Appendix C Table 2Studies Excluded From the Review for Key Question 4

ReferenceReason for exclusion
Abdulla FR, Feldman SR, Williford PM, Krowchuk D, Kaur M. Tanning and skin cancer. Pediatr Dermatol. 2005;22:501–512.Study design
Adam SA, Sheaves JK, Wright NH, Mosser G, Harris RW, Vessey MP. A case-control study of the possible association between oral contraceptives and malignant melanoma. Br J Cancer 1981;44(1):45–50.Quality
Almahroos M, Kurban AK. Ultraviolet carcinogenesis in nonmelanoma skin cancer part II: review and update on epidemiologic correlations. Skinmed. 2004;3:132–139.Study design
Araki K, Nagano T, Ueda M, et al. Incidence of skin cancers and precancerous lesions in Japanese—risk factors and prevention. J Epidemiol. 1999;9(6 Suppl):S14–21.No relevant outcomes
Aubry F, MacGibbon B. Risk factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. A case-control study in the Montreal region. Cancer. 1985;55:907–911.Study design
Autier P, Dore JF, Cattaruzza MS, et al. Sunscreen use, wearing clothes, and number of nevi in 6- to 7-year-old European children. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Cooperative Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:1873–1880.Study design
Autier P, Dore JF, Gefeller O, et al. Melanoma risk and residence in sunny areas. EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Br J Cancer. 1997;76:1521–1524.Study design
Autier P, Dore JF, Lejeune F, et al. Cutaneous malignant melanoma and exposure to sunlamps or sunbeds: an EORTC multicenter case-control study in Belgium, France and Germany. EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. Int J Cancer. 1994;58:809–813.Study design
Autier P, Dore JF, Schifflers E, et al. Melanoma and use of sunscreens: an EORTC case-control study in Germany, Belgium and France. EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. Int J Cancer. 1995;61:749–755.Study design
Autier P. Cutaneous malignant melanoma: facts about sunbeds and sunscreen. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2005;5:821–833.Study design
Autier P. Perspectives in melanoma prevention: the case of sunbeds. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40:2367–2376.Study design
Bajdik CD, Gallagher RP, Hill GB, Fincham S. Sunlight exposure, hat use, and squamous cell skin cancer on the head and neck. J Cutan Med Surg. 1998;3:68–73.Outcome/exposure of interest not reported
Bakos L, Wagner M, Bakos RM, et al. Sunburn, sunscreens, and phenotypes: some risk factors for cutaneous melanoma in southern Brazil. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41:557–562.Study design
Bastuji-Garin S, Diepgen TL. Cutaneous malignant melanoma, sun exposure, and sunscreen use: epidemiological evidence. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146(Suppl 61):24–30.Study design
Bataille V, Winnett A, Sasieni P, Newton Bishop JA, Cuzick J. Exposure to the sun and sunbeds and the risk of cutaneous melanoma in the UK: a case-control study. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40:429–435.Study design
Beitner H, Norell SE, Ringborg U, Wennersten G, Mattson B. Malignant melanoma: aetiological importance of individual pigmentation and sun exposure. Br J Dermatol. 1990;122:43–51.Study design
Beral V, Evans S, Shaw H, Milton G. Malignant melanoma and exposure to fluorescent lighting at work. Lancet. 1982;2:290–293.Study design
Beral V, Robinson N. The relationship of malignant melanoma, basal and squamous skin cancers to indoor and outdoor work. Br J Cancer. 1981;44:886–891.No relevant outcomes
Berwick M, Armstrong BK, Ben-Porat L, et al. Sun exposure and mortality from melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:195–199.Study design
Berwick M, Wiggins C. The current epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Front Biosci. 2006;11:1244–1254.Study design
Boniol M, Autier P, Dore JF. Photoprotection. Lancet. 2007;370:1481–1482.Study design
Boscoe FP, Schymura MJ. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:264.Study design
Boyd AS, Shyr Y, King LE Jr. Basal cell carcinoma in young women: an evaluation of the association of tanning bed use and smoking. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46:706–709.Quality
Carey FA, Hogan JM. The relationship of sun exposure and solar elastosis to skin cancer in a high risk population. Ir J Med Sci. 1990;159:44–47.Study design
Cho E, Rosner BA, Colditz GA. Risk factors for melanoma by body site. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:1241–1244.No relevant outcomes
