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Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2006-.

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Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet].

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Rivaroxaban

Last Revision: November 16, 2020.

Estimated reading time: 2 minutes

CASRN: 366789-02-8

image 135213418 in the ncbi pubchem database

Drug Levels and Effects

Summary of Use during Lactation

Several case reports consistently indicate that maternal doses of rivaroxaban of 15 to 30 mg daily produce low levels in milk that are considerably below doses requied for anticoagulation in infants. If rivaroxaban is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. Because data are limited, monitor preterm or newborn infants for signs of bleeding.

Drug Levels

Maternal Levels. A 40-year-old woman developed bilateral pulmonary embolism and peripartum cardiomyopathy following cesarean section. She initially received enoxaparin, but was switched to oral rivaroxaban 15 mg twice daily after 2 days. On day 3 of rivaroxaban, complete milk collections from both breasts were obtained before and at 3, 6, and 10 hours after the morning dose. Blood samples were taken at the same times. The authors calculated that a fully breastfed infant would receive 2.4 mcg/kg over the 10-hour period, which would be 1.3% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage.[1]

A 38-year-old woman woman with antiphospholipid syndrome began rivaroxaban 15 mg (0.19 mg/kg) daily at 5 days postpartum for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis. On two separate days, 7 samples of milk were taken over a 24-hour period. Values were similar at the same times on each day. A mean peak value of 53.9 mcg/L occurred at 6 hours after the dose and the average milk concentration was 22.7 mcg/L. The half-life in milk was 4.7 hours. The estimated daily dose that a fully breastfed infant would receive was 3.4 mcg/kg daily, which corresponded to 1.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage.[2]

Two postpartum women were prescribed rivaroxaban, one for stroke and the other for a pulmonary embolism. Each began therapy with 15 mg twice daily for 21 days, then 20 mg daily. Both patients provided several steady-state milk samples over the dosage interval during each regimen. After the 15 mg dose, a mean peak value of 300 mcg/L occurred 1 hour after the dose and the average milk concentration was 160 mcg/L. The estimated daily dose that a fully breastfed infant would receive was 10 mcg/kg every 12 hours, which corresponded to 5% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. After the 20 mg dose, the mean peak value of 260 mcg/L occurred 2 hours after the dose and the average milk concentration was 70 mcg/L. The estimated daily dose that a fully breastfed infant would receive was 10 mcg/kg daily, which corresponded to 4% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage.[3]

Two nursing mothers who were 8 months postpartum received a single oral dose of 20 mg of rivaroxaban. Blood and milk samples were obtained before the dose and at 2.5, 6, 10, 12, and 24 hours after the dose. The peak rivaroxaban milk level of about 90 mcg/L occurred at 2.5 hours after the dose. The average milk level over 24 hours was 28.9 mcg/L, which corresponds to a daily infant dosage of 4.3 mcg/kg daily and a relative infant dose of 1.63% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. The daily dosage of rivaroxaban in milk is about 0.7% of the estimated infant daily dosage required for anticoagulation.[4]

Infant Levels. Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.

Effects in Breastfed Infants

A 38-year-old woman woman with antiphospholipid syndrome began rivaroxaban 15 mg (0.19 mg/kg) daily at 5 days postpartum for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis. She partially breast-fed her infant (at least 50%). No apparent evidence of bleeding was noted in the infant at 1- and 3-month check-ups and development was normal at 18 months of age.[2]

Effects on Lactation and Breastmilk

Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.

Alternate Drugs to Consider

Acenocoumarol, Dalteparin, Enoxaparin, Heparin, Warfarin

References

1.
Wiesen MH, Blaich C, Muller C, et al. The direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban passes into human breast milk. Chest. 2016;150:e1–4. [PubMed: 27396794]
2.
Saito J, Kaneko K, Yakuwa N, et al. Rivaroxaban concentration in breast milk during breastfeeding: A case study. Breastfeed Med. 2019;14:748–51. [PubMed: 31746638]
3.
Muysson M, Marshall K, Datta P, et al. Rivaroxaban treatment in two breastfeeding mothers: A case series. Breastfeed Med. 2020;15:41–3. [PubMed: 31532233]
4.
Zhao Y, Arya R, Couchman L, et al. Are apixaban and rivaroxaban distributed into human breast milk to clinically relevant concentrations? Blood. 2020;136:1783–5. [PubMed: 32488251]

Substance Identification

Substance Name

Rivaroxaban

CAS Registry Number

366789-02-8

Drug Class

Breast Feeding

Lactation

Anticoagulants

Antithrombins

Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for professional judgment. You should consult your healthcare provider for breastfeeding advice related to your particular situation. The U.S. government does not warrant or assume any liability or responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information on this Site.

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