NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Shekelle P, Munjas B, Liu H, et al. Screening Men for Osteoporosis: Who & How [Internet]. Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2007 May.

Cover of Screening Men for Osteoporosis

Screening Men for Osteoporosis: Who & How [Internet].

Show details

REFERENCES

1.
Morris CA, Cabral D, Cheng H, Katz JN, Finkelstein JS, Avorn J, et al. Patterns of bone mineral density testing: current guidelines, testing rates, and interventions. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:783–90. [PMC free article: PMC1492483] [PubMed: 15209594]
2.
Pacini S, Aterini S, Ruggiero M, Gulisano M. Bone mineral density and anthropometric measures in normal and osteoporotic men. Ital J Anat Embryol. 1999;104:195–200. [PubMed: 10684183]
3.
Halling A, Persson GR, Berglund J, Johansson O, Renvert S. Comparison between the Klemetti index and heel DXA BMD measurements in the diagnosis of reduced skeletal bone mineral density in the elderly. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:999–1003. [PubMed: 15605191]
4.
Stehman-Breen CO, Sherrard D, Walker A, Sadler R, Alem A, Lindberg J. Racial differences in bone mineral density and bone loss among end-stage renal disease patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 1999;33:941–6. [PubMed: 10213653]
5.
Oefelein MG, Resnick MI. The impact of osteoporosis in men treated for prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am. 2004;31:313–9. [PubMed: 15123410]
6.
Bano G, Rodin DA, Pazianas M, Nussey SS. Reduced bone mineral density after surgical treatment for obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999;23:361–5. [PubMed: 10340813]
7.
Nguyen TV, Eisman JA, Kelly PJ, Sambrook PN. Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in elderly men. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144:255–63. [PubMed: 8686694]
8.
Maugeri D, Panebianco P, Barbagallo P, Malaguarnera M, Curasi MP, Russo MS, et al. Estrogens and euosteogenesis in men. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 1998;2:189–92. [PubMed: 10710818]
9.
Wong PK, Spencer DG, McElduff P, Manolios N, Larcos G, Howe GB. Secondary screening for osteoporosis in patients admitted with minimal-trauma fracture to a major teaching hospital. Intern Med J. 2003;33:505–10. [PubMed: 14656253]
10.
Bass E, Campbell RR, Werner DC, Nelson A, Bulat T. Inpatient mortality of hip fracture patients in the Veterans Health Administration. Rehabil Nurs. 2004;29:215–20. [PubMed: 15598001]
11.
Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay RL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, et al. Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12:1761–8. [PubMed: 9383679]
12.
Papaioannou A, Parkinson W, Ferko N, Probyn L, Ioannidis G, Jurriaans E, et al. Prevalence of vertebral fractures among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Canada. Osteoporos Int. 2003;14:913–7. [PubMed: 14551675]
13.
Jorgensen HL, Hassager C. Improved reproducibility of broadband ultrasound attenuation of the os calcis by using a specific region of interest. Bone. 1997;21:109–12. [PubMed: 9213016]
14.
Karlsson KM, Sernbo I, Obrant KJ, Redlund-Johnell I, Johnell O. Femoral neck geometry and radiographic signs of osteoporosis as predictors of hip fracture. Bone. 1996;18:327–30. [PubMed: 8726389]
15.
Li-Yu JT, Llamado LJ, Torralba TP. Validation of OSTA among Filipinos. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:1789–93. [PubMed: 16027957]
16.
Fink HA, Kuskowski MA, Orwoll ES, Cauley JA, Ensrud KE. Association between Parkinson's disease and low bone density and falls in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53:1559–64. [PubMed: 16137287]
17.
Kaptoge S, Armbrecht G, Felsenberg D, Lunt M, O'Neill TW, Silman AJ, et al. When should the doctor order a spine X-ray? Identifying vertebral fractures for osteoporosis care: results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS) J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:1982–93. [PubMed: 15537441]
18.