Cockburn M, Black W, McKelvey W, Mack T. Determinants of melanoma in a case-control study of twins (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12:615–625.No relevant outcomes. Measures of sun exposure are very different from other studies
Cooke KR, Skegg DC, Fraser J. Socio-economic status, indoor and outdoor work, and malignant melanoma. Int J Cancer. 1984;34:57–62.No relevant outcomes
Corona R, Dogliotti E, D’Errico M, et al. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a Mediterranean population: role of recreational sun exposure early in life. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137:1162–1168.Study design
Cress RD, Holly EA, Ahn DK. Cutaneous melanoma in women, V: characteristics of those who tan and those who burn when exposed to summer sun. Epidemiology. 1995;6:538–543.Outcome/exposure of interest not reported
Dal H, Boldemann C, Lindelof B. Does relative melanoma distribution by body site 1960–2004 reflect changes in intermittent exposure and intentional tanning in the Swedish population? Eur J Dermatol. 2007;17:428–434.Study relevance
Dennis LK, Beane Freeman LE, VanBeek MJ. Sunscreen use and the risk for melanoma: a quantitative review. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:966–978.Used as source document
Dixon A. Arc welding and the risk of cancer. Aust Fam Physician. 2007;36:255–256.Study design
Dubin N, Moseson M, Pasternack BS. Epidemiology of malignant melanoma: pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and the identification of high-risk populations. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1986;102:56–75.Study design
Dubin N, Moseson M, Pasternack BS. Sun exposure and malignant melanoma among susceptible individuals. Environ Health Perspect. 1989;81:139–151.Study design
Dubin N, Pasternack BS, Moseson M. Simultaneous assessment of risk factors for malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin lesions, with emphasis on sun exposure and related variables. Int J Epidemiol. 1990;19:811–819.Study design
Dunn-Lane J, Herity B, Moriarty MJ, Conroy R. A case control study of malignant melanoma. Ir Med J. 1993;86:57–59.Study design
el Khwsky F, Bedwani R, D’Avanzo B, et al. Risk factors for non-melanomatous skin cancer in Alexandria, Egypt. Int J Cancer. 1994;56:375–378.Study design
Elwood JM, Jopson J. Melanoma and sun exposure: an overview of published studies. Int J Cancer. 1997;73:198–203.Used as source document
Elwood JM, Williamson C, Stapleton PJ. Malignant melanoma in relation to moles, pigmentation, and exposure to fluorescent and other lighting sources. Br J Cancer. 1986;53:65–74.Study design
Engel A, Johnson ML, Haynes SG. Health effects of sunlight exposure in the United States. Results from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971–1974. Arch Dermatol. 1988;124:72–79.Study design
English DR, Armstrong BK, Kricker A, Fleming C. Sunlight and cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1997;8:271–283.Study design
English DR, Milne E, Simpson JA. Sun protection and the development of melanocytic nevi in children. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:2873–2876.No relevant outcomes
Espinosa AJ, Sanchez Hernandez JJ, Bravo FP, et al. Cutaneous malignant melanoma and sun exposure in Spain. Melanoma Res. 1999;9:199–205.Study design
Evans RD, Kopf AW, Lew RA, et al. Risk factors for the development of malignant melanoma, I: review of case-control studies. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1988;14:393–408.Study design
Farmer KC, Naylor MF. Sun exposure, sunscreens, and skin cancer prevention: a year-round concern. Ann Pharmacother. 1996;30:662–673.Study design
Faurschou A, Wulf HC. Ecological analysis of the relation between sunbeds and skin cancer. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2007;23:120–125.Study design
Fears TR, Gail MH. Analysis of a two-stage case-control study with cluster sampling of controls: application to nonmelanoma skin cancer. Biometrics. 2000;56:190–198.Study relevance
Fears TR, Scotto J, Schneiderman MA. Mathematical models of age and ultraviolet effects on the incidence of skin cancer among whites in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 1977;105:420–427.Study design
Freedman DM, Zahm SH, Dosemeci M. Residential and occupational exposure to sunlight and mortality from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: composite (threefold) case-control study. BMJ. 1997;314:1451–1455.No relevant outcomes
