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Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2006-.

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Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet].

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Last Revision: February 15, 2021.

Estimated reading time: 2 minutes

CASRN: 15307-86-5

image 134992838 in the ncbi pubchem database

Drug Levels and Effects

Summary of Use during Lactation

Data on excretion of diclofenac into milk are poor, but the drug has a short half-life and little glucuronide metabolite formation. Most reviewers consider diclofenac to be acceptable during breastfeeding.[1-5] Other agents having more published information may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.[6]

Maternal use of diclofenac topical gel or eye drops would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. To substantially diminish the amount of drug that reaches the breastmilk after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.

Drug Levels

No original data on the excretion of diclofenac into milk are available. Data are limited to those reported in review articles in which no study details are reported.

Diclofenac was undetectable (<100 mcg/L) in the breastmilk over a 6-hour period after a 50 mg intramuscular injection in 6 women.[7,8]

Six mothers were given oral diclofenac 100 mg daily orally for one week postpartum. The drug was undetectable(<10 mcg/L) in milk of any of 59 samples of milk collected (collection times unspecified).[8]

A woman treated with 150 mg daily of diclofenac had a breastmilk diclofenac level of 100 mcg/L, equivalent to about 0.03 mg/kg daily for the infant.[9]

Effects in Breastfed Infants

In one study, 30 mothers undergoing elective cesarean section were allowed to use 25 mg diclofenac suppositories along with either spinal or spinal and epidural anesthesia with a local anesthetic after delivery. The spinal anesthetic group used an average of 56 mg of diclofenac on the day of delivery and 33 mg on the next day whereas the women receiving both spinal and epidural anesthesia used 21 and 18 mg. No mention was made of adverse effects on the breastfed infants.[10]

A breastfed infant developed urticaria on day 15 of life. Her mother had been taking diclofenac (dosage unspecified) for pain since her cesarean section delivery. Diclofenac is a possible cause of the urticaria; however, the infant had also received hepatitis B vaccination 7 days before and the authors thought that it was a more likely cause of the reaction.[11]

Effects on Lactation and Breastmilk

Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.

Alternate Drugs to Consider

(Systemic) Acetaminophen, Flurbiprofen, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin, Naproxen, Piroxicam


Brooks PM, Needs CJ. Antirheumatic drugs in pregnancy and lactation. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol. 1990;4:157–71. [PubMed: 2282661]
Østensen ME. Safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and lactation. Inflammopharmacology. 1996;4:31–41. [CrossRef]
Spigset O, Hägg S. Analgesics and breast-feeding: Safety considerations. Paediatr Drugs. 2000;2:223–38. [PubMed: 10937472]
Janssen NM, Genta MS. The effects of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory medications on fertility, pregnancy and lactation. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:610–9. [PubMed: 10724046]
MacGregor EA. Migraine in pregnancy and lactation. Neurol Sci. 2014;35 Suppl 1:61–4. [PubMed: 24867839]
Davanzo R, Bua J, Paloni G, et al. Breastfeeding and migraine drugs. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2014;70:1313–24. [PubMed: 25217187]
Fowler PD. Voltarol: Diclofenac sodium. Clin Rheum Dis. 1979;5:427–64.
Sioufi A, Stierlin H, Schweizer A, et al. Recent findings concerning clinically relevant pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium. In, Kåss E. Voltaren--new findings. Bern. Hans Huber Publishers. 1982:19-30.
Todd PA, Sorkin EM. Diclofenac sodium. A reappraisal of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1988;35:244–85. [PubMed: 3286213]
Hirose M, Hara Y, Hosokawa T, et al. The effect of postoperative analgesia with continuous epidural bupivacaine after cesarean section on the amount of breast feeding and infant weight gain. Anesth Analg. 1996;82:1166–9. [PubMed: 8638785]
De Cerqueira AM, De Azevedo JO, Guimaraes MB, et al. Urticaria in a newborn. J Am Acad Dermatol 2009;60 (3 Suppl 1):Abstract 148. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2008.11.652. [CrossRef]

Substance Identification

Substance Name


CAS Registry Number


Drug Class

Breast Feeding


Analgesic Agents

Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Agents

Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for professional judgment. You should consult your healthcare provider for breastfeeding advice related to your particular situation. The U.S. government does not warrant or assume any liability or responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information on this Site.


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