Yang NP, Lin T, Wang CS, Chou P. Community-based survey of low quantitative ultrasound values of calcaneus in Taiwan. J Clin Densitom. 2003;6:131–41. [PubMed: 12794235]
19.
Adler RA, Funkhouser HL, Petkov VI, Elmore BL, Via PS, McMurtry CT, et al. Osteoporosis in pulmonary clinic patients: does point-of-care screening predict central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry? Chest. 2003;123:2012–8. [PubMed: 12796183]
20.
Gudmundsdottir SL, Indridason OS, Franzson L, Sigurdsson G. Age-related decline in bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound in a population-based sample of both sexes: identification of useful ultrasound thresholds for osteoporosis screening. J Clin Densitom. 2005;8:80–6. [PubMed: 15722591]
21.
Hummer M, Malik P, Gasser RW, Hofer A, Kemmler G, Moncayo Naveda RC, et al. Osteoporosis in patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:162–7. [PubMed: 15625215]
22.
Thomason K, West J, Logan RF, Coupland C, Holmes GK. Fracture experience of patients with coeliac disease: a population based survey. Gut. 2003;52:518–22. [PMC free article: PMC1773600] [PubMed: 12631662]
23.
Karadag F, Cildag O, Yurekli Y, Gurgey O. Should COPD patients be routinely evaluated for bone mineral density? J Bone Miner Metab. 2003;21:242–6. [PubMed: 12811630]
24.
Berntsen GK, Tollan A, Magnus JH, Sogaard AJ, Ringberg T, Fonnebo V. The Tromso Study: artifacts in forearm bone densitometry--prevalence and effect. Osteoporos Int. 1999;10:425–32. [PubMed: 10591841]
25.
Bessant R, Keat A. How should clinicians manage osteoporosis in ankylosing spondylitis? J Rheumatol. 2002;29:1511–9. [PubMed: 12136913]
26.
Xu SZ, Zhou W, Mao XD, Xu J, Xu LP, Ren JY. Reference data and predictive diagnostic models for calcaneus bone mineral density measured with single-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 7428 Chinese. Osteoporos Int. 2001;12:755–62. [PubMed: 11605742]
27.
Adler RA, Funkhouser HL, Holt CM. Utility of heel ultrasound bone density in men. J Clin Densitom. 2001;4:225–30. [PubMed: 11740064]
28.
Colon-Emeric C, Yballe L, Sloane R, Pieper CF, Lyles KW. Expert physician recommendations and current practice patterns for evaluating and treating men with osteoporotic hip fracture. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:1261–3. [PubMed: 11037013]
29.
Iqbal F, Michaelson J, Thaler L, Rubin J, Roman J, Nanes MS. Declining bone mass in men with chronic pulmonary disease: contribution of glucocorticoid treatment, body mass index, and gonadal function. Chest. 1999;116:1616–24. [PubMed: 10593785]
30.
Yaturu S, DjeDjos S, Alferos G, Deprisco C. Bone mineral density changes on androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and response to antiresorptive therapy. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2006;9:35–8. [PubMed: 16276350]
31.
Conde FA, Sarna L, Oka RK, Vredevoe DL, Rettig MB, Aronson WJ. Age, body mass index, and serum prostate-specific antigen correlate with bone loss in men with prostate cancer not receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Urology. 2004;64:335–40. [PubMed: 15302490]
32.
Elliott ME, Drinka PJ, Krause P, Binkley NC, Mahoney JE. Osteoporosis assessment strategies for male nursing home residents. Maturitas. 2004;48:225–33. [PubMed: 15207888]
33.
Yeh SS, Phanumas D, Hafner A, Schuster MW. Risk factors for osteoporosis in a subgroup of elderly men in a Veterans Administration nursing home. J Investig Med. 2002;50:452–7. [PubMed: 12425432]
34.
Stanley HL, Schmitt BP, Poses RM, Deiss WP. Does hypogonadism contribute to the occurrence of a minimal trauma hip fracture in elderly men? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39:766–71. [PubMed: 2071807]
35.