Fritschi L, Siemiatycki J. Melanoma and occupation: results of a case-control study. Occup Environ Med. 1996;53:168–173.No relevant outcomes
Gafa L, Filippazzo MG, Tumino R, Dardanoni G, Lanzarone F, Dardanoni L. Risk factors of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Ragusa, Sicily: a case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 1991;2:395–399.Quality
Gallagher RP, Rivers JK, Lee TK, Bajdik CD, McLean DI, Coldman AJ. Broad-spectrum sunscreen use and the development of new nevi in white children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2000;283:2955–2960.No relevant outcomes
Gallagher RP, Spinelli JJ, Lee TK. Tanning beds, sunlamps, and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:562–566.Used as source document
Gamble JF, Lerman SE, Holder WR, Nicolich MJ, Yarborough CM. Physician-based case-control study of non-melanoma skin cancer in Baytown, Texas. Occup Med (Lond). 1996;46:186–196.Quality
Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, et al. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma, III: family history, actinic damage and phenotypic factors. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:2040–2059.Study relevance
Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, et al. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma, I: common and atypical naevi. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:28–44.Study relevance
Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, et al. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma, II: sun exposure. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:45–60.Used as source document
Garbe C, Weiss J, Kruger S, et al. The German melanoma registry and environmental risk factors implied. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1993;128:69–89.Quality
Gefeller O, Pfahlberg A. Sunscreen use and melanoma: a case of evidence-based prevention? Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2002;18:153–156.Study design
Geller AC, Colditz G, Oliveria S, et al. Use of sunscreen, sunburning rates, and tanning bed use among more than 10,000 US children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2002;109:1009–1014.No relevant outcomes
Giles GG, Marks R, Foley P. Incidence of non-melanocytic skin cancer treated in Australia. BMJ. 1988;296:13–17.Study design
Goodman KJ, Bible ML, London S, Mack TM. Proportional melanoma incidence and occupation among white males in Los Angeles County (California, United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1995;6:451–459.No relevant outcomes
Gorham ED, Mohr SB, Garland CF, Chaplin G, Garland FC. Do sunscreens increase risk of melanoma in populations residing at higher latitudes? Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17:956–963.Used as source document
Graham S, Marshall J, Haughey B, et al. An inquiry into the epidemiology of melanoma. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122:606–619.Study design
Green A, Battistutta D. Incidence and determinants of skin cancer in a high-risk Australian population. Int J Cancer. 1990;46:356–361.Study design
Green A, Beardmore G, Hart V, Leslie D, Marks R, Staines D. Skin cancer in a Queensland population. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;19:1045–1052.Study design
Green A, McCredie M, MacKie R, et al. A case-control study of melanomas of the soles and palms (Australia and Scotland). Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10:21–25.Study relevance
Green AE, Findley GB Jr, Klenk KF, Wilson WM, Mo T. The ultraviolet dose dependence of non-melanoma skin cancer incidence. Photochem Photobiol. 1976;24:353–362.Study design
Hakansson N, Floderus B, Gustavsson P, Feychting M, Hallin N. Occupational sunlight exposure and cancer incidence among Swedish construction workers. Epidemiology. 2001;12:552–557.No relevant outcomes
Harvey I, Frankel S, Marks R, Shalom D, Nolan-Farrell M. Non-melanoma skin cancer and solar keratoses, II: analytical results of the South Wales Skin Cancer Study. Br J Cancer. 1996;74:1308–1312.No relevant outcomes
Harvey I, Frankel S, Marks R, Shalom D, Nolan-Farrell M. Non-melanoma skin cancer and solar keratoses, I: methods and descriptive results of the South Wales Skin Cancer Study. Br J Cancer. 1996;74:1302–1307.No relevant outcomes
Heckmann M, Zogelmeier F, Konz B. Frequency of facial basal cell carcinoma does not correlate with site-specific UV exposure. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138:1494–1497.Study design
