NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Acute Pain Management Guideline Panel. Acute Pain Management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR); 1992 Feb. (AHCPR Clinical Practice Guidelines, No. 1.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Acute Pain Management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma

Acute Pain Management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma.

Show details


  1. Adams, J. Adams, J. (1990). A methodological study of pain assessment in Anglo and Hispanic children with cancer. In Tyler, D., & Krane, E. (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy: Pediatric pain (vol. 15, pp. 43-52). New York: Raven Press.
  2. Alexander, J.I., Parikh, R.K., & Spence, A.A. (1973). Postoperative analgesia and lung function: A comparison of narcotic analgesic regimens. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 45, 346-352. [PubMed: 4705484]
  3. American Academy of Pediatrics. (1985). Guidelines for the elective use of conscious sedation, deep sedation, and general anesthesia in pediatric patients. Pediatrics, 76, 317-321. [PubMed: 4022709]
  4. American Academy of Pediatrics. (In press). Guidelines for monitoring and management of pediatric patients during and following sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Pediatrics. [PubMed: 12359805]
  5. American Nurses Association. (1991). Position statement on the registered nurses' (RN) role in the management of patients receiving I.V. conscious sedation for short-term therapeutic, diagnostic, or surgical procedures. Kansas City: American Nurses Association. [PubMed: 1557455]
  6. American Pain Society. (1989). Principles of analgesic use in the treatment of acute pain and chronic cancer pain: A concise guide to medical practice (2nd ed.). Skokie, IL: American Pain Society.
  7. American Pain Society, Committee on Quality Assurance Standards. (1990). Standards for monitoring quality of analgesic treatment of acute pain and cancer pain. Oncology Nursing Forum, 17, 952-954. [PubMed: 2263523]
  8. American Pain Society quality assurance standards for relief of acute pain and cancer pain. (1991). In Bond, M.R., Charlton, J.E., & Woolf C.J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Pain. Amsterdam, NY: Elsevier Science Publications.
  9. Analgesia and the metabolic response to surgery (Editorial). Analgesia and the metabolic response to surgery (Editorial). (1985). Lancet, 1, 1018-1019. [PubMed: 2859467]
  10. Anand, K. (1990). The biology of pain perception in newborn infants. In Tyler, D., & Krane, E. (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy: Pediatric pain (vol. 15, pp. 113- 122). New York: Raven Press.
  11. Anand, K.J., & Aynsley-Green, A. (1988). Measuring the severity of surgical stress in newborn infants. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 23, 297-305. [PubMed: 3290422]
  12. Anand, K.J., Brown, M.J., Causon, R.C., Christofides, N.D., Bloom, S.R., & Aynsley- Green, A. (1985). Can the human neonate mount an endocrine and metabolic response to surgery? Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 20, 41-48. [PubMed: 3973812]
  13. Anand, K.J., & Hickey, P. (1987). Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. New England Journal of Medicine, 317, 1321-1329. [PubMed: 3317037]
  14. Anand, K.J., Sippell, W.G., & Aynsley-Green, A. (1987). Randomized trial of fentanyl anaesthesia in preterm babies undergoing surgery: Effects on the stress response. [Published erratum appears in Lancet 1987 Jan 24, 1, 234.] Lancet, 1, 62-66. [PubMed: 2879174]
  15. Andersen, K.H. (1989). A new method of analgesia for relief of circumcision pain. Anaesthesia, 44, 118-120. [PubMed: 2929931]
  16. Andolsek, K., & Novik, B. (1980). Use of hypnosis with children. Journal of Family Practice, 10, 503-507. [PubMed: 7354296]
  17. Anscombe, A.R., & Buxton, R.J. (1958). Effect of abdominal operations on total lung capacity and its subdivisions. British Medical Journal, 2, 84-87. [PMC free article: PMC2025720] [PubMed: 13546655]
  18. Aradine, C.R., Beyer, J.E., & Tompkins, J.M. (1988). Children's pain perception before and after analgesia: A study of instrument construct validity and related issues. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 3, 11-23. [PubMed: 3339533]
  19. Armstrong, P.J., & Bersten, A. (1986). Normeperidine toxicity. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 65, 536-538. [PubMed: 3963440]
  20. Atchison, N.E., Osgood, P.F., Carr, D.B., & Szyfelbein, S.K. (1991). Pain during burn dressing change in children: Relationship to burn area, depth, and analgesic regimens. Pain, 47, 41-46. [PubMed: 1771092]
  21. Bach, S., Noreng, M.F., & Tjellden, N.U. (1988). Phantom limb pain in amputees during the first 12 months following limb amputation, after preoperative lumbar epidural blockade. Pain, 33, 297-301. [PubMed: 3419837]
  22. Barrier, G., Attia, J., Mayer, M.N., Amiel-Tison, C., & Shnider, S.M. (1989). Measurement of post-operative pain and narcotic administration in infants using a new clinical scoring system. Intensive Care Medicine, 15, Suppl. 1, S37-S39. [PubMed: 2723246]
  23. Bauchner, H., Waring, C., & Vinci, R. (1991). Parental presence during procedures in an emergency room: Results from 50 observations. Pediatrics, 87, 544-548. [PubMed: 2011433]
  24. Bayer, A.J., ChadaChadha, J.S., Farag, R.R., & Pathy,
  25. Beecher, H.K. (1959). Measurement of subjective responses: Quantitative effects of drugs. New York: Oxford University Press.
  26. Bellville, W.J., Forrest, W.H., Miller, E., & Brown, B.W. Jr. (1971). Influence of age on pain relief from analgesics. A study of postoperative patients. Journal of the American Medical Association, 217, 1835-1841. [PubMed: 5109724]
  27. Bender, J.S. (1989). Approach to the acute abdomen. Medical Clinics of North America, 73, 1413-1422. [PubMed: 2682068]
  28. Berde, C.B. (1989). Pediatric postoperative pain management. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 36, 921-940. [PubMed: 2569183]
  29. Berde, C.B. (1991). Pediatric analgesic trials. In Max, M.B., Portenoy, R.K., & Laska, E.M. (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy: The design of analgesic clinical trials (vol. 18, pp. 445-455). New York: Raven Press.
  30. Berde, C.B., Lehn, B.M., Yee, J.D., Sethna, N.F., & Russo, D. (1991). Patient-controlled analgesia in children and adolescents: A randomized, prospective comparison with intramuscular administration of morphine for postoperative analgesia. Journal of Pediatrics, 118, 460-466. [PubMed: 1999793]
  31. Bernstein, N. (1963). Management of burned children with the aid of hypnosis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 4, 93-98. [PubMed: 14055466]
  32. Beyer, J.E. (1984). The Oucher: A user's manual and technical report. [Available from: Judith Beyer, University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80262.]
