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DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)

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Last Update: November 13, 2018.

Introduction

The last 50 years in the United States, clinicians have seen a rise in diseases including hypertension (HTN), diabetes, obesity, and coronary artery disease (CAD). An estimated 2000 people die of heart disease every day in the United States. Chronic diseases related to diet and obesity have become major causes of death in the United States across all ethnicities. Obesity has been linked to the major etiological factor in diabetes, HTN, cancer, and CAD.

Although there have been several advancements in the scientific world regarding new medications and cutting-edge diagnostic techniques, the rate of these diseases has multiplied many times. This increase has been steep particularly in the last 20 years. Due to this trend, major organizations including American Heart Association, National Institutes of Health, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute have all started looking at an integrative approach to managing this growing epidemic. Diagnostic testing and medications are still the mainstays of patient management. However, the importance of diet, exercise, stress reduction, and lifestyle habits cannot be ignored. [1][2][3]

Function

A typical modern North American diet is high in saturated fats, omega 6 fatty acids, high glycemic load carbohydrates, and many artificial additives. This unhealthy diet combined with little training in nutrition among the medical professionals is being considered a major setback in tackling these diseases. Fortunately, there has been tremendous research done in the last few decades examining the effects of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. This information is easily available to physicians online.[4][5][6]

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet originated in the 1990s. In 1992, the National Institute of Health (NIH) started funding for several research projects to see if specific dietary interventions were useful in treating hypertension. Subjects included in the study were advised to follow just the dietary interventions and not include any other lifestyle modifications, in order to avoid any confounding factors. They found that just the dietary intervention alone was able to decrease systolic Blood Pressure by about 6 to 11 mm Hg. This effect was seen both in hypertensive as well as normotensive people. Based on these results, in some instances DASH has been advocated as the first line pharmacologic therapy along with lifestyle modification.

What does this diet include? Simply, DASH promotes consumption of vegetables and fruits, lean meat and dairy products and the inclusion of micronutrients in the diet. It also advocates the reduction of sodium in the diet to about 1500 mg/day. DASH emphasizes on consumption of minimally processed and fresh food. DASH diet has many similarities to some of the other dietary patterns which are promoted for cardiovascular health. DASH diet is basically a culmination of the ancient and modern world. It has been derived by scientists based on certain ancient dietary principles and has been tailored to target some of the leading killers of the modern society.

A typical serving guide for a patient following DASH diet is as follows:

  1. Vegetables: about 5 servings per day
  2. Fruits: about 5 servings per day 
  3. Carbohydrates: about 7 servings per day
  4. Low-fat dairy products: about 2 servings per day
  5. Lean meat products: about 2 or fewer servings per day
  6. Nuts and seeds: 2 to 3 times per week

Following is a closer look at these recommendations.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates in the diet are mainly composed of cellulose and starches. The human body cannot digest cellulose. It is mainly present in plant fiber. Healthy starches or “carbs” have to be included in the diet, not just for the energy supply but also for the protective micronutrients. Low carb diets are not healthy as that may lead to either decreased caloric intake than recommended or consumption of unhealthy fats as a substitute.

Healthy carbohydrates included under DASH include:

  • Green leafy vegetables: kale, broccoli, spinach, collards, mustards
  • Whole grains: cracked wheat, millets, oats
  • Low glycemic index fruits
  • Legumes and beans

Fats

Fats have been a prime suspect for some time now, in the development of the chronic disease epidemic. However, research has now shown otherwise. Fats are now classified as good fats and bad fats.

Good fats prevent inflammation, provide essential fatty acids and promote overall health. These fats, when consumed in moderation, have shown an increase in HDL and lowering of small dense LDL particles. Some of the sources of good fats also included in DASH include:

  • Olive oil
  • Avocados
  • Nuts
  • Hempseeds
  • Flax seeds
  • Fish rich in omega 3 fatty acids

Bad fats which include margarine, vegetable shortenings, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, cause increase in small LDL particles, which promote atherogenesis.

Fats are a highly condensed source of energy and therefore have to be consumed in moderation. The serving sizes are much smaller than that for other nutrients on the DASH recommendations.

Proteins 

DASH recommends more servings of plant proteins like legumes, soy products, nuts, and seeds.

Animal protein in the diet should mainly compose of lean meats, low-fat dairy, eggs, and fish.

Processed and cured meats are not recommended as they have shown to cause hypertension and also contain carcinogens.

DASH diet also talks about the inclusion of certain foods which are rich in potassium, calcium, and magnesium as these prevent endothelial dysfunction and promote endothelial, smooth muscle relaxation. Some of the foods rich in potassium include bananas, oranges, and spinach. Calcium is rich in dairy products and green leafy vegetables. Magnesium is present in a variety of whole grains, leafy vegetables, nuts, and seeds.[7][8]

Clinical Significance

Is DASH diet exclusively preferred only for treating HTN?

Since the formulation of DASH diet pattern, it has been studied extensively to look for its effects on multiple other diseases.

Several studies have shown that DASH diet helps lower blood glucose levels, triglycerides, LDL-C, and insulin resistance. This makes DASH diet a very important adjunct to pharmacological therapy in metabolic syndromes, a major epidemic in this country. It also has been a successful tool in weight management. In certain populations, adherence to the DASH diet has shown significant improvements in control of type 2 diabetes. It is a preferred diet in patients with heart failure due to its emphasis on reduction of dietary sodium and encouraging the intake of potassium, magnesium, and calcium.