Herity B, O’Loughlin G, Moriarty MJ, Conroy R. Risk factors for non-melanoma skin cancer. Ir Med J. 1989;82:151–152.Study design
Herzfeld PM, Fitzgerald EF, Hwang SA, Stark A. A case-control study of malignant melanoma of the trunk among white males in upstate New York. Cancer Detect Prev. 1993;17(6):601–608.Quality
Hogan DJ, Lane PR, Gran L, Wong D. Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Saskatchewan, Canada. J Dermatol Sci. 1990;1:97–101.No relevant outcomes
Hogan DJ, To T, Gran L, Wong D, Lane PR. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma. Int J Dermatol. 1989;28:591–594.Quality
Holly EA, Kelly JW, Shpall SN, Chiu SH. Number of melanocytic nevi as a major risk factor for malignant melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:459–468.No relevant outcomes
Holman CD, Armstrong BK, Heenan PJ, et al. The causes of malignant melanoma: results from the West Australian Lions Melanoma Research Project. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1986;102:18–37.Population
Holman CD, Armstrong BK, Heenan PJ. Relationship of cutaneous malignant melanoma to individual sunlight-exposure habits. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986;76:403–414.Population
Holman CD, Armstrong BK. Pigmentary traits, ethnic origin, benign nevi, and family history as risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1984;72:257–266.Population
Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Use of topical sunscreens and the risk of malignant melanoma: a meta-analysis of 9067 patients from 11 case-control studies. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1173–1177.Used as source document
Ibrahim SF, Brown MD. Tanning and cutaneous malignancy. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:460–474.Study design
Ivry GB, Ogle CA, Shim EK. Role of sun exposure in melanoma. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:481–492.Study design
John EM, Dreon DM, Koo J, Schwartz GG. Residential sunlight exposure is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;89–90:549–552.Study design
Karagas MR, Greenberg ER, Spencer SK, Stukel TA, Mott LA. Increase in incidence rates of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancer in New Hampshire, USA. New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study Group. Int J Cancer. 1999;81:555–559.Study relevance
Kaskel P, Sander S, Kron M, Kind P, Peter RU, Krahn G. Outdoor activities in childhood: a protective factor for cutaneous melanoma? Results of a case-control study in 271 matched pairs. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145:602–609.Quality
Klepp O, Magnus K. Some environmental and bodily characteristics of melanoma patients. A case-control study. Int J Cancer. 1979;23:482–486.Study design
Kricker A, Armstrong BK, English DR. Sun exposure and non-melanocytic skin cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1994;5:367–392.Study design
Kricker A, Armstrong BK, Goumas C, et al. Ambient UV, personal sun exposure and risk of multiple primary melanomas. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18:295–304.Study design
Landi MT, Baccarelli A, Calista D, et al. Combined risk factors for melanoma in a Mediterranean population. Br J Cancer. 2001;85:1304–1310.Quality
Lazovich D, Sweeney C, Weinstock MA, Berwick M. A prospective study of pigmentation, sun exposure, and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma in women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:335–338.Study design
Lear JT, Harvey I, de Berker D, Strange RC, Fryer AA. Basal cell carcinoma. J R Soc Med. 1998;91:585–588.Study design
Lee JA, Strickland D. Malignant melanoma: social status and outdoor work. Br J Cancer. 1980;41:757–763.No relevant outcomes
Leiter U, Garbe C. Epidemiology of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer—the role of sunlight. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;624:89–103.Study design
Lim JL, Stern RS. High levels of ultraviolet B exposure increase the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer in psoralen and ultraviolet A-treated patients. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:505–513.Population
Lock-Andersen J, Drzewiecki KT, Wulf HC. Eye and hair colour, skin type and constitutive skin pigmentation as risk factors for basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma. A Danish case-control study. Acta Derm Venereol. 1999;79:74–80.No relevant outcomes
