Please report all confounders controlled in the analyses reported in the following result section (adjusted results)

UI Author Year Confounder Groups Please List Name of Confounder (including matching factors) Specific comments for confounders
18838623 Forman 2008 Other nutrients or dietary factors (e.g., certain food consumption), including supplement use and total energy intake Yes Ca, phosphorus, uric acid
Demographics (e.g., age, gender, race, education)? Yes * Age ** , race **
Anthropometrics (e.g., BMI, body weight, % body fat)? Yes * BMI
Medical conditions Yes Family history of hypertension
Medication Yes Oral contraceptive use, creatinine
Sunlight exposure and its proxy variables (e.g., seasonal variation of 25(OH)D, UV exposure, location)
Smoking and other life styles variables (e.g., physical activity, occupation, alcohol consumption) Yes * Physical activity
Other Yes Date of blood sample collection ** , day of menstrual cycle ** , time of day of the blood collection ** , PTH

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis


Matching factors

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables: F-K

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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