  33. Beyer, J.E., DeGood, D.E., Ashley, L.C., & Russell, G.A. (1983). Patterns of postoperative analgesic use with adults and children following cardiac surgery. Pain, 17, 71-81. [PubMed: 6634214]
  34. Beyer, J.E., McGrath, P.J., & Berde, C.V. (1990). Discordance between self-report and behavioral pain measures in children age 3-7 years after surgery. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 5, 350-356. [PubMed: 2269802]
  35. Bollish, S.J., Collins, C.L., Kirking, D.M., & Bartlett, R.H. (1985). Efficacy of patient-controlled versus conventional analgesia for postoperative pain. Clinical Pharmacy, 4, 48-52. [PubMed: 3971682]
  36. Bray, R.J. (1983). Postoperative analgesia provided by morphine infusion in children. Anaesthesia, 38, 1075-1078. [PubMed: 6638453]
  37. Bromage, P.R., Campoersi, Camporesi, E., & Chestnut, D. (1980). Epidural narcotics for postoperative analgesia. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 59, 473-480. [PubMed: 6105830]
  38. Bullit, Bullitt, E. (1989). Induction of c-fos-like protein within the lumbar spinal cord and thalamus of the rat following peripheral stimulation. Brain Research, 493, 391-397. [PubMed: 2504439]
  39. Bush, J.P., Holmbeck, G.N., & Cockrell, J.L. (1989). Patterns of PRN analgesic drug administration in children following elective surgery. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 14, 433-448. [PubMed: 2571690]
  40. Campbell, N.N., Reynolds, G.J., & Perkins, G. (1989). Postoperative analgesia in neonates: An Australia-wide survey. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 17, 487-499. [PubMed: 2574546]
  41. Campos, R.G. (1989). Soothing pain-elicited distress in infants with swaddling and pacifiers. Child Development, 60, 781-792. [PubMed: 2758876]
  42. Capogna, G., Celleno, D., Tagariello, V., & Loffreda-Mancinelli, C. (1988). Intrathecal buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia in the elderly patient. Anaesthesia, 43, 128-130. [PubMed: 3354808]
  43. Ceccio, C.M. (1984). Postoperative pain relief through relaxation in elderly patients with fractured hips. Orthopedic Nursing, 3, 11-19. [PubMed: 6374586]
  44. Chapman, C.R., & Syrjala, K.L. (1990). Measurement of pain. In Bonica, J.J. (Ed.), The management of pain (2nd ed., vol. 1, pp. 580-594). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
  45. Chawla, R., Arora, M.K., Saksena, R., & Gode, G.R. (1989). Efficacy and dose-response of intrathecal pentazocine for post-operative pain relief. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 90, 220-223. [PubMed: 2767747]
  46. Choiniere, M., Melzack, R., & Papillon, J. (1991). Pain and paresthesia in patients with healed burns: An exploratory study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 6, 437-444. [PubMed: 1940489]
  47. Cohn, B.T., Draeger, R.I., & Jackson, D.W. (1989). The effects of cold therapy in the postoperative management of pain in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 17, 344-349. [PubMed: 2729484]
  48. Collins, C., Koren, G., Crean, P., Klein, J., Roy, W.L., & MacLeod, S.M. (1985). Fentanyl pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic effects in preterm infants during ligation of patent ductus arteriosus. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 64, 1078-1080. [PubMed: 3840338]
  49. Conn, I.G., Marshall, A.H., Yadav, S.N., Daly, J.C., & Jaffer, M. (1986). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation following appendicectomy: The placebo effect. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 68, 191-192. [PMC free article: PMC2498376] [PubMed: 3538985]
  50. Cooperman, A.M., Hall, B., Mikalacki, K., Hardy, R., & Sadar, E. (1977). Use of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in the control of postoperative pain. American Journal of Surgery, 133, 185-187. [PubMed: 319697]
  51. Covington, E.C., Gonsalves-Ebrahim, L., Currie, K.O., Shepard, K.V., & Pippenger, C.E.1988.
  52. Crook, J., Rideout, E., & Browne, G. (1984). The prevalence of pain complaints in a general population. Pain, 18, 299-314. [PubMed: 6728496]
  53. Daake, D.R., & Gueldner, S.H. (1989). Imagery instruction and the control of postsurgical pain. Applied Nursing Research, 2, 114-120. [PubMed: 2764578]
  54. Danesh, B.J., Saniabadi, A.R., Russell, R.I., & Lowe, G.D. (1987). Therapeutic potential of choline magnesium trisalicylate as an alternative to aspirin for patients with bleeding tendencies. Scottish Medical Journal, 32, 167-168. [PubMed: 3329766]
  55. Daniels, L.K. (1976). The treatment of acute anxiety and postoperative gingival pain by hypnosis and covert conditioning: A case report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 19, 116-119. [PubMed: 983978]
  56. Davie, I.T., Slawson, K.B., & Burt, R.A. (1982). A double-blind comparison of parenteral morphine, placebo, and oral fenoprofen in management of postoperative pain. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 61, 1002- 1005. [PubMed: 7149292]
  57. Davies, J.R. (1982). Ineffective transcutaneous nerve stimulation following epidural anaesthesia. Anaesthesia, 37, 453-457. [PubMed: 6979269]
  58. Davis, M.A. (1988). Epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 4, 241-255. [PubMed: 3288318]
  59. Dinarello, C. (1984). Interleukin-I. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 6, 51-95. [PubMed: 6369481]
  60. Donovan, M., Dillon, P., & McGuire, L. (1987). Incidence and characteristics of pain in a sample of medical-surgical inpatients. Pain, 30, 69-78. [PubMed: 2886969]
  61. Dripps, R.D., Eckenhoff, J.E., & Vandam, L.D. (1982). Introduction to anesthesia: The principles of safe practice. Philadelphia:, W.B. Saunders.
  62. Egan, T.M., Herman, S.J., Doucette, E.J., Normand, S.L., & McLeod, R.S. (1988). A randomized, controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of fascial infiltration of bupivacaine in preventing respiratory complications after elective abdominal surgery. Surgery, 104, 734-740. [PubMed: 3051475]
  63. Egbert, A.M., Parks, L.H., Short, L.M., & Burnett, M.L. (1990). Randomized trial of postoperative patient controlled analgesia vs intramuscular narcotics in frail elderly men. Archives of Internal Medicine, 150, 1897-1903. [PubMed: 1975490]
  64. Egbert, L.D., Battit, G.E., Welch, C.E., & Bartlett, M.K. (1964). Reduction of postoperative pain by encouragement and instruction of patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 270, 825-827. [PubMed: 14108087]
  65. Egdahl, G. (1959). Pituitary-adrenal response following trauma to the isolated leg. Surgery, 46, 9-21. [PubMed: 13668810]
  66. Eisenach, J.C., Grice, S.C., & Dewan, D.M. (1988). Patient-controlled analgesia following cesarean section: A comparison with epidural and intramuscular narcotics. Anesthesiology, 68, 444-448. [PubMed: 3345002]
  67. Eland, J.M. (1989). The effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) with children experiencing cancer pain. In Funk, S.G., Tornquist, E.M., Champagne, M.T., Copp, L.A., & Wiese, R.A. (Eds.), Key aspects of comfort: Management of pain, fatigue, and nausea (pp. 87-100). New York: Springer.
  68. Eland, J.M., & Anderson, J.E. (1977). The experience of pain in children. In Jacox, A.K. (Ed.) Pain: A source book for nurses and other health professionals (pp. 453-473). Boston: Little, Brown.
  69. Ellerton, M., Caty, S., & Ritchie, J. (1985). Helping young children master intrusive procedures through play. Children's Health Care, 13, 167-173.