DASH diet has also shown a reduction in the incidence of colorectal cancer, mainly in the white population. DASH diet has also been proven in multiple studies to have lowered all-cause mortality in adults.

Based on these studies it is safe to say that when combined with pharmacological intervention, DASH can be a very useful tool for physicians to tackle these diseases more efficiently. When compared to some other diet patterns, it has an added advantage of having clear guidelines on the serving sizes and food groups, which makes it easier for the physicians to prescribe and monitor their patient's improvement.[1][9]

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

The DASH diet is a nutritionally based approach to prevent and control hypertension. The diet has been tested in several clinical trials and has been shown to lower cholesterol, saturated fats, and blood pressure. The DASH diet has been recommended as the best diet to help people who would like to lose maintain a healthy weight and lower the blood pressure. The key fact is that this diet needs to be promoted to patients. Besides physicians, both nurses and pharmacists play a key role in educating patients about the benefits of this diet. Just prior to discharge, nurses are in a prime position to educate all patients and their families about the DASH diet and its benefits. Similarly, when patients visit a pharmacy, the pharmacist should educate the patient about the DASH diet. The most important feature about the DASH diet is it requires a change in lifestyle and adopt a healthy way to eat. In addition, patients should be urged to stop smoking, abstain from alcohol and do some type of physical activity on a regular basis.[10][11][12] (Level V)

Outcomes

The DASH diet has been well studied in many clinical trials and in most of them has been associated with lowering of blood pressure. Further, there is evidence to show that the DASH diet also lowers the risk of adverse cardiac events, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Unfortunately, compliance to the diet remains low. Outside of clinical trials, there are limited studies on the long-term effectiveness of the DASH diet. [13][14] (Level II)

Questions

To access free multiple choice questions on this topic, click here.

References

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2.
Spence JD. Controlling resistant hypertension. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 2018 Jun;3(2):69-75. [PMC free article: PMC6047342] [PubMed: 30022799]
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Dominguez LJ, Barbagallo M. Nutritional prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. Acta Biomed. 2018 Jun 07;89(2):276-290. [PMC free article: PMC6179018] [PubMed: 29957766]
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Kerley CP. A Review of Plant-based Diets to Prevent and Treat Heart Failure. Card Fail Rev. 2018 May;4(1):54-61. [PMC free article: PMC5971679] [PubMed: 29892479]
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Ozemek C, Laddu DR, Arena R, Lavie CJ. The role of diet for prevention and management of hypertension. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 2018 Jul;33(4):388-393. [PubMed: 29771736]
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Dos Reis Padilha G, Sanches Machado d'Almeida K, Ronchi Spillere S, Corrêa Souza G. Dietary Patterns in Secondary Prevention of Heart Failure: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2018 Jun 26;10(7) [PMC free article: PMC6073256] [PubMed: 29949894]
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Urrico P. Nonpharmacological Interventions in the Management of Hypertension in the Adult Population With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Can J Diabetes. 2018 Apr;42(2):196-198. [PubMed: 29602407]
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Garcia-Rios A, Ordovas JM, Lopez-Miranda J, Perez-Martinez P. New diet trials and cardiovascular risk. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 2018 Jul;33(4):423-428. [PubMed: 29697543]
9.
Sanches Machado d'Almeida K, Ronchi Spillere S, Zuchinali P, Corrêa Souza G. Mediterranean Diet and Other Dietary Patterns in Primary Prevention of Heart Failure and Changes in Cardiac Function Markers: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2018 Jan 10;10(1) [PMC free article: PMC5793286] [PubMed: 29320401]
10.
Scisney-Matlock M, Bosworth HB, Giger JN, Strickland OL, Harrison RV, Coverson D, Shah NR, Dennison CR, Dunbar-Jacob JM, Jones L, Ogedegbe G, Batts-Turner ML, Jamerson KA. Strategies for implementing and sustaining therapeutic lifestyle changes as part of hypertension management in African Americans. Postgrad Med. 2009 May;121(3):147-59. [PMC free article: PMC2790525] [PubMed: 19491553]
11.
Saneei P, Fallahi E, Barak F, Ghasemifard N, Keshteli AH, Yazdannik AR, Esmaillzadeh A. Adherence to the DASH diet and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Iranian women. Eur J Nutr. 2015 Apr;54(3):421-8. [PubMed: 24906470]
12.
Nathenson P. The DASH diet: A cultural adaptation. Nursing. 2017 Apr;47(4):57-59. [PubMed: 28328778]
13.
Wang T, Heianza Y, Sun D, Huang T, Ma W, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Hu FB, Willett WC, Qi L. Improving adherence to healthy dietary patterns, genetic risk, and long term weight gain: gene-diet interaction analysis in two prospective cohort studies. BMJ. 2018 Jan 10;360:j5644. [PMC free article: PMC5759092] [PubMed: 29321156]
14.
Mahdavi R, Bagheri Asl A, Abadi MAJ, Namazi N. Perceived Barriers to Following Dietary Recommendations in Hypertensive Patients. J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Mar-Apr;36(3):193-199. [PubMed: 28318434]
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This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, a link is provided to the Creative Commons license, and any changes made are indicated.

Bookshelf ID: NBK482514PMID: 29494120

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