Adler RA, Tran MT, Petkov VI. Performance of the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Screening Tool for osteoporosis in American men. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:723–7. [PubMed: 12934782]
36.
Townsend MF, Sanders WH, Northway RO, Graham SD Jr. Bone fractures associated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists used in the treatment of prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 1997;79:545–50. [PubMed: 9028366]
37.
Villareal MS, Klaustermeyer WB, Hahn TJ, Gordon EH. Osteoporosis in steroid-dependent asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1996;76:369–72. [PubMed: 8612121]
38.
Ohldin A, Floyd J. Unrecognized risks among Veterans with hip fractures: opportunities for improvements. J South Orthop Assoc. 2003;12:18–22. [PubMed: 12735620]
39.
Lazo MG, Shirazi P, Sam M, Giobbie-Hurder A, Blacconiere MJ, Muppidi M. Osteoporosis and risk of fracture in men with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2001;39:208–14. [PubMed: 11420736]
40.
Szollar SM, Martin EM, Sartoris DJ, Parthemore JG, Deftos LJ. Bone mineral density and indexes of bone metabolism in spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;77:28–35. [PubMed: 9482376]
41.
Szollar SM, Martin EM, Parthemore JG, Sartoris DJ, Deftos LJ. Densitometric patterns of spinal cord injury associated bone loss. Spinal Cord. 1997;35:374–82. [PubMed: 9194260]
42.
Szollar SM, Martin EM, Parthemore JG, Sartoris DJ, Deftos LJ. Demineralization in tetraplegic and paraplegic man over time. Spinal Cord. 1997;35:223–8. [PubMed: 9143084]
43.
Lazo MG, Shirazi P, Sam M, Giobbie-Hurder A, Blacconiere MJ, Muppidi M. Osteoporosis and risk of fracture in men with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2001;39:208–14. [PubMed: 11420736]
44.
Comarr AE, Hutchinson RH, Bors E. Extremity Fractures of Patients with Spinal Cord Injuries. American Journal of Surgery. 1962;103:732–9. [PubMed: 13880733]
45.
Espallargues M, Sampietro-Colom L, Estrada MD, Sola M, del Rio L, Setoain J, et al. Identifying bone-mass-related risk factors for fracture to guide bone densitometry measurements: a systematic review of the literature. Osteoporos Int. 2001;12:811–22. [PubMed: 11716183]
46.
Szulc P, Marchand F, Duboeuf F, Delmas PD. Cross-sectional assessment of age-related bone loss in men: the MINOS study. Bone. 2000;26:123–9. [PubMed: 10678406]
47.
Tovey FI, Godfrey JE, Lewin MR. A gastrectomy population: 25–30 years on. Postgrad Med J. 1990;66:450–6. [PMC free article: PMC2429611] [PubMed: 2216995]
48.
Nguyen TV, Center JR, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA. Risk factors for proximal humerus, forearm, and wrist fractures in elderly men and women: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153:587–95. [PubMed: 11257067]
49.
Kanis JA, Johansson H, Johnell O, Oden A, De Laet C, Eisman JA, et al. Alcohol intake as a risk factor for fracture. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:737–42. [PubMed: 15455194]
50.
Roy DK, O'Neill TW, Finn JD, Lunt M, Silman AJ, Felsenberg D, et al. Determinants of incident vertebral fracture in men and women: results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS) Osteoporos Int. 2003;14:19–26. [PubMed: 12577181]
51.
Hoidrup S, Gronbaek M, Gottschau A, Lauritzen JB, Schroll M. Alcohol intake, beverage preference, and risk of hip fracture in men and women. Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149:993–1001. [PubMed: 10355374]
52.
Holmes-Walker DJ, Woo H, Gurney H, Do VT, Chipps DR. Maintaining bone health in patients with prostate cancer. Med J Aust. 2006;184:176–9. [PubMed: 16489902]
53.