  70. Elliott, C.H., & Olson, R.A. (1983). The management of children's distress in response to painful medical treatment for burn injuries. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 21, 675-683. [PubMed: 6661152]
  71. Engberg, G. (1985a). Factors influencing the respiratory capacity after upper abdominal surgery. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 29, 434- 445. [PubMed: 4013628]
  72. Engberg, G. (1985b). Respiratory performance after upper abdominal surgery: A comparison of pain relief with intercostal blocks and centrally acting analgesics. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 29, 427-433. [PubMed: 4013627]
  73. Estes, D., & Kaplan, K. (1980). Lack of platelet effect with the aspirin analog, salsalate. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 23, 1301-1307. [PubMed: 7447965]
  74. Evron, S., Schenker, J.G., Olshwang, D., Granat, M., & Magora, F. (1981). Postoperative analgesia by percutaneous electrical stimulation in gynecology and obstetrics. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, 12, 305-313. [PubMed: 6977467]
  75. Facco, E., Manani, G., Angel, A., Vincenti, E., Tambuscio, B., Ceccherelli, F., Troletti, G., Ambrosio, F., & Giron, G.P. (1981). Comparison study between acupuncture and pentazocine analgesic and respiratory post-operative effects. American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 9, 225-235. [PubMed: 7053022]
  76. Fassler, D. (1985). The fear of needles in children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 55, 371-377. [PubMed: 4025517]
  77. Ferguson, B.F. (1979). Preparing young children for hospitalization: A comparison of two methods. Pediatrics, 64, 656-664. [PubMed: 492841]
  78. Fernald, C., & Corry, J. (1981). Empathic versus directive preparation of children for needles. Child Health Care, 10, 44-47. [PubMed: 10299200]
  79. Ferrante, F.M., Ostheimer, G.W., & Covino, B.G. (Eds.). (1990). Patient-controlled analgesia. Chicago: Blackwell.
  80. Ferrell, B.A. (1991). Pain management in elderly people. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 39, 64-73. [PubMed: 1670940]
  81. Ferrell, B.A., Ferrell, B.R., & Osterweil, D. (1990). Pain in the nursing home. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 38, 409-414. [PubMed: 2109765]
  82. Field, T., & Goldson, E. (1984). Pacifying effects of nonnutritive sucking on term and preterm neonates during heelstick procedures. Pediatrics, 74, 1012-1015. [PubMed: 6504620]
  83. Fitzgerald, M. (1990). C-fos and changing the face of pain. Trends in Neurosciences, 13, 439-440. [PubMed: 1701574]
  84. Fitzgerald, M., Millard, C., & McIntosh, N. (1988). Hyperalgesia in premature infants. Lancet, 1, 292. [PubMed: 2893095]
  85. Fitzgerald, M., Millard, C., & McIntosh, N. (1989). Cutaneous hypersensitivity following peripheral tissue damage in newborn infants and its reversal with topical anesthesia. Pain, 39, 31-36. [PubMed: 2812853]
  86. Fitzgerald, M., Shaw, A., & MacIntosh, N. (1988). Postnatal development of the cutaneous flexor reflex: Comparative study of preterm infants and newborn rat pups. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 30, 520- 526. [PubMed: 3169392]
  87. Flaherty, G.G., & Fitzpatrick, J.J. (1978). Relaxation technique to increase comfort level of postoperative patients: A preliminary study. Nursing Research, 27, 352-355. [PubMed: 362379]
  88. Foley, K.M. (1985). The treatment of cancer pain. New England Journal of Medicine, 313, 84-95. [PubMed: 2582259]
  89. Foley, K.M., & Inturrisi, C.E. (1987). Analgesic drug therapy in cancer pain: Principles and practice. Medical Clinics of North America, 71, 207-232. [PubMed: 2881032]
  90. Fordyce, W.E. (1978). Evaluating and managing chronic pain. Geriatrics, 33, 59-62. [PubMed: 620926]
  91. Fortin, F., & Kirouac, S. (1976). A randomized controlled trial of preoperative patient education. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 13, 11-24. [PubMed: 1046018]
  92. Foster, R., & Hester, N. (1989). The relationship between assessment and pharmacologic intervention for pain in children. In Funk, S.G., Tornquist, E.M., Champagne, M.T., Copp, L.A., & Wiese, R.A. (Eds.), Key aspects of comfort: Management of pain, fatigue, and nausea (pp. 72-79). New York: Springer.
  93. Foster, R.L., & Hester, N.O. (1990a). Administration of analgesics for children's pain. Pain, Suppl. 5, S27.
  94. Foster, R.L., & Hester, N.O. (1990b). The relationship between pain ratings and pharmacologic interventions for children in pain. In Tyler, D. & Krane, E. (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy: Pediatric pain (vol. 15, pp. 31-36). New York: Raven Press.
  95. Fowler-Kerry, S. (1990). Adolescent oncology survivors' recollection of pain. In Tyler, D., & Krane, E. (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy: Pediatric pain (vol. 15, pp. 365-371). New York: Raven Press.
  96. Fowler-Kerry, S., & Lander, J.R. (1987). Management of injection pain in children. Pain, 30, 169-175. [PubMed: 3670868]
  97. Fradet, C., McGrath, P.J., Kay, J., Adams, S., & Luke, B. (1990). A prospective survey of reactions to blood tests by children and adolescents. Pain, 40, 53-60. [PubMed: 2339016]
  98. Franck, L.S. (1987). A national survey of the assessment and treatment of pain and agitation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 16, 387-393. [PubMed: 3694306]
  99. Fritz, D.J. (1988). Noninvasive pain control methods used by cancer outpatients (meeting abstract). Oncology Nursing Forum, Suppl. 108.
  100. From the NIH. (1979). Pain in the elderly: Patterns change with age. Journal of the American Medical Association, 241, 2191-2192.
  101. Gauvain-Piquard, A., Rodary, C., Rezvani, A., & Lemerle, J. (1987). Pain in children aged 2-6 years: A new observational rating scale elaborated in a pediatric oncology unit; A preliminary report. Pain, 31, 177-188. [PubMed: 3501562]
  102. Gedaly-Duff, V., & Ziebarth, D. (1991). Mothers' management of surgical pain in preschool children [abstract of paper presented at the Second International Symposium on Pediatric Pain]. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 6, 147.
  103. Gracely, R.H., & Wolskee, P.J. (1983). Semantic functional measurement of pain: Integrating perception and language. Pain, 15, 389-398. [PubMed: 6866537]
  104. Grunau, R.V.E., & Craig, K.D. (1987). Pain expression in neonates: Facial action and cry. Pain, 28, 395-410. [PubMed: 3574966]
  105. Guideline report. Acute pain management: Operative or medical procedures and trauma (AHCPR Pub. No. 92-0022). (In press). Rockville, Md: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.
  106. Hanley, M.R. (1988). Proto-oncogenes in the nervous system. Neuron, 1, 175-182. [PubMed: 2856093]
  107. Hannallah, R.S., & Rosales, J.K. (1983). Experience with parents' presence during anaesthesia induction in children. Canadian Anaesthetists' Society Journal, 30, 286-289. [PubMed: 6336550]
  108. Hanson, A.L., Hanson, B., & Matousek, M. (1984). Epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. The effect of morphine-bupivacaine administered epidurally for intra- and postoperative pain relief. Acta Obstetrica Gynecologica Scandinavica, 63, 135-140. [PubMed: 6730926]
  109. Hansson, P., & Ekblom, A. (1986). Influence of stimulus frequency and probe size on vibration-induced alleviation of acute orofacial pain. Applied Neurophysiology, 49, 155-165. [PubMed: 3548587]
  110. Hargreaves, A., & Lander, J. (1989). Use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for postoperative pain. Nursing Research, 38, 159-161. [PubMed: 2785684]
  111. Hargreaves, K.M., & Dionne, R.A. (1991). Evaluating endogenous mediators of pain and analgesia in clinical studies. In Max, M., Portenoy, R., & Laska, E. (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy. The design of analgesic clinical trials (vol. 19, pp. 579-598). New York: Raven Press.
