 1996 to 2000 as the Medical Director from Alta Bates Medical Group, an award-winning California IPA. He is board certified in internal medicine and gastroenterology. Thygeson received his B.S. summa cum laude from the University of California at Davis, and is a graduate of Harvard Medical School. He received his medical training at Virginia Mason Hospital, where he was Chief Medical Resident, and at the University of California San Francisco.

John Toussaint, M.D., Founder and President of the ThedaCare Center for Value in Healthcare, has the experience and passion to be a driving force in creating healthcare value. From 2000–2008, Dr. Toussaint served as President and Chief Executive Officer of ThedaCare, Inc., a community-owned, four-hospital health system including 21 physician clinics, as well as home health capabilities, senior care facilities, hospice care, and behavioral health. ThedaCare is the largest employer in Northeast Wisconsin with nearly 5,400 employees, serving an eight-county region. During his tenure as President and CEO of ThedaCare, Dr. Toussaint introduced the ThedaCare Improvement System (TIS), which is derived from the Toyota Production system. This model of continuous improvement helped save millions of dollars in healthcare costs by reducing patient errors, improving outcomes, and delivering better quality care at a higher value. Presently, he is Chairman of the Wisconsin Health Information Organization, a public–private partnership centered on reporting provider efficiency using a centralized claims database derived from the major payers in the state. In 2005, Dr. Toussaint was appointed to the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Pay for Performance for Physicians, as well as to Governor Doyle’s e-Health and Patient Safety Board. ThedaCare and Dr. Toussaint’s work have been featured in the Wall Street Journal, Modern Healthcare, the Harvard Business Review, and Health Management Technology. Additionally, Dr. Toussaint is asked to speak all over the world on lean and the topics of quality and efficiency in healthcare. He recently was a keynote speaker at the fourth annual Australasian Redesigning Health Care Summit in Melbourne, Australia. He also spoke at the Lean Healthcare Conference organized by the National Healthcare Group in Singapore. In October 2008, Toussaint spoke at the Association for Manufacturing Excellence’s (AME) International Lean Conference in Toronto on the topic of “Innovation Using Lean in Healthcare.”

Sandeep Green Vaswani, M.B.A., is a Senior Vice President with the Institute for Healthcare Optimization. In this role, Vaswani is responsible for new program development, management of various hospital flow improvement initiatives, and development of software tools. He is the lead author of a chapter (Strategies to Manage Patient Flow) in Joint Commission’s upcoming book on patient flow management. Vaswani has wide ranging experience in hospital strategy, finance, operations, and data-driven business management. Since the fall of 2007, Vaswani has been working on various operating room redesign and patient flow initiatives with Dr. Eugene Litvak and Boston University’s Program for the Management of Variability in Healthcare Delivery. Previously, Vaswani served as Director, Analysis & Planning at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, establishing the department within their Center for Clinical Excellence. In that role, Vaswani served as an advisor to the hospital executive team. He oversaw strategic and business planning, departmental multi-year planning, cost benchmarking, and the development of capacity utilization and projection models. He played a broad role in the development of the hospital’s new cardiovascular center, including strategy planning, financial analysis, board approval process, architectural design and development, and operational planning. Along with his team, Vaswani led the development of models to assess and project the utilization of hospital capacity such as the operating rooms, inpatient beds, emergency room, cath lab, interventional radiology, outpatient clinics, and endoscopy. This initiative led to an institution-wide focus on enhancement of utilization of existing hospital assets. Prior to Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Vaswani worked in a variety of settings—management consulting with the strategy-consulting firm Monitor Company, equity research and investment banking in Bombay, India and New York, and product management for a television manufacturer in India. Vaswani has an undergraduate degree in electronics engineering from Bombay University, and an M.B.A. from the Stern School of Business at New York University.

David Wennberg, M.D., M.P.H., is an internist with specialty training in health services and outcomes research. He currently serves as Chief Science & Products Officer of Heath Dialog. Prior to this role, he co-founded Health Dialog Analytic Solutions (HDAS), the analytics division of Health Dialog, which he continues to oversee. In addition to his role at Health Dialog, Dr. Wennberg is a member of the Primary Project Team of the Dartmouth Atlas Working Group at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. He also served as the Director of the Center for Outcomes Research & Evaluation at the Maine Medical Center, focusing on the drivers of utilization and quality in the delivery of healthcare services. Dr. Wennberg earned his medical degree from McGill University Faculty of Medicine and his M.P.H. from Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Wennberg has published extensively, including in the New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and the Journal of the American Medical Association, and is an internationally recognized authority on the root causes of unwarranted variation.