Lock-Andersen J, Drzewiecki KT, Wulf HC. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study. Acta Derm Venereol. 1999;79:314–319.No relevant outcomes
Loria D, Matos E. Risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: a case-control study in Argentina. Int J Dermatol. 2001;40:108–114.Study design
Lovatt TJ, Lear JT, Bastrilles J, et al. Associations between UVR exposure and basal cell carcinoma site and histology. Cancer Lett. 2004;216:191–197.Study design
MacKie RM, Freudenberger T, Aitchison TC. Personal risk-factor chart for cutaneous melanoma. Lancet. 1989;2:487–490.Study design
Maia M, Proenca NG, de Moraes JC. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma: a case-control study. Rev Saude Publica. 1995;29:27–37.Quality
Marks R, Jolley D, Dorevitch AP, Selwood TS. The incidence of non-melanocytic skin cancers in an Australian population: results of a five-year prospective study. Med J Aust. 1989;150:475–478.No relevant outcomes
Marks R, Ponsford MW, Selwood TS, Goodman G, Mason G. Non-melanotic skin cancer and solar keratoses in Victoria. Med J Aust. 1983;2:619–622.Study design
Marks R, Rennie G, Selwood T. The relationship of basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas to solar keratoses. Arch Dermatol. 1988;124:1039–1042.Study design
Memon AA, Tomenson JA, Bothwell J, Friedmann PS. Prevalence of solar damage and actinic keratosis in a Merseyside population. Br J Dermatol. 2000;142:1154–1159.Study design
Moore DH, Patterson HW, Hatch F, et al. Case-control study of malignant melanoma among employees of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Am J Ind Med. 1997;32:377–391.Quality
Morales Suarez-Varela M, Llopis GA, Ferrer CE. Non-melanoma skin cancer: an evaluation of risk in terms of ultraviolet exposure. Eur J Epidemiol. 1992;8:838–844.Study design
Naldi L, Altieri A, Imberti GL, et al. Cutaneous malignant melanoma in women. Phenotypic characteristics, sun exposure, and hormonal factors: a case-control study from Italy. Ann Epidemiol. 2005;15:545–550.Study design
Naldi L, Altieri A, Imberti GL, et al. Sun exposure, phenotypic characteristics, and cutaneous malignant melanoma. An analysis according to different clinico-pathological variants and anatomic locations (Italy). Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16:893–899.Study design
Naldi L, DiLandro A, D’Avanzo B, Parazzini F. Host-related and environmental risk factors for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma: evidence from an Italian case-control study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:446–452.Study design
Naldi L, Gallus S, Imberti GL, Cainelli T, Negri E, La Vecchia C. Sunlamps and sunbeds and the risk of cutaneous melanoma. Italian Group for Epidemiological Research in Dermatology. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2000;9:133–134.Study design
Naldi L, Gallus S, Imberti GL, Cainelli T, Negri E, La Vecchia C. Sunscreens and cutaneous malignant melanoma: an Italian case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2000;86:879–882.Study design
Naylor MF, Boyd A, Smith DW, Cameron GS, Hubbard D, Neldner KH. High sun protection factor sunscreens in the suppression of actinic neoplasia. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:170–175.No relevant outcomes
Nelemans PJ, Groenendal H, Kiemeney LA, Rampen FH, Ruiter DJ, Verbeek AL. Effect of intermittent exposure to sunlight on melanoma risk among indoor workers and sun-sensitive individuals. Environ Health Perspect. 1993;101:252–255.No relevant outcomes
Nelemans PJ, Rampen FH, Ruiter DJ, Verbeek AL. An addition to the controversy on sunlight exposure and melanoma risk: a meta-analytical approach. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;48:1331–1342.Used as source document
Nijsten T, Leys C, Verbruggen K, et al. Case-control study to identify melanoma risk factors in the Belgian population: the significance of clinical examination. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19:332–339.Study design
Nikolaou NA, Sypsa V, Stefanaki I, et al. Risk associations of melanoma in a Southern European population: results of a case/control study. Cancer Causes Control 2008;19(7):671–679.Quality
Oliveria SA, Saraiya M, Geller AC, Heneghan MK, Jorgensen C. Sun exposure and risk of melanoma. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:131–138.Used as source document
Pelucchi C, Di Landro A, Naldi L, La Vecchia C; Oncology Study Group of the Italian Group for Epidemiologic Research in Dermatology (GISED). Risk factors for histological types and anatomic sites of cutaneous basal-cell carcinoma: an italian case-control study. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:935–944.Study design