  112. Harkins, S.W., Kwentus, J., & Price, D.D. (1984). Pain and the elderly. In Benedetti, C., Chapman, C., & Moricca, G. (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy. Recent advances in the management of pain (vol. 7, pp. 103-121). New York: Raven Press.
  113. Hasenbos, M., van Egmond, J., Gielen, M., & Crul, J.F. (1987). Post- operative analgesia by high thoracic epidural versus intramuscular nicomorphine after thoracotomy. Part III. The effects of pre- and post- operative analgesia on morbidity. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 31, 608-615. [PubMed: 3120484]
  114. Hasselstrom, Eriksson, S., Persson A., Rane, A., Svensson, J.O., & Sawa, J. (1990). The metabolism and bioavailability of morphine in patients with severe liver cirrhosis. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 29, 289-297. [PMC free article: PMC1380128] [PubMed: 2310653]
  115. Hendrickson, M., Myre, L., Johnson, D.G., Matlak, M.E., Black, R.E., & Sullivan, J.J. (1990). Postoperative analgesia in children: A prospective study of intermittent intramuscular injections versus continuous intravenous infusion of morphine. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 25, 185-191. [PubMed: 2303987]
  116. Hertzka, R., Gauntlett, I., Fisher, D., & Spellman, M. (1989). Fentanyl-induced ventilatory depression: Effects of age. Anesthesiology, 70, 213-218. [PubMed: 2913858]
  117. Hester, N.K.O. (1979). The preoperational child's reaction to immunization. Nursing Research, 28, 250-255. [PubMed: 255924]
  118. Hester, N.O. (1989). Comforting the child in pain. In Funk, S.G., Tornquist, E.M., Champagne, M.T., Copp, L.A., & Wiese, R.A. (Eds.), Key aspects of comfort: Management of pain, fatigue, and nausea (pp. 290- 298). New York: Springer.
  119. Hester, N.O., & Barcus, C.S. (1986). Assessment and management of pain in children. Pediatrics: Nursing Update, 1, 1-8.
  120. Hester, N.O., & Foster, R.L. (1990). Cues nurses and parents use in making judgments about children's pain. Pain, Suppl. 5, S31.
  121. Hester, N. O., Foster, R. L., & Kristensen, K. (1990). Measurement of pain in children: Generalizability and validity of the Pain Ladder and the Poker Chip tool. In Tyler, D.C., & Krane, E.J. (Eds.), Advances in pain research and therapy: Pediatric pain (vol. 15, pp. 79-84). New York: Raven Press.
  122. Hester, N.O., Foster, R., Kristensen, K., & Bergstrom, L. (1989). Measurement of children's pain by children, parents, and nurses: Psychometric and clinical issues related to the poker chip tool and the pain ladder. Generalizability of procedures assessing pain in children: Final report. Research funded by NIH, National Center for Nursing Research under Grant Number NR01382. [Available from, N.O. Hester, Center for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80262.]
  123. Hewlett, A.M., & Branthwaite, M.A. (1975). Postoperative pulmonary function. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 47, 102-107. [PubMed: 1096910]
  124. Hodsman, N.B., Burns, J., Blyth, A., Kenny, G.N., McArdle, C.S., & Rotman, H. (1987). The morphine sparing effects of diclofenac sodium following abdominal surgery. Anaesthesia, 42, 1005-1008. [PubMed: 3118730]
  125. Horan, J.J., Laying, F.C., & Pursell, C.H. (1976). Preliminary study of effects of in vivo emotive imagery on dental discomfort. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 42, 105-106. [PubMed: 768895]
  126. Horowitz, B.F., Fitzpatrick, J.J., & Flaherty, G.G. (1984). Relaxation techniques for pain relief after open heart surgery. Dimensions in Critical Care Nursing, 3, 364-371. [PubMed: 6389064]
  127. Houde, R.W. (1982). Methods for measuring clinical pain in humans. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 74 (Suppl), 25-29. [PubMed: 6953733]
  128. Hunt, S.P., Pini, A., & Evan, G. (1987). Induction of c-fos-like protein in spinal cord neurons following sensory stimulation. Nature, 328, 632- 634. [PubMed: 3112583]
  129. International Association for the Study of Pain. (1979). Pain terms: A list with definitions and notes on usage. Pain, 6, 249. [PubMed: 460932]
  130. International Association for the Study of Pain. (In press). Report of the task force on acute pain management.
  131. Jackson, D. (1989). A study of pain management: Patient controlled analgesia versus intramuscular analgesia. Journal of Intravenous Nursing, 12, 42-51. [PubMed: 2926558]
  132. Jackson, D.L., Moore, P.A., & Hargreaves, K.M. (1989). Pre-operative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication for the prevention of postoperative dental pain. Journal of the American Dental Association, 119, 641-647. [PubMed: 2691542]
  133. Jacox, A.K. (Ed.). (1977). Pain: A sourcebook for nurses and other health professionals. Boston: Little, Brown.
  134. Jay, S.M., Elliot, C. Elliott, C.H., Ozolins, M., Olson, R., & Pruitt, S. (1985). Behavioral management of children's distress during painful medical procedures. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 23, 513-520. [PubMed: 4051924]
  135. Jay, S.M., Ozolins, M., Elliott, C.H., & Caldwell, S. (1983). Assessment of children's distress during painful medical procedures. Health Psychology, 2, 133-147.
  136. Jensen, J.E., Conn, R.R., Hazelrigg, G., & Hewett, J.E. (1985). The use of transcutaneous neural stimulation and isokinetic testing in arthroscopic knee surgery. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, 27- 33. [PubMed: 3872082]
  137. John, M.E. Jr., & Parrino, J.P. (1983). Practical hypnotic suggestion in ophthalmic surgery. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 96, 540-542. [PubMed: 6624836]
  138. Johnson, J., Fuller, S., Endress, P., & Rice, V. (1978). Altering patients' responses to surgery: An extension and replication. Research in Nursing and Health, 1, 111-121. [PubMed: 254274]
  139. Johnson, J., Rice, V., Fuller, S., & Endress, P. (1978). Sensory information, instruction in a coping strategy, and recovery from surgery. Research in Nursing and Health, 1, 4- 17. [PubMed: 349614]
  140. Johnson, J.E., Kirchhoff, K., & Endress, M.P. (1975). Altering children's distress behavior during orthopedic cast removal. Nursing Research, 24, 404-410. [PubMed: 1042713]
  141. Johnston, C.C., Bevan, J.C., Haig, M.J., Kirnon, V., & Tousignant, G. (1988). Parental presence during anesthesia induction. Association of Operating Room Nurses Journal, 47, 187-194. [PubMed: 3341727]
  142. Johnston, C.C., Jeans, M.E., Abbott, F.V., Grey-Donald, K., & Edgar, L. (1988). A survey of pain in hospitalized children: Preliminary results [abstract, p. 80]. In Tyler, D., & Krane, E. (Chairs), Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Pediatric Pain. New York: Raven Press.