Naves M, Diaz-Lopez JB, Gomez C, Rodriguez-Rebollar A, Serrano-Arias M, Cannata-Andia JB. Prevalence of osteoporosis in men and determinants of changes in bone mass in a non-selected Spanish population. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:603–9. [PubMed: 15448987]
54.
Bakhireva LN, Barrett-Connor E, Kritz-Silverstein D, Morton DJ. Modifiable predictors of bone loss in older men: a prospective study. Am J Prev Med. 2004;26:436–42. [PubMed: 15165661]
55.
Hannan MT, Felson DT, Dawson-Hughes B, Tucker KL, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, et al. Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:710–20. [PubMed: 10780863]
56.
Schwartz AV, Sellmeyer DE, Strotmeyer ES, Tylavsky FA, Feingold KR, Resnick HE, et al. Diabetes and bone loss at the hip in older black and white adults. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:596–603. [PubMed: 15765178]
57.
Jones LM, Legge M, Goulding A. Intensive exercise may preserve bone mass of the upper limbs in spinal cord injured males but does not retard demineralisation of the lower body. Spinal Cord. 2002;40:230–5. [PubMed: 11987005]
58.
Sabo D, Blaich S, Wenz W, Hohmann M, Loew M, Gerner HJ. Osteoporosis in patients with paralysis after spinal cord injury. A cross sectional study in 46 male patients with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2001;121:75–8. [PubMed: 11195125]
59.
Demirel G, Yilmaz H, Paker N, Onel S. Osteoporosis after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 1998;36:822–5. [PubMed: 9881730]
60.
Schousboe JT, Taylor BC, Fink HA, Bauer DC, Nyman JA, Kane RL, et al. Cost-Effectiveness of universal bone densitometry followed by treatment of those with femoral neck T-score <-2.5 compared to no densitometry or treatment in elderly caucasian men with or without prior fracture. American Society of Bone and Mineral Research 28th Annual Meeting 2006; Abstract.
61.
Fauchet M, Andrieux P, Roux C, Sebert JL. Broadband ultrasound attenuation at the calcaneus measured using a new contact ultrasound unit. Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1998;65:257–66. [PubMed: 9599794]
62.
Robinson RJ, Carr I, Iqbal SJ, al-Azzawi F, Abrams K, Mayberry JF. Screening for osteoporosis in Crohn's disease. A detailed evaluation of calcaneal ultrasound. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998;10:137–40. [PubMed: 9581989]
63.
Kung AW, Ho AY, Ross PD, Reginster JY. Development of a clinical assessment tool in identifying Asian men with low bone mineral density and comparison of its usefulness to quantitative bone ultrasound. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:849–55. [PubMed: 15611839]
64.
Mulleman D, Legroux-Gerot I, Duquesnoy B, Marchandise X, Delcambre B, Cortet B. Quantitative ultrasound of bone in male osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2002;13:388–93. [PubMed: 12086349]
65.
Lynn HS, Lau EM, Wong SY, Hong AW. An osteoporosis screening tool for Chinese men. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:829–34. [PubMed: 15536535]
66.
Grampp S, Henk C, Lu Y, Krestan C, Resch H, Kainberger F, et al. Quantitative US of the calcaneus: cutoff levels for the distinction of healthy and osteoporotic individuals. Radiology. 2001;220:400–5. [PubMed: 11477243]
67.
Montagnani A, Gonnelli S, Cepollaro C, Mangeri M, Monaco R, Gennari L, et al. Usefulness of bone quantitative ultrasound in management of osteoporosis in men. J Clin Densitom. 2001;4:231–7. [PubMed: 11740065]
68.
Gonnelli S, Cepollaro C, Gennari L, Montagnani A, Caffarelli C, Merlotti D, et al. Quantitative ultrasound and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the prediction of fragility fracture in men. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:963–8. [PubMed: 15599495]
69.