Pion IA, Rigel DS, Garfinkel L, Silverman MK, Kopf AW. Occupation and the risk of malignant melanoma. Cancer. 1995;75:637–644.No relevant outcomes
Prawer SE. Sun-related skin diseases. Postgrad Med. 1959;89:51–54.Study design
Pukkala E, Saarni H. Cancer incidence among Finnish seafarers, 1967–92. Cancer Causes Control. 1996;7:231–239.Study relevance
Purdue MP, From L, Armstrong BK, et al. Etiologic and other factors predicting nevus-associated cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:2015–2022.Study design
Rafnsson V, Hrafnkelsson J, Tulinius H, Sigurgeirsson B, Olafsson JH. Risk factors for malignant melanoma in an Icelandic population sample. Prev Med. 2004;39:247–252.Study design
Ramos J, Villa J, Ruiz A, Armstrong R, Matta J. UV dose determines key characteristics of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13:2006–2011.Study design
Robinson JK, Rademaker AW. Relative importance of prior basal cell carcinomas, continuing sun exposure, and circulating T lymphocytes on the development of basal cell carcinoma. J Invest Dermatol. 1992;99:227–231.Study design
Rodenas JM, Gado-Rodriguez M, Herranz MT, Tercedor J, Serrano S. Sun exposure, pigmentary traits, and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma: a case- control study in a Mediterranean population. Cancer Causes Control. 1996;7:275–283.Study design
Rosso S, Zanetti R, Martinez C, et al. The multicentre south European study “Helios,” II: different sun exposure patterns in the aetiology of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Br J Cancer. 1996;73:1447–1454.Study design
Rosso S, Zanetti R, Pippione M, Sancho-Garnier H. Parallel risk assessment of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma: skin characteristics and sun exposure. Melanoma Res. 1998;8:573–583.Study design
Sahl WJ, Glore S, Garrison P, Oakleaf K, Johnson SD. Basal cell carcinoma and lifestyle characteristics. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34:398–402.Quality
Saladi RN, Persaud AN. The causes of skin cancer: a comprehensive review. Drug Today. 2005;41:37–53.Study design
Schmieder GJ, Yoshikawa T, Mata SM, Streilein JW, Taylor JR. Cumulative sunlight exposure and the risk of developing skin cancer in Florida. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1992;18:517–522.Quality
Scrivener Y, Grosshans E, Cribier B. Variations of basal cell carcinomas according to gender, age, location and histopathological subtype. Br J Dermatol. 2002;147:41–47.No relevant outcomes
Shah CP, Weis E, Lajous M, Shields JA, Shields CL. Intermittent and chronic ultraviolet light exposure and uveal melanoma: a meta-analysis. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1599–1607.Study relevance
Singh B, Bhaya M, Shaha A, Har-El G, Lucente FE. Presentation, course, and outcome of head and neck skin cancer in African Americans: a case-control study. Laryngoscope. 1998;108:t-63.Study design
Siskind V, Aitken J, Green A, Martin N. Sun exposure and interaction with family history in risk of melanoma, Queensland, Australia. Int.J.Cancer 2002;97(1):90–95.Quality
Stender IM, Andersen JL, Wulf HC. Sun exposure and sunscreen use among sunbathers in Denmark. Acta Derm Venereol. 1996;76:31–33.Study design
Strickland PT, Vitasa BC, West SK, Rosenthal FS, Emmett EA, Taylor HR. Quantitative carcinogenesis in man: solar ultraviolet B dose dependence of skin cancer in Maryland watermen. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989;81:1910–1913.Study design
Suarez-Varela MM, Llopis GA, Ferrer CE. Non-melanoma skin cancer: a case- control study on risk factors and protective measures. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1996;15:255–261.Study design
Sunscreen use in children may lower risk of developing future skin cancer. Oncology (Williston Park). 2005;19:1139–1140.No relevant outcomes
Swerdlow AJ, English JS, MacKie RM, et al. Fluorescent lights, ultraviolet lamps, and risk of cutaneous melanoma. BMJ. 1988;297:647–650.Study design
The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: a systematic review. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1116–1122.Used as source document
Thompson SC, Jolley D, Marks R. Reduction of solar keratoses by regular sunscreen use. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1147–1151.No relevant outcomes
