Confounders

Please report all confounders controlled in the analyses reported in the following result section (adjusted results)

UI Author Year Confounder Groups Please List Name of Confounder (including matching factors) Specific comments for confounders
18541825 Giovannucci 2008 Other nutrients or dietary factors (e.g., certain food consumption), including supplement use and total energy intake Yes Marine O3 intake (adjusted)
Demographics (e.g., age, gender, race, education)? Yes Age (matched)
Gender (all male)
Ethnicity, white vs other (adjusted)
Anthropometrics (e.g., BMI, body weight, % body fat)? Yes BMI (adjusted)
Medical conditions Yes DM (adjusted)
HTN (adjusted)
Medication
Sunlight exposure and its proxy variables (e.g., physical activity level, occupation, sun exposure, location) Yes Physical activity (adjusted) US region (northeast, mid-Atlantic, Midwest, south) (adjusted) Month and year of blood draw (matched)
Smoking and other life styles variables Yes Smoking status (matched)
Alcohol intake (adjusted)
Other Yes Family history of MI<60 y (adjusted)
Baseline LDL-c (adjusted)
Baseline HDL-c (adjusted)
Triglycerides (adjusted)
*

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables: F-K

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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