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Adair TH, Montani JP. Angiogenesis. San Rafael (CA): Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences; 2010.

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also called endothelial progenitor cell, a mesenchymal cell derived from hemangioblast that gives rise to blood vessels.


from the Greek word Angêion, meaning vessel, the formation of blood vessels from existing vasculature.


formation of arteries, which involves recruitment of smooth muscle cells into vessel wall.


a glycoprotein that activates its Tie2 receptor by inducing tyrosine phosphorylation. It promotes vessel maturation and stability.


an antagonist for the Tie2 receptor that counteracts the effects of angiopoietin-1.


(of blood flow) is a biological process in which tissue oxygenation is maintained within normal physiological limits by adjustments in arteriolar tone (acute autoregulation) and adjustments in vascularity/capillarity (chronic autoregulation). It is observed in heart, brain, skeletal muscle, and other tissues.

Blood islands

clusters of angioblasts and hematopoietic precursor cells that give rise to different parts of the circulatory system. Fusion of blood islands along with lumina formation by angioblasts leads to primitive vascular network.


an increase or decrease in the motile response of cells in random directions.


the distance per unit time that a cell moves along a chemical gradient stimulus.

Coarctation (of the aorta)

a congenital condition in which the aorta narrows in the area where it connects to the ductus arteriosus.


is a Cluster of Differentiation molecule (a glycoprotein) present on the cell surface that functions as a cell–cell adhesion factor. It is expressed in umbilical cord and bone marrow as hematopoietic cells, endothelial progenitor cells, blood vessel endothelial cells (but not lymphatic endothelial cells), mast cells, and other cell types.

Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)

is a highly vascular gas exchange membrane in bird eggs lying just beneath the shell surface that is composed of the fused chorion and wall of the allantois.

Delta-like 4 (Dll4)

is a transmembrane ligand for Notch receptors that inhibits endothelial tip cell formation.

Disuse atrophy

(of skeletal muscles) is muscle atrophy resulting from a lack of exercise due to a sedentary lifestyle, medical conditions that limit movement, or prolonged space flight at zero gravity.


a 20-kDa C-terminal fragment of collagen type XVIII that has antiangiogenic properties.

Endothelial cell

line luminal surfaces of cardiovascular system from heart to capillaries providing interface between blood and vessel wall. They are derived embryonically from angioblasts.

Endothelial progenitor cell

a controversial cell type believed to circulate in blood and with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells.

Extracellular matrix (ECM)

fills spaces between cells and includes basement membranes. It is composed of fibrous proteins (e.g., collagen, elastin) and glycosaminoglycans. Provides support and anchorage for cells, serves as medium for diffusion exchange of nutrients and metabolites, and sequesters and releases various growth factors.

Fibroblast growth factor-2

(FGF2) also known as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family that is bound to basement membranes (BM) of blood vessels; its proangiogenic actions can be activated by heparin sulfate-degrading enzymes, which causes it to be released from BMs


(singular, filopodium) thin cytoplasmic projections, similar to lamellipodia, which extend from migrating endothelial tip cells at the leading edge of a capillary sprout.


Judah Folkman (1933–2008) is considered by many to be the modern day father of angiogenesis, partly because of his pioneering studies showing that tumor growth is angiogenesis-dependent. Image photo-faulkman.jpg

Form follows function

(in biology) a fundamental law of nature in which the anatomical structure (form) of a system adapts to accommodate changes in the function of the system.


of a system is the degree of effectiveness with which a control system maintains constant conditions. Very few systems have infinite gain because in most systems the correction (e.g., arteriolar dilation) is not sufficient to return the error (e.g., decreased oxygenation of tissues) all the way to normal.

Growth factors

a natural occurring substance capable of promoting cellular growth.


a multipotent cell and precursor to both hematopoietic stem cells and angioblasts.

Hematopoietic stem cell

multipotent cell derived from hemangioblast that gives rise to all cell types in blood.


a deficiency in oxygen sufficient to enlist physiological mechanisms to correct the deficiency; occurs in normal and pathological states.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1

(HIF-1) a transcription factor that responds to changes in oxygen levels in cells; HIF-1 levels increase during hypoxic conditions, and possibly decrease during hyperoxic conditions.

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

(iNOS) NOSs are a family of enzymes that catalyze the production of nitric oxide from L-arginine.


(Greek: isch = restriction; hema = blood) is a restriction of blood supply that can result in damage or dysfunction of the tissue. Ischemia is accompanied not only by hypoxia, but also a lack of glucose and other blood-borne metabolic fuels.