  143. Jonsson, A., Cassuto, J., & Hanson, B. (1991). Inhibition of burn pain by intravenous lignocaine infusion. Lancet, 338, 151-152. [PubMed: 1677068]
  144. Kaiko, R.F. (1980). Age and morphine analgesia in cancer patients with post-operative pain. Clinical Pharmacology Therapeutics, 28, 823-826. [PubMed: 7438698]
  145. Kaiko, R.F., Foley, K.M., Grabinski, P.Y., Heidrich, G., Rogers, A.G., Inturissi, C.E., & Reidenberg, M.M. (1983). Central nervous system excitatory effects of meperidine in cancer patients. Annals of Neurology, 13, 180-185. [PubMed: 6187275]
  146. Kaiko, R.F., Wallenstein, S.L., Rogers, A.G., Grabinski, P.Y., & Houde, R.W. (1982). Narcotics in the elderly. Medical Clinics of North America, 66, 1079-1089. [PubMed: 7132470]
  147. Kallos, T., & Caruso, F.S. (1979). Respiratory effects of butorphanol and pethidine. Anaesthesia, 34, 633-637. [PubMed: 517715]
  148. Kane, R.L., Ouslander, J.G., & Abrass, I.B. (Eds.). (1989). Essentials of clinical geriatrics (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  149. Kaplan, J.A., Miller, E.D. Jr., & Gallagher, E.G. Kaplan, J.A., Miller, E.D. Jr., & Gallagher, E.G. Jr. (1975). Postoperative analgesia for thoracotomy patients. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 54, 773-777. [PubMed: 1239216]
  150. Katz, E.R., Kellerman, J., & Siegel, S.E. (1980). Behavioral distress in children with cancer undergoing medical procedures: Developmental considerations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 356- 365. [PubMed: 7381095]
  151. Kavanagh, C. (1983a). A new approach to dressing change in the severely burned child and its effects on burn-related psychopathology. Heart and Lung, 12, 612-619. [PubMed: 6556175]
  152. Kavanagh, C. (1983b). Psychological intervention with the severely burned child: Report of an experimental comparison of two approaches and their effects on psychological sequelae. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 22, 145- 156. [PubMed: 6841835]
  153. Kehlet, H. (1982). The endocrine-metabolic response to postoperative pain. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 74 (Suppl), 173-175. [PubMed: 6953731]
  154. Kehlet, H. (1989a). Postoperative pain. In Committee on Pre- and Postoperative Care, American College of Surgeons, Care of the surgical patient (vol. 1, pp. 3-12). New York: Scientific American Medicine.
  155. Kehlet, H. (1989b). Surgical stress: The role of pain and analgesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 63, 189-195. [PubMed: 2669908]
  156. Kehlet, H., Brandt, M.R., & Rem, J. (1980). Role of neurogenic stimuli in mediating the endocrine-metabolic response to surgery. Journal of Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition, 4, 152-156. [PubMed: 6995626]
  157. Kelley, M.L., Jarvie, G.J., Middlebrook, J.L., McNeer, M.F., & Drabman, R.S. (1984). Decreasing burned children's pain behavior: Impacting the trauma of hydrotherapy. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 17, 147-158. [PMC free article: PMC1307930] [PubMed: 6735948]
  158. Kiefer, R.C., & Hospodarsky, J. (1980). The use of hypnotic technique in anesthesia to decrease postoperative meperidine requirements. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 79, 693-695. [PubMed: 7419443]
  159. Koehntop, D., Rodman, J., Brundage, D., Hegland, M., & Buckley, J. (1986). Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in neonates. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 65, 227-232. [PubMed: 3954090]
  160. Koren, G., Butt, W., Chinyanga, H., Soldin, S., & Pape, K. (1985). Postoperative morphine infusion in newborn infants: Assessment of disposition characteristics and safety. Journal of Pediatrics, 107, 963-967. [PubMed: 4067757]
  161. Lanham, R.H. Jr., Powell, S., & Hendrix, B.E. Lanham, R.H. Jr., Powell, S., & Hendrix, B.E. (1984). Efficacy of hypothermia and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in podiatric surgery. Journal of Foot Surgery, 23, 152-158. [PubMed: 6609950]
  162. Latimer, R.G., Dickman, M., Day, W.C., Gunn, M.L., & Schmidt, C.D. Latimer, R.G., Dickman, M., Day, W.C., Gunn, M.L., & Schmidt, C.D. (1971). Ventilatory patterns and pulmonary complications after upper abdominal surgery determined by preoperative and postoperative computerized spirometry and blood gas analysis. American Journal of Surgery, 122, 622-632. [PubMed: 4939329]
  163. Lawlis, G.F., Selby, D., Hinnant, D., & McCoy, C.E. (1985). Reduction of postoperative pain parameters by presurgical relaxation instructions for spinal pain patients. Spine, 10, 649-651. [PubMed: 3906935]
  164. LeBaron, S., & Zeltzer, L. (1984). Assessment of acute pain and anxiety in children and adolescents by self-reports, observer reports, and a behavior checklist. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 729-738. [PubMed: 6501658]
  165. Lee, M., Itoh, M., Yang, G.W., & Eason, A.L. (1990). Physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. In Bonica, J.J. (Ed.), The management of pain (2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 1769-1788). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
  166. Levin, R.F., Malloy, G.B., & Hyman, R.B. (1987). Nursing management of postoperative pain: Use of relaxation techniques with female cholecystectomy patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 12, 463-472. [PubMed: 3308992]
  167. Liu, Y.C., Liao, W.S., & Lien, I.N. (1985). Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for post-thoracotomic pain. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 84, 801-809. [PubMed: 3877785]
  168. Locsin, R.G. (1981). The effect of music on the pain of selected post-operative patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 6, 19-25. [PubMed: 6908593]
  169. Lynn, A.M., Opheim, K.E., & Tyler, D.C. (1984). Morphine infusion after pediatric cardiac surgery. Critical Care Medicine, 12, 863-866. [PubMed: 6435955]
  170. Lynn, A.M., & Slattery, J.T. (1987). Morphine pharmacokinetics in early infancy. Anesthesiology, 66, 136-139. [PubMed: 3813075]
  171. Madden, C., Singer, G., Peck, C., & Nayman, J. (1978). The effect of EMG biofeedback on postoperative pain following abdominal surgery. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 6, 333-336. [PubMed: 153716]
  172. Marks, R.M., & Sachar, E.J. (1973). Undertreatment of medical inpatients with narcotic analgesics. Annals of Internal Medicine, 78, 173-181. [PubMed: 4683747]
  173. Marshall, B.E., & Wyche, M.Q. Jr. (1972). Hypoxemia during and after anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 37, 178-209. [PubMed: 4559455]
  174. Martens, M. (1982). A significant decrease of narcotic drug dosage after orthopaedic surgery. A double-blind study with naproxen. Acta Orthopaedica Belgica, 48, 900-906. [PubMed: 7164807]
  175. Mather, L., & Mackie, J. (1983). The incidence of postoperative pain in children. Pain, 15, 271-282. [PubMed: 6134266]
  176. Maunuksela, E.L., & Korpela, R. (1986). Double-blind evaluation of a lignocaine-prilocaine cream (EMLA) in children. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 58, 1242-1245. [PubMed: 3535860]
  177. Max, M.B., Inturrisi, C.E., Kaiko, R.F., Grabinski, P.Y., Li, C.H., & Foley, K.M. (1985). Epidural and intrathecal opiates: Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma profiles in patients with chronic cancer pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 38, 631-641. [PubMed: 2415286]
  178. Maxwell, L., Yaster, M., Wetzel, R., & Niebyl, J. (1987). Penile nerve block for newborn circumcision. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 70, 415-419. [PubMed: 3627593]