Varenna M, Sinigaglia L, Adami S, Giannini S, Isaia G, Maggi S, et al. Association of quantitative heel ultrasound with history of osteoporotic fractures in elderly men: the ESOPO study. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:1749–54. [PubMed: 15976988]
70.
Rothenberg RJ, Boyd JL, Holcomb JP. Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus as a screening tool to detect osteoporosis: different reference ranges for caucasian women, african american women, and caucasian men. J Clin Densitom. 2004;7:101–10. [PubMed: 14742894]
71.
Welch A, Camus J, Dalzell N, Oakes S, Reeve J, Khaw KT. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the heel bone and its correlates in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort: a cross-sectional population-based study. Osteoporos Int. 2004;15:217–25. [PubMed: 14745486]
72.
Donaldson MM, McGrother CW, Clayton DG, Clarke M, Osborne D. Calcaneal ultrasound attenuation in an elderly population: measurement position and relationships with body size and past fractures. Osteoporos Int. 1999;10:316–24. [PubMed: 10692982]
73.
Stewart A, Felsenberg D, Kalidis L, Reid DM. Vertebral fractures in men and women: how discriminative are bone mass measurements? Br J Radiol. 1995;68:614–20. [PubMed: 7627484]
74.
Travers-Gustafson D, Stegman MR, Heaney RP, Recker RR. Ultrasound, densitometry, and extraskeletal appendicular fracture risk factors: a cross-sectional report on the Saunders County Bone Quality Study. Calcif Tissue Int. 1995;57:267–71. [PubMed: 8673863]
75.
Bauer DC, Cauley JA, Ensrud KE, Ewing S, Orwoll ES. Quantitative Ultrasound predicts hip and non-spine fracture in men: the MrOS study. ASBMR 26th Annual Meeting in Seattle; Washington, USA. Abstract. [PubMed: 17273893]
76.
Smith MR. Osteoporosis during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Urology. 2002;60:79–85. discussion 86. [PubMed: 12231056]
77.
Johnell O, Kanis JA, Oden A, Johansson H, De Laet C, Delmas P, et al. Predictive value of BMD for hip and other fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:1185–94. [PubMed: 15940371]
78.
Cummings SR, Cawthon PM, Ensrud KE, Cauley JA, Fink HA, Orwoll ES. BMD and Risk of Hip and Nonvertebral Fractures in Older Men:A Prospective Study and Comparison With Older Women. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:1550–6. [PubMed: 16995809]
79.
de Laet CE, van der Klift M, Hofman A, Pols HA. Osteoporosis in men and women: a story about bone mineral density thresholds and hip fracture risk. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:2231–6. [PubMed: 12469917]
80.
Melton LJ 3rd, Atkinson EJ, O'Connor MK, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL. Bone density and fracture risk in men. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13:1915–23. [PubMed: 9844110]
81.
Faulkner KG, Orwoll E. Implications in the use of T-scores for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in men. J Clin Densitom. 2002;5:87–93. [PubMed: 11940733]
82.
Burgess E, Nanes MS. Osteoporosis in men: pathophysiology, evaluation, and therapy. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2002;14:421–8. [PubMed: 12118179]
83.
Demirbag D, Ozdemir F, Kokino S, Berkarda S. The relationship between bone mineral density and immobilization duration in hemiplegic limbs. Ann Nucl Med. 2005;19:695–700. [PubMed: 16444996]
84.
Wong SY, Lau EM, Lynn H, Leung PC, Woo J, Cummings SR, et al. Depression and bone mineral density: is there a relationship in elderly Asian men? Results from Mr. Os (Hong Kong) Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:610–5. [PubMed: 15448988]
85.
Sallin U, Mellstrom D, Eggertsen R. Osteoporosis in a nursing home, determined by the DEXA technique. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:CR67–70. [PubMed: 15668634]
86.
Lim S, Joung H, Shin CS, Lee HK, Kim KS, Shin EK, et al. Body composition changes with age have gender-specific impacts on bone mineral density. Bone. 2004;35:792–8. [PubMed: 15336618]
87.