August Krogh (1884–1949) was a Danish physiologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his many discoveries in cardiovascular physiology, especially those dealing with the microcirculation. Image photo-krogh.jpg


formation of lymph vessels from existing lymph vessels.


the functional unit of a lymph vessel needed to pump lymph. It is comprised of a short segment of lymph vessel delineated with proximal and distal one-way semilunar valves.


one of three primary germ cell layers lying between ectoderm and endoderm germ cell layers. It gives rise to multiple tissues including heart and large blood vessels.

Mesodermal stem cell

gives rise to connective tissue, bone, cartilage, and the circulatory and lymphatic systems.

Microvascular rarefaction

a reduction of microvessels.


a hypothetical substance that controls cell position within a tissue and thus governs tissue development.

Multipotent progenitor cell

gives rise to variety of oligopotent cellular progeny, which in turn give rise to limited assortment of terminally differentiated cell types. Unlike stem cells, they cannot reproduce themselves indefinitely.


a general term meaning formation of any blood vessel in adults.

Notch receptors

a family of receptors (Notch1-4) with intracellular and extracellular domains present in all metazoans. Activation by ligands (such as Delta-like 4) leads to proteolytic cleavage and release of an intracellular domain, which enters the nucleus to alter gene expression. The notch signaling pathway is important for cell–cell communication.

Oligopotent progenitor cell

gives rise to a limited assortment of terminally differentiated cells. Greek word oligos mean “a few.” Unlike stem cells, they have limited self-renewal capability.

Oxidative capacity

is a measure of the maximal capacity of a tissue (usually muscle) to use oxygen; expressed as microliters of oxygen consumed per gram of tissue per hour.

Parenchymal cell

the functional cell of an organ, e.g., skeletal muscle myocytes, cardiac myocytes, neurons, cells of nephrons, hepatocytes, etc.


also called mural cell, attaches to capillary wall, providing support and maintaining quiescence of capillary endothelium. It can differentiate into smooth muscle cell, fibroblast, and other cell types.

Placental growth factor

(PlGF) a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) subfamily secreted from the placental trophoblasts during pregnancy.

Progenitor cell

gives rise to cells that continue to differentiate or to terminally differentiated cells. Unlike stem cells, they cannot reproduce themselves indefinitely.

Shear stress

shear stress (in blood vessels) is a mechanical force caused by blood flow that acts tangentially to the endothelial cell surface of vessel walls. It is a function of blood velocity and viscosity.

Stalk cell

a proliferating endothelial cell that elongates a sprout forming the trunk of a new capillary.


(Greek: stereos = solid) is a body of mathematical methods relating three-dimensional parameters defining the structure to two-dimensional measurements obtainable on sections of the structure.

Stem cell

can undergo ‘asymmetric division’ producing daughter cell identical to parent cell as well as clonal progeny (multipotent progenitor cells) that continue to differentiate. They can accurately reproduce themselves indefinitely.


the cutting of a tendon either surgically (which can be therapeutic) or by trauma (which is not therapeutic).


a neurotoxin that blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the voltage-gated sodium channels of nerve membranes.


(TSP1) an adhesive glycoprotein that mediates cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions; it has antiangiogenic properties.

Tie2 receptor

an angiopoietin receptor; a tyrosine kinase that mediates cell signals by inducing phosphorylation of key tyrosines.

Tip cell

a nonproliferating (or virtually nonproliferating) endothelial cell at the tip of a capillary sprout that does not have a lumen. They are characterized by filopodia extensions that direct migration.

Transforming growth factor-beta

(TGFβ) exists in three subtypes in humans (TGFβ1, TGFβ2, TGFβ3), can induce transformation of some cell types, and can play crucial roles in cell differentiation, embryonic development, regulation of immune system, and tissue regeneration.


(from Latin vasculum, meaning vessel) is the de novo formation of blood vessels from blood islands and angioblasts in embryos.


VE (vascular endothelial)-cadherin also known as CD144 (CD, cluster of differentiation) is a glycoprotein required for maintaining a restrictive endothelial barrier.


vascular endothelial growth factor type A (also called VPF, vascular permeability factor) is a key proangiogenic growth factor.


Vascular endothelial growth factor type C induces selective hyperplasia of the lymphatic vasculature, i.e., causes lymphangiogenesis. Overexpression of VEGF-C in the skin of transgenic mice results in lymphatic (but not vascular) endothelial proliferation and vessel enlargement.


vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (also called flt1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase. It is thought to modulate VEGFR2 signaling possibly by acting as a decoy receptor since it has strong affinity for VEGF-A, but is weakly phosphorylated in endothelial cells.


vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (also called KDR/flk1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase, which mediates the angiogenic actions of VEGF-A as well as other cellular responses.


vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates lymphangiogenesis in response to VEGF-C and VEGF-D


the formation of veins; like arteriogenesis, it involves recruitment of smooth muscle cells into vessel wall.

Copyright © 2010 by Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK53237


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