David S. Wichmann, joined UnitedHealth Group in 1998 and has assumed the position of Executive Vice President, UnitedHealth Group and President, UnitedHealth Group Operations. He previously held positions at UnitedHealth Group as President, Commercial Markets Group; President and Chief Operating Officer, UnitedHealthcare; President and Chief Executive Officer, Specialized Care Services; and Senior Vice President, Corporate Development. Prior to joining UnitedHealth Group in 1998, Mr. Wichmann was a partner with Arthur Andersen. Mr. Wichmann is a board member of the YMCA of Metropolitan Minneapolis, the Minnesota Orchestral Association, Sedgwick CMS, and the UnitedHealthcare Children’s Foundation.

Andrew M. Wiesenthal, M.D., S.M., is Associate Executive Director for Clinical Information Support for the Permanente Federation. From 1983 until 2000, Dr. Wiesenthal served as a pediatrician and pediatric infectious disease consultant with the Colorado Permanente Medical Group (CPMG). He also led CPMG’s quality management program and served as Associate Medical Director for Medical Management, with responsibility for quality management, utilization management, regulatory compliance, risk management, credentialing and physician performance, and informatics. His current work is in the arenas of development and deployment of automated medical records, decision support, and other clinical systems for all of Kaiser Permanente. He graduated from Yale University with a B.A. degree (with honors) in Latin American Studies in 1971 and received his medical degree in 1975 from the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn. He completed his pediatric residency at the University of Colorado in 1978, and then served as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer with the Centers for Disease Control from 1978 to 1980 before returning to the University of Colorado for a pediatric infectious disease fellowship, which he completed in 1983. In 2004, he earned an S.M. in health care.

Steven H. Woolf, M.D., M.P.H., is Professor in the Departments of Family Medicine, Epidemiology, and Community Health at Virginia Commonwealth University and is Director of the VCU Center on Human Needs. He received his M.D. in 1984 from Emory University and underwent residency training in family medicine at Virginia Commonwealth University. Dr. Woolf is also a clinical epidemiologist and underwent training in preventive medicine and public health at Johns Hopkins University, where he received his M.P.H. in 1987. He is board certified in family medicine and in preventive medicine and public health. Dr. Woolf has published more than 150 articles in a career that has focused on evidence-based medicine and the development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, with a special focus on preventive medicine, cancer screening, quality improvement, and social justice. From 1987 to 2002, he served as science advisor to, and then member of, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Dr. Woolf edited the first two editions of the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services and is author of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. He is associate editor of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine and served as North American editor of the British Medical Journal. He has consulted widely on various matters of health policy with government agencies and professional organizations in the United States and Europe, and in 2001 was elected to the Institute of Medicine.

Mark E. Wynn, Ph.D., is a Senior Analyst in the Division of Payment Policy Demonstrations at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). That division is responsible for operating payment demonstrations in the fee-for-service original Medicare program. Mr. Wynn has directly managed or supervised a series of demonstrations for the Medicare program, including: bidding for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) in Polk County, FL and San Antonio, TX; bidding for clinical laboratory services in San Diego, CA; gainsharing at acute care hospitals; value based purchasing and pay for performance in several settings, including the Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration and the Nursing Home Value Based Purchasing Demonstration; global payments in acute care hospitals, including the Acute Care Episode (ACE) Demonstration; support for small rural hospitals, in two demonstrations that led to the Critical Access Hospital (CAH) Program; and the development of Ambulatory Patient Groups (APGs). Wynn has a Ph.D. in political science, specializing in public policy, from Northwestern University, and has been with the Medicare program since 1987. He was an APSA Congressional Fellow in the 1990s, and worked in the offices of U.S. Senator Max Baucus and (then) Congressman Ben Cardin. Prior to joining the Medicare program, Wynn worked in the Office of Policy, Development, and Research at HUD and taught political science at Lake Forest College and at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater.

Copyright © 2010, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK53913

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