Table 12.1Characteristics of included studies on diagnostic value of clinical examination

Study and ELStudy characteristicsPopulation characteristicsSample size (% of study population)Timing of screening test with threshold(s) (prevalence of test positive)Outcome in weeks (incidence of SPTB)Diagnostic value with 95% CI
Bais (2004)916 (Netherlands)
Retrospective analysis of database of a geographical cohort, blinding not specified.All low-risk singleton pregnancies with confirmed GA by US at 20 weeks
Exclusions: women who delivered between 16–20 weeks, gave birth to infant < 500 g, multiple pregnancies
Abdominal palpation by midwives after 20 weeks till referral or delivery (frequency not specified) Threshold: clinical judgementBW < 10th centile for SGA and < 2.3rd centile for severe SGA
(8.5% SGA, 1.5% severe SGA)
For SGA: ST 0.21 (0.18–0.24), SP 0.96 (0.95–0.96), LR+ 5.19 (4.23–6.37), LR− 0.82 (0.79–0.86)
Secher (1990)917 (Denmark)
Retrospective cohort, single centre, blinding not specified.Randomly selected singleton pregnancies with confirmed GA by US at 16–18 weeks.
Exclusions: pregnancies complicated by diabetes or severe blood group incompatibilities.
(Not specified)
Once a week from 33–36 weeks, study sample with more than 3 measurements. EFW calculated and EFW curve generated using modelling. Threshold: Last EFW value < 10th centile, and EFW curve < 10th centile.BW < 85% of expected for GA (or < 9.4th centile for GA).For EFW value < 10th centile: ST 0.45 (0.32–0.58), SP 0.91 (0.87–0.95), LR+ 4.82 (2.69–8.78), LR− 0.61 (0.48–0.77)
For EFW curve< 10th centile: ST 0.38 (0.26–0.50), SP 0.92 (0.88–0.96)

From: 12, Fetal growth and wellbeing

Cover of Antenatal Care
Antenatal Care: Routine Care for the Healthy Pregnant Woman.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 62.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2008 Mar.
Copyright © 2008, National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health.

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