Ting W, Schultz K, Cac NN, Peterson M, Walling HW. Tanning bed exposure increases the risk of malignant melanoma. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46(12):1253–1257.Quality
Vagero D, Ringback G, Kiviranta H. Melanoma and other tumors of the skin among office, other indoor and outdoor workers in Sweden 1961–1979. Br J Cancer. 1986;53:507–512.No relevant outcomes
Vainio H, Bianchini F. Cancer-preventive effects of sunscreens are uncertain. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000;26:529–531.Study design
Vainio H, Miller AB, Bianchini F. An international evaluation of the cancer- preventive potential of sunscreens. Int J Cancer. 2000;88:838–842.Study design
Vajdic CM, Kricker A, Giblin M, et al. Artificial ultraviolet radiation and ocular melanoma in Australia. Int J Cancer. 2004;112:896–900.Study relevance
van-der-Pols JC, Williams GM, Neale RE, Clavarino A, Green AC. Long-term increase in sunscreen use in an Australian community after a skin cancer prevention trial. Prev Med. 2006;42:171–176.No relevant outcomes
Vitaliano PP, Urbach F. The relative importance of risk factors in nonmelanoma carcinoma. Arch Dermatol. 1980;116:454–456.Study design
Vitaliano PP. The use of logistic regression for modelling risk factors: with application to non-melanoma skin cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;108:402–414.Study relevance
Vitasa BC, Taylor HR, Strickland PT, et al. Association of nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis with cumulative solar ultraviolet exposure in Maryland watermen. Cancer. 1990;65:2811–2817.Study design
Walther U, Kron M, Sander S, et al. Risk and protective factors for sporadic basal cell carcinoma: results of a two-centre case-control study in southern Germany. Clinical actinic elastosis may be a protective factor. Br J Dermatol. 2004;151:170–178.Study design
Weinstock MA, Colditz GA, Willett WC, et al. Moles and site-specific risk of nonfamilial cutaneous malignant melanoma in women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989;81:948–952.No relevant outcomes
Weinstock MA. Do sunscreens increase or decrease melanoma risk: an epidemiologic evaluation. J Invest Dermatol Sym Proc. 1999;4:97–100.Study design
Weinstock MA. Sunscreen use can reduce melanoma risk. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2001;17:234–236.Study design
Whiteman DC, Stickley M, Watt P, Hughes MC, Davis MB, Green AC. Anatomic site, sun exposure, and risk of cutaneous melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3172–3177.Study design
Whiteman DC, Valery P, McWhirter W, Green AC. Risk factors for childhood melanoma in Queensland, Australia. Int J Cancer. 1997;70:26–31.Study design
Whiteman DC, Whiteman CA, Green AC. Childhood sun exposure as a risk factor for melanoma: a systematic review of epidemiologic studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12:69–82.Used as source document
Wiecker TS, Luther H, Buettner P, Bauer J, Garbe C. Moderate sun exposure and nevus counts in parents are associated with development of melanocytic nevi in childhood: a risk factor study in 1,812 kindergarten children. Cancer. 2003;97:628–638.No relevant outcomes
Wolf P, Quehenberger F, Mullegger R, Stranz B, Kerl H. Phenotypic markers, sunlight-related factors and sunscreen use in patients with cutaneous melanoma: an Austrian case-control study. Melanoma Res. 1998;8:370–378.Quality
Woolley T, Buettner PG, Lowe J. Sun-related behaviors of outdoor working men with a history of non-melanoma skin cancer. J Occup Environ Med. 2002;44:847–854.Study design
Xu LY, Koo J. Predictive value of phenotypic variables for skin cancer: risk assessment beyond skin typing. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:1275–1283.Study relevance
Youl P, Aitken J, Hayward N, et al. Melanoma in adolescents: a case-control study of risk factors in Queensland, Australia. Int J Cancer. 2002;98:92–98.Population
Zanetti R, Rosso S, Martinez C, et al. The multicentre south European study “Helios,” I: skin characteristics and sunburns in basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Br J Cancer. 1996;73:1440–1446.Study design

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables for KQ4-KQ5

Cover of Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer
Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer: Systematic Evidence Review to Update the 2003 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses, No. 82.
Lin JS, Eder M, Weinmann S, et al.

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