Reyes MO, Archer JA, Nunlee-Bland G, Daniel G, Morgan OA, Makambi K. Bone mass in physicians: a Howard University Hospital pilot study. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004;96:299–305. [PMC free article: PMC2594894] [PubMed: 15040511]
88.
Kudlacek S, Schneider B, Peterlik M, Leb G, Klaushofer K, Weber K, et al. Normative data of bone mineral density in an unselected adult Austrian population. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003;33:332–9. [PubMed: 12662164]
89.
Ozdurak RH, Duz S, Arsal G, Akinci Y, Kablan N, Isikli S, et al. Quantitative forearm muscle strength influences radial bone mineral density in osteoporotic and healthy males. Technol Health Care. 2003;11:253–61. [PubMed: 14600336]
90.
Krassas GE, Papadopoulou FG, Doukidis D, Konstantinidis TH, Kalothetou K. Age-related changes in bone density among healthy Greek males. J Endocrinol Invest. 2001;24:326–33. [PubMed: 11407652]
91.
Carr A, Miller J, Eisman JA, Cooper DA. Osteopenia in HIV-infected men: association with asymptomatic lactic acidemia and lower weight pre-antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2001;15:703–9. [PubMed: 11371684]
92.
Cetin A, Erturk H, Celiker R, Sivri A, Hascelik Z. The role of quantitative ultrasound in predicting osteoporosis defined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Rheumatol Int. 2001;20:55–9. [PubMed: 11269533]
93.
Kemink SA, Hermus AR, Swinkels LM, Lutterman JA, Smals AG. Osteopenia in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; prevalence and aspects of pathophysiology. J Endocrinol Invest. 2000;23:295–303. [PubMed: 10882147]
94.
Robinson RJ, al-Azzawi F, Iqbal SJ, Abrams K, Mayberry JF. The relation of hand skin-fold thickness to bone mineral density in patients with Crohn's disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1997;9:945–9. [PubMed: 9391782]
95.
Cheng S, Suominen H, Sakari-Rantala R, Laukkanen P, Avikainen V, Heikkinen E. Calcaneal bone mineral density predicts fracture occurrence: a five-year follow-up study in elderly people. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12:1075–82. [PubMed: 9200007]
96.
De Laet CE, Van Hout BA, Burger H, Weel AE, Hofman A, Pols HA. Hip fracture prediction in elderly men and women: validation in the Rotterdam study. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13:1587–93. [PubMed: 9783547]
97.
Kroger H, Lunt M, Reeve J, Dequeker J, Adams JE, Birkenhager JC, et al. Bone density reduction in various measurement sites in men and women with osteoporotic fractures of spine and hip: the European quantitation of osteoporosis study. Calcif Tissue Int. 1999;64:191–9. [PubMed: 10024374]
98.
Melton LJ 3rd, Beck TJ, Amin S, Khosla S, Achenbach SJ, Oberg AL, et al. Contributions of bone density and structure to fracture risk assessment in men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:460–7. [PubMed: 15688123]
99.
Odvina CV, Wergedal JE, Libanati CR, Schulz EE, Baylink DJ. Relationship between trabecular vertebral body density and fractures: a quantitative definition of spinal osteoporosis. Metabolism. 1988;37:221–8. [PubMed: 3343930]
100.
Robinson B, Wagstaffe C, Roche J, Clifton-Bligh P, Posen S. Is there a place for forearm osteodensitometry in clinical screening studies? Med J Aust. 1987;146:297–300. [PubMed: 3493421]
101.
Shin MH, Kweon SS, Park KS, Heo H, Kim SJ, Nam HS, et al. Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus in a Korean population: reference data and relationship to bone mineral density determined by peripheral dual X-ray absorptiometry. J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:1011–6. [PMC free article: PMC2779301] [PubMed: 16361814]

Views

Other titles in this collection

Related information

  • PMC
    PubMed Central citations
  • PubMed
    Links to PubMed

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...