  179. McCaffery, M., & Beebe, A. (1989). Pain: Clinical manual for nursing practice. St. Louis:, C.V. Mosby.
  180. McGrath, D., Thurston, N., Wright, D., Preshaw, R., & Fermin, P. (1989). Comparison of one technique of patient-controlled postoperative analgesia with intramuscular meperidine. Pain, 37, 265-270. [PubMed: 2755708]
  181. McGrath, M.M. (1979). Group preparation of pediatric surgical patients. Image, 11, 52-62. [PubMed: 255428]
  182. McGrath, P.A. (1990). Pain in children: Nature, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.
  183. McGrath, P.A., de Veber, L.L., & Hearn, M.T. (1985). Multidimensional pain assessment in children. In Fields, H.L., Dubner, R., & Cervero, F. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth World Conference on Pain. Advances in pain research and therapy (vol. 9, pp. 387-393). New York: Raven Press.
  184. McGrath, P.J., Johnson, G., Goodman, J.T., Schillinger, J., Dunn, J., & Chapman, J. (1985). CHEOPS: A behavioral scale for rating postoperative pain in children. In Fields, H.L., Dubner, R., & Cervero, F. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth World Conference on Pain. Advances in pain research and therapy (vol. 9, pp. 395-402). New York: Raven Press.
  185. McGrath, P.J., & Unruh, A.M. (1987). Pain in children and adolescents. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  186. McQuay, H. (1989). Opioids in chronic pain. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 63, 213-226. [PubMed: 2669911]
  187. McQuay, H.J., Carroll, D., & Moore, R.A. (1988). Postoperative orthopaedic pain: The effect of opiate premedication and local anaesthetic blocks. Pain, 33, 291-295. [PubMed: 3419836]
  188. Meignier, M., Souron, R., & LeNeel, J.C. (1983). Postoperative dorsal epidural analgesia in the child with respiratory disabilities. Anesthesiology, 59, 473-475. [PubMed: 6638559]
  189. Merskey, H. (1964). An investigation of pain in psychological illness. D.M. Thesis, Oxford.
  190. Modig, J., Borg, T., Bagge, L., & Saldeen, T. (1983). Role of extradural and of general anaesthesia in fibrinolysis and coagulation after total hip replacement. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 55, 625-629. [PubMed: 6409135]
  191. Modig, J., Borg, T., Karlstrom, G., Maripuu, E., & Sahlstedt, B. (1983). Thromboembolism after total hip replacement: Role of epidural and general anesthesia. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 62, 174-180. [PubMed: 6829920]
  192. Mogan, J., Wells, N., & Robertson, E. (1985). Effects of preoperative teaching on postoperative pain: A replication and expansion. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 22, 267-280. [PubMed: 3899964]
  193. Moon, M.H., & Gibbs, J.M. (1984). The control of postoperative pain by EMG biofeedback in patients undergoing hysterectomy. New Zealand Medical Journal, 97, 643-646. [PubMed: 6382079]
  194. Mullooly, V.M., Levin, R.F., & Feldman, H.R. (1988). Music for postoperative pain and anxiety. Journal of the NY State Nurses Association, 19, 4-7. [PubMed: 3058899]
  195. Nagashima, H., Karamanian, A., Malovany, R., Radnay, P., Ang, M., Koerner, S., & Foldes, F.F. (1976). Respiratory and circulatory effects of intravenous butorphanol and morphine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 19, 738-745. [PubMed: 773585]
  196. Nahata, M., Clotz, M., & Krogg, E. (1985). Adverse effects of meperidine, promethazine, and chlorpromazine for sedation in pediatric patients. Clinical Pediatrics, 24, 558-560. [PubMed: 4028614]
  197. National Health and Medical Research Council [Australia]. National Health and Medical Research Council [Australia]. (1988). Management of severe pain. Canberra, Australia: National Health and Medical Research Council.
  198. National Institutes of Health. (1987). The integrated approach to the management of pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 2, 35-44. [PubMed: 3644857]
  199. Neary, J. (1981). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the relief of post-incisional surgical pain. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, 149, 151-155. [PubMed: 6111884]
  200. Oden, R. (1989). Acute postoperative pain: Incidence, severity, and the etiology of inadequate treatment. Anesthesiology Clinics of North America, 7, 1-15.
  201. Olness, K. (1981). Imagery (self-hypnosis) as adjunct therapy in childhood cancer: Clinical experience with 25 patients. The American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 3, 313-321. [PubMed: 7283097]
  202. Patel, J.M., Lanzafame, R.J., Williams, J.S., Mullen, B.V., & Hinshaw, J.R. (1983). The effect of incisional infiltration of bupivacaine hydrochloride upon pulmonary functions, atelectasis, and narcotic need following elective cholecystectomy. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, 157, 338-340. [PubMed: 6623324]
  203. Peebles, R.J., & Schneidman, D.S. (1991). Socio-Economic Factbook for Surgery, 1991- 92. Chicago: American College of Surgeons.
  204. Pettine, K.A., Wedel, D.J., Cabanela, M.E., & Weeks, J.L. (1989). The use of epidural bupivacaine following total knee arthroplasty. Orthopedic Review, 18, 894-901. [PubMed: 2771438]
  205. Phillips, G.D., & Cousins, M.J. (1986). Practical decision making. In Cousins, J.M. & Phillips, G.D. (Eds.), Acute pain management (pp. 275- 290). New York: Churchill Livingstone.
  206. Pickett, C., & Clum, G.A. (1982). Comparative treatment strategies and their interaction with locus of control in the reduction of postsurgical pain and anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 439-441. [PubMed: 7047601]
  207. Portenoy, R.K., & Payne, R. (In press). Acute and chronic pain. In Lowinson, J.H., Ruit, P., Milman, R., & Langvod, J. (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of substance abuse. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
  208. Porter, J., & Jick, H. (1980). Addiction rare in patients treated with narcotics [letter]. New England Journal of Medicine, 302, 123. [PubMed: 7350425]
  209. Przewlocki, R., Haarmann, I., Nikolarakis, K., Herz, A., & Hollt, V. (1988). (1988). Prodynorphin gene expression in spinal cord is enhanced after traumatic injury in the rat. Brain Research, 464, 37-41. [PubMed: 2460195]
  210. Purcell-Jones, G., Dormon, F., & Sumner, E. (1987). The use of opioids in neonates. A retrospective study of 933 cases. Anaesthesia, 42, 1316-1320. [PubMed: 3324818]
  211. Purcell-Jones, G., Dormon, F., & Sumner, E. (1988). Paediatric anaesthetists' perceptions of neonatal and infant pain. Pain, 33, 181- 187. [PubMed: 3380558]
  212. Pybus, D.A., D'Bras, B.E., Goulding, G., Liberman, H., & Torda, T.A. (1983). Postoperative analgesia for haemorrhoid surgery. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 11, 27-30. [PubMed: 6859504]
  213. Quay, N.B., & Alexander, L.L. (1983). Preparation of burned children and their families for discharge. The Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, 4, 288-290.
