Confounders

Please report all confounders controlled in the analyses reported in the following result section (adjusted results)

UI Author Year Confounder Groups Please List Name of Confounder (including matching factors) Specific comments for confounders
14618623 Tuohimaa 2004 Other nutrients or dietary factors (e.g., certain food consumption), including supplement use and total energy intake nd
Demographics (e.g., age, gender, race, education)? yes age
Anthropometrics (e.g., BMI, body weight, % body fat)? no *
Medical conditions nd
Medication nd
Sunlight exposure and its proxy variables (e.g., physical activity level, occupation, sun exposure, location) yes region
Smoking and other life styles variables no *
Other
*

Please choose “yes” if any one of the confounders in this group was controlled in the analysis

From: Appendix C, Evidence Tables: R-Z

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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