Confounders

Please report all confounders controlled in the analyses reported in the following result section (adjusted results)

UI Author Year Confounder Groups Please List Name of Confounder (including matching factors) Specific comments for confounders
16481636

18092326
Wactawski- Wende 2006
Ding 2008
Other nutrients or dietary factors (e.g., certain food consumption), including supplement use and total energy intake No significant interactions were found with any baseline characteristic examined. ([Shown in Figure 1] Baseline characteristics: age at screening, race or ethnic group, education, first-degree relative with colorectal cancer, history of poly removal, BMI, physical activity, total energy intake, energy from saturated fat, total calcium intake, total vitD intake, region according to solar irradiance, multivitamin use, smoking status, NSAID use, hormone therapy use, enrollment in WHI hormone therapy trials, enrollment in WHI dietary modification trail)
Demographics (e.g., age, gender, race, education)? Yes (age)
Anthropometrics (e.g., BMI, body weight, % body fat)? Yes
Medical conditions History of colorectal cancer
Medication
Sunlight exposure and its proxy variables (e.g., seasonal variation of 25(OH)D, UV exposure, location)
Smoking and other life styles variables (e.g., physical activity, occupation, alcohol consumption) Yes
Other Clinical center
*

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables: R-Z

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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