  214. Rawal, N., & Sjostrand, U.H. (1986). Clinical application of epidural and intrathecal opioids for pain management. International Anesthesiology Clinics, 24, 43-57. [PubMed: 2423461]
  215. Reading, A.E. (1982). The effects of psychological preparation on pain and recovery after minor gynecological surgery: A preliminary report. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 504-512. [PubMed: 6213641]
  216. Ready, L.B., Oden, R., Chadwick, H.S., Bendetti, C., Rooke, G.A., Caplan, R., & Wild, L.M. (1988). Development of an anesthesiology-based postoperative pain service. Anesthesiology, 68, 100-106. [PubMed: 3337359]
  217. Reay, B.A., Semple, A.J., Macrae, W.A., MacKenzie, N., & Grant, I.S. (1989). Low-dose intrathecal diamorphine analgesia following major orthopaedic surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 62, 248-252. [PubMed: 2649122]
  218. Rooney, S.M., Jain, S., McCormack, P., Bains, M., Martini, N., & Goldiner, P. (1986). A comparison of pulmonary function tests for postthoracotomy pain using cryoanalgesia and transcutaneous nerve stimulation. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 41, 204-207. [PubMed: 3484939]
  219. Rosen, H., Absi, E.G., & Webster, J.A. (1985). Suprofen compared to dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride and paracetamol (Cosalgesic) after extraction of wisdom teeth under general anesthesia. Anaesthesia, 40, 639-641. [PubMed: 3896016]
  220. Ross, D.M. (1984). Thought-stopping: A coping strategy for impending feared events. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 7, 83-89. [PubMed: 6378844]
  221. Roth, S.H. (1989). Merits and liabilities of NSAID therapy. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America, 15, 479-498. [PubMed: 2672133]
  222. Royal College of Surgeons of England, the College of Anesthetists. (1990). Report of the Working Party on Pain After Surgery. London: Royal College of Surgeons.
  223. Ryan, E. (1989). The effect of musical distraction on pain in hospitalized school-aged children. In Funk, W., Tournquist, E., Champagne, M., Copp, L., & Wiese, R. (Eds.), Key aspects of comfort: Management of pain, fatigue, and nausea (pp. 101-104). New York: Springer.
  224. Sabanathan, S., Mearns, A.J., Bickford Smith, P.J., Eng, J., Berrisford, R.G., Bibby, S.R., & Majid, M.R. (1990). Efficacy of continuous extrapleural intercostal nerve block on post-thoracotomy pain and pulmonary mechanics. British Journal of Surgery, 77, 221-225. [PubMed: 2180536]
  225. Savedra, M., Gibbons, P., Tesler, M., Ward, J., & Wegner, C. (1982). How do children describe pain? A tentative assessment. Pain, 14, 95-104. [PubMed: 7177680]
  226. Savedra, M.C., Tesler, M.D., Holzemer, W.L., & Ward, J.A. (1989). Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT) preliminary user's manual. San Francisco: University of California. [Available from, M.C. Savedra, UCSF School of Nursing, San Francisco, CA 94143-0606.]
  227. Schechter, N.L. (1989). The undertreatment of pain in children: An overview. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 36, 781-794. [PubMed: 2666929]
  228. Schechter, N.L., & Allen, D.A. (1986). Physician's attitudes toward pain in children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 7, 350-354. [PubMed: 2879855]
  229. Schechter, N.L., Bernstein, B.A., Beck, A., Hart, L., & Sherzer, L. (1991). Individual differences in children's response to pain: Role of temperament and parental characteristics. Pediatrics, 87, 171-177. [PubMed: 1987527]
  230. Schmitt, F., & Wooldridge, P.J. (1973). Psychological preparation of surgical patients. Nursing Research, 22, 108-116. [PubMed: 4487951]
  231. Schnurrer, J.A., Marvin, J.A., & Heimbach, D.M. (1985). Evaluation of pediatric pain medications. Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, 6, 105-107. [PubMed: 3855187]
  232. Schofield, N., & White, J. (1989). Interrelations among children, parents, premedication, and anaesthetists in paediatric day stay surgery. British Medical Journal, 299, 1371-1375. [PMC free article: PMC1838241] [PubMed: 2513966]
  233. Scott, J., & Huskisson, E.C. (1976). Graphic representation of pain. Pain, 2, 175-184. [PubMed: 1026900]
  234. Scott, N.B., Mogensen, T., Bigler, D., & Kehlet, H. (1989). Comparison of the effects of continuous intrapleural vs epidural administration of 0.5% bupivacaine on pain, metabolic response and pulmonary function following cholecystectomy. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 33, 535-539. [PubMed: 2683541]
  235. Sear, J.W., Hand, C.W., Moore, R.A., & McQuay, H.J. (1989). Studies on morphine disposition: Influence of renal failure on the kinetics of morphine and its metabolites. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 62, 28-32. [PubMed: 2644963]
  236. Shaw, E., & Routh, D. (1982). Effect of mothers' presence on children's reaction to aversive procedures. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 7, 33-42. [PubMed: 7108685]
  237. Shulman, M., Sandler, A.N., Bradley, J.W., Young, P.S., & Brebner, J. (1984). Postthoracotomy pain and pulmonary function following epidural and systemic morphine. Anesthesiology, 61, 569-575. [PubMed: 6496995]
  238. Siegel, L., & Peterson, L. (1980). Stress reduction in young dental patients through coping skills and sensory information. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 785-787. [PubMed: 7440838]
  239. Siegel, L., & Peterson, L. (1981). Maintenance effects of coping skills and sensory information on young children's response to repeated dental procedures. Behavior Therapy, 12, 530-535.
  240. Sjogren, P., & Banning, A. (1989). Pain, sedation, and reaction time during long-term treatment of cancer patients with oral and epidural opioids. Pain, 39, 5-11. [PubMed: 2812854]
