Synonym: chromosome rearrangement

A chromosome alteration in which a whole chromosome or segment of a chromosome becomes attached to or interchanged with another whole chromosome or segment

Balanced translocations (in which there is no apparent net loss or gain of chromosome material) are usually not associated with phenotypic abnormalities, although gene disruptions at the breakpoints of the translocation can, in some cases, cause adverse effects, including some known genetic disorders.

Unbalanced translocations (in which there is loss or gain of chromosome material) are nearly always associated with an abnormal phenotype.

Balanced and unbalanced translocations can be visualized by karyotype analysis; chromosomal microarray (CMA) cannot detect balanced translocations.