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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US); Office on Smoking and Health (US). How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2010.

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How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General.

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Table 5.1IARC evaluations of carcinogens in mainstream cigarette smoke

IARC evaluations of evidence of carcinogenicity in humans
CarcinogenaQuantity (per cigarette)In animalsIn humansIARC groupbIARC Monographc (volume, year)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Benz[a]anthracene20–70 ngSufficient2A32, 1983; S7, 1987
Benzo[b]fluoranthene4–22 ngSufficient2B32, 1983; S7, 1987
Benzo[j]fluoranthene6–21 ngSufficient2B32, 1983; S7, 1987
Benzo[k]fluoranthene6–12 ngSufficient2B32, 1983; S7, 1987
Benzo[a]pyrene8.5–17.6 ngSufficientLimited132, 1983; S7, 1987; 92, in press
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene4 ngSufficient2A32, 1983; S7, 1987
Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene1.7–3.2 ngSufficient2B32, 1983; S7, 1987
Dibenzo[a,e]pyrenePresentSufficient2B32, 1983; S7, 1987
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene4–20 ngSufficient2B32, 1983; S7, 1987
5-methylchryseneND–0.6 ngSufficient2B32, 1983; S7, 1987
Heterocyclic compounds
Furan20–40 μgSufficient2B63, 1995a
Dibenz[a,h]acridineND–0.1 ngSufficient2B32, 1983; S7, 1987
Dibenz[a,j]acridineND–10 ngSufficient2B32, 1983; S7, 1987
Dibenzo[c,g]carbazoleND–0.7 ngSufficient2B32, 1983; S7, 1987
Benzo[b]furanPresentSufficient2B63, 1995a
N-nitrosamines
N-nitrosodimethylamine0.1–180 ngSufficient2A17, 1978; S7, 1987
N-nitrosoethylmethylamineND–13 ngSufficient2B17, 1978; S7, 1987
N-nitrosodiethylamineND–25 ngSufficient2A17, 1978; S7, 1987
N-nitrosopyrrolidine1.5–110 ngSufficient2B17, 1978; S7, 1987
N-nitrosopiperidineND–9 ngSufficient2B17, 1978; S7, 1987
N-nitrosodiethanolamineND–36 ngSufficient2B17, 1978; 77, 2000
N’-nitrosonornicotine154–196 ngSufficientLimited137, 1985; S7, 1987; 89, in press
4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)
1-butanone
110–133 ngSufficientLimited137, 1985; S7, 1987; 89, in press
Aromatic amines
2-toluidine30–200 ngSufficientLimited2AS7, 1987; 77, 2000
2,6-dimethylaniline4–50 ngSufficient2B57, 1993
2-naphthylamine1–22 ngSufficientSufficient14, 1974; S7, 1987
4-aminobiphenyl2–5 ngSufficientSufficient11, 1972; S7, 1987
Heterocyclic aromatic amines
2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole25–260 ngSufficient2B40, 1986; S7, 1987
2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole2–37 ngSufficient2B40, 1986; S7, 1987
2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline0.3 ngSufficient2AS7, 1987; 56, 1993
3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido [4,3-b]indole0.3–0.5 ngSufficient2B31, 1983; S7, 1987
3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole0.8–1.1 ngSufficient2B31, 1983; S7, 1987
2-amino-6-methylpyrido[1,2-a:3′, 2′-d]imidazole0.37–0.89 ngSufficient2B40, 1986; S7, 1987
2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3′,2′-d]imidazole0.25–0.88 ngSufficient2B40, 1986; S7, 1987
2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine11–23 ngSufficient2B56, 1993
Aldehydes
Formaldehyde10.3–25 μgSufficientSufficient1S7, 1987; 62, 1995b
Acetaldehyde770–864 μgSufficient2BS7, 1987; 71, 1999
Phenolic compounds
Catechol59–81 μgSufficient2BS7, 1987; 71, 1999
Caffeic acid<3 μgSufficient2B56, 1993
Volatile hydrocarbons
1,3-butadiene20–40 μgSufficientLimited2AS7, 1987; 71, 1999
Isoprene450–1,000 μgSufficient2B60, 1994; 71, 1999
Benzene12–50 μgSufficientSufficient129, 1982; S7, 1987
Nitrohydrocarbons
Nitromethane0.5–0.6 μgSufficient2B77, 2000
2-nitropropane0.7–1.2 ngSufficient2BS7, 1987; 71, 1999
Nitrobenzene25 μgSufficient2B65, 1996
Miscellaneous organic compounds
Acetamide38–56 μgSufficient2BS7, 1987; 71, 1999
AcrylamidePresentSufficient2AS7, 1987; 60, 1994
Acrylonitrile3–15 μgSufficient2BS7, 1987; 71, 1999
Vinyl chloride11–15 ngSufficientSufficient119, 1979; S7, 1987
1,1-dimethylhydrazinePresentSufficient2B4, 1974; 71, 1999
Ethylene oxide7 μgSufficientLimited160, 1994; S7, 1987
Propylene oxide0–100 ngSufficient2B60, 1994; S7, 1987
Urethane20–38 ngSufficient2B7, 1974; S7, 1987
Metals and inorganic compounds
Arsenic40–120 ngSufficientSufficient184, 2004
Beryllium0.5 ngSufficientSufficient1S7, 1987; 58, 1993
NickelND–600 ngSufficientSufficient1S7, 1987; 49, 1990
Chromium (hexavalent)4–70 ngSufficientSufficient1S7, 1987; 49, 1990
Cadmium41–62 ngSufficientSufficient1S7, 1987; 58, 1993
Cobalt0.13–0.20 ngSufficient2B52, 1991
Lead (inorganic)34–85 ngSufficientLimited2A23, 1980; S7, 1987; 87, in press
Hydrazine24–43 ngSufficient2BS7, 1987; 71, 1999
Radioisotope polonium-2100.03–1.0 picocurieSufficient178, 2001

Source: Adapted from Hoffmann et al. 2001 and International Agency for Research on Cancer 2004 with permission from American Chemical Society, © 2001 and International Agency for Research on Cancer, © 2004.

Note: IARC = International Agency for Research on Cancer; ND = not detected; ng = nanograms; S7 = Supplement 7; μg = micrograms.

a

Virtually all these compounds are known carcinogens in experimental animals, and IARC found sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in animals for all the compounds.

b

Using data on cancer in humans and, in some cases, other data, IARC established classifications for compounds as group 1 (carcinogenic to humans), group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), and group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans).

c

If more than two IARC evaluations were performed, only the two most recent monographs are listed.

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