  241. Skacel, P.O., Hewlett, A.M., Lewis, J.D., Lamb, M., Nunn, J.F., & Chanarin, I.haemopoetic.
  242. Smith, C.M., Guralnick, M.S., Gelfand, M.M., & Jeans, M.E. (1986). The effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on post-cesarean pain. Pain, 27, 181-193. [PubMed: 3540813]
  243. Smith, M.J., Hutchins, R.C., & Hehenberger, D. (1983). Transcutaneous neural stimulation use in postoperative knee rehabilitation. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 11, 75-82. [PubMed: 6601917]
  244. Snow, B.R. (1985). The use of hypnosis in the management of preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain in a patient undergoing laminectomy. Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Disease Orthopaedic Institute, 45, 143-149. [PubMed: 3000494]
  245. Soderstrom, C.A., Trifillis, A.L., Shankar, B.S., Clark, W.E., & Cowley, R.A. (1988). Marijuana and alcohol use among 1023 trauma patients. A prospective study. Archives of Surgery, 123, 733-777. [PubMed: 2835941]
  246. Solomon, R., Viernstein, M., & Long, D. (1980). Reduction of postoperative pain and narcotic use by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Surgery, 87, 142-146. [PubMed: 6965549]
  247. Sriwatanakul, K., Kelvie, W., & Lasagna, L. (1982). The quantification of pain: An analysis of words used to describe pain and analgesia in clinical trials. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 32, 143-148. [PubMed: 7094502]
  248. Sriwatanakul, K., Kelvie, W., Lasagna, L., Calimlim, J., Weis, O., & Mehta, G. (1983). Studies with different types of visual analog scales for measurement of pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 34, 234-239. [PubMed: 6872418]
  249. Sriwatanakul, K., Weis, O.F., Alloza, J.L., Kelvie, W., Weintraub, M., & Lasagna, L. (1983). Analysis of narcotic usage in the treatment of postoperative pain. Journal of the American Medical Association, 250, 926-929. [PubMed: 6134850]
  250. Stevens, B. (1990). Development and testing of a pediatric pain management sheet. Pediatric Nursing, 16, 543-548. [PubMed: 2082269]
  251. Swinford, P. (1987). Relaxation and positive imagery for the surgical patient: A research study. Perioperative Nursing Quarterly, 3, 9-16. [PubMed: 3306655]
  252. Sydow, F.W. (1989). The influence of anesthesia and postoperative analgesic management on lung function. Acta Chiurgica Scandinavica, 550 (Suppl), 159-165. [PubMed: 2652967]
  253. Syrjala, K.L. (1990). Relaxation techniques. In Bonica, J.J. (Ed.), The management of pain (vol. 2, pp. 1742-1750). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
  254. Szeto, H., Inturrisi, C., Houde, R., Saal, S., Cheigh, J., & Reidenberg, M.M. (1977). Accumulation of normeperidine, an active metabolite of meperidine, in patients with renal failure of cancer. Annals of Internal Medicine, 86, 738-741. [PubMed: 869353]
  255. Taylor, A.G., West, B.A., Simon, B., Skelton, J., & Rowlingson, J.C. (1983). How effective is TENS for acute pain? American Journal of Nursing, 83, 1171-1174. [PubMed: 6603794]
  256. Tesler, M.D., Savedra, M.C., Holzemer, W.L., Wilkie, D.J., Ward, J.A., & Paul, S.M. (1991). The word-graphic rating scale as a measure of children's and adolescents' pain intensity. Research in Nursing and Health, 14, 361-371. [PubMed: 1891622]
  257. Toledo-Pereyra, L.H., & DeMeester, T.R. (1979). Prospective randomized evaluation of intrathoracic intercostal nerve block with bupivacaine on postoperative ventilatory function. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 27, 203-205. [PubMed: 453982]
  258. Tree-Trakarn, T., Pirayavaraporn, S., & Lertakyamanee, J. (1987). Topical analgesia for relief of post-circumcision pain. Anesthesiology, 67, 395-399. [PubMed: 3307532]
  259. Triplett, J.L., & Arneson, S.W. (1979). The use of verbal and tactile comfort to alleviate distress in young hospitalized children. Research in Nursing and Health, 2, 17- 23. [PubMed: 254278]
  260. Van Aernam, B., & Lindeman, C. (1971). Nursing intervention with the presurgical patient: The effects of structured and unstructured preoperative teaching. Nursing Research, 20, 319-332. [PubMed: 4103875]
  261. VanderArk, G., & McGrath, K. (1975). Transcutaneous electrical stimulation in treatment of postoperative pain. The American Journal of Surgery, 130, 338-340. [PubMed: 1101719]
  262. Ventafridda, V., Ripamonti, C., DeConno, F., Bianchi, M., Pazzuconi, F., & Panerai, A.E. (1987). Antidepressants increase bioavailability of morphine in cancer patients (Letter to the Editor). Lancet, 1, 1204. [PubMed: 2437418]
  263. Visintainer, M., & Wolfer, J. (1975). Psychological preparation for surgical pediatric patients: The effects on children's and parents' stress responses and adjustment. Pediatrics, 56, 187-202. [PubMed: 1161368]
  264. Voshall, B. (1980). The effects of preoperative teaching on postoperative pain. Topics in Clinical Nursing, 2, 39-43. [PubMed: 6901414]
  265. Wall, P.D. (1988). The prevention of postoperative pain. Pain, 33, 289-290. [PubMed: 3419835]
  266. Warfield, C., Stein, J., & Frank, H. (1985). The effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain after thoracotomy. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 39, 462-465. [PubMed: 2859841]
  267. Wasylak, T.J., Abbott, F.V., English, M.J., & Jeans, M.E. (1990). Reduction of postoperative morbidity following patient-controlled morphine. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, 37, 726-731. [PubMed: 2225288]
  268. Wattwil, M. (1989). Postoperative pain relief and gastrointestinal motility. Acta Chiurgica Scandinavica, 550 (Suppl), 140-145. [PubMed: 2652965]
  269. Way, W.L., Costley, E.C., & Way, E.L. (1965). Respiratory sensitivity of the newborn infant to meperidine and morphine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 6, 454-461. [PubMed: 14314968]
  270. Weekes, D., & Savedra, M. (1988). Adolescent cancer: Coping with treatment-related pain. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 3, 318-328. [PubMed: 3171896]
  271. Weissman, D.E., & Haddox, J.D. (1989). Opioid pseudoaddiction: An iatrogenic syndrome. Pain, 36, 363-366. [PubMed: 2710565]
  272. Wells, N. (1982). The effect of relaxation on postoperative muscle tension and pain. Nursing Research, 31, 236-238. [PubMed: 7048260]
  273. Wigram, J.R., Lewith, G.T., Machin, D., & Church, J.J. (1986). Electroacupuncture for postoperative pain. Physiotherapy Practice, 2, 83-88.
  274. Wolfer, J., & Visintainer, M. (1979). Prehospital psychological preparation for tonsillectomy patients: Effects on children's and parents' adjustment. Pediatrics, 64, 646-655. [PubMed: 492840]
  275. Wood, M.M., & Cousins, M.J. (1989). Iatrogenic neurotoxicity in cancer patients. Pain, 39, 1-3. [PubMed: 2812846]
  276. Woolf, C.J., & Wall, P.D. (1986). Morphine-sensitive and morphine-insensitive actions of C-fibre input on the rat spinal cord. Neuroscience Letters, 64, 221-225. [PubMed: 3960401]
  277. Yaster, M. (1987). The dose response of fentanyl in neonatal anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 66, 433-435. [PubMed: 3826708]
  278. Zeltzer, L.K., Altman, A., Cohen, D., LeBaron, S., Maunuksela, E.L., & Schechter, N.L. (1990). American Academy of Pediatrics: Report of the Subcommittee on Management of Pain Associated with Procedures in Children with Cancer. Pediatrics, 86, Suppl. 5, 826-831. [PubMed: 2216645]
  279. Zeltzer, L.K., Jay, S.M., & Fisher, D.M. (1989). The management of pain associated with pediatric procedures. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 36, 941-964. [PubMed: 2569184]
  280. Zeltzer, L., & LeBaron, S. (1982). Hypnosis and nonhypnotic techniques for reduction of pain and anxiety during painful procedures in children and adolescents with cancer. Journal of Pediatrics, 101, 1032-1035. [PubMed: 7143158]
Bookshelf ID: NBK52147


  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...