U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Wang Z, Whiteside S, Sim L, et al. Anxiety in Children [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2017 Aug. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 192.)

Cover of Anxiety in Children

Anxiety in Children [Internet].

Show details


Anxiety and Depression Association of America. Facts & Statistics. 2014. http://www​.adaa.org/about-adaa​/press-room/facts-statistics.
National Institute of Mental Health. Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children. 2016. http://www​.nimh.nih.gov​/health/statistics​/prevalence/any-anxiety-disorder-among-children.shtml.
Bittner A, Egger HL, Erkanli A, et al. What do childhood anxiety disorders predict? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Dec;48(12):1174–83. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01812.x. PMID: 18093022. [PubMed: 18093022] [CrossRef]
Ezpeleta L, Keeler G, Erkanli A, et al. Epidemiology of psychiatric disability in childhood and adolescence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2001 Oct;42(7):901–14. doi: 10.1017/S0021963001007740. PMID: 11693585. [PubMed: 11693585] [CrossRef]
Chorpita BF, Daleiden EL, Ebesutani C, et al. Evidence-Based Treatments for Children and Adolescents: An Updated Review of Indicators of Efficacy and Effectiveness. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice. 2011;18:154–72. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2011.01247.x.
James A, Soler A, Weatherall R. Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009;Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004690. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004690.pub2.doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004690.pub3. [PubMed: 16235374] [CrossRef] [CrossRef]
Walkup JT, Albano AM, Piacentini J, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline, or a combination in childhood anxiety. N Engl J Med. 2008 Dec 25;359(26):2753–66. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0804633. PMID: 18974308. [PMC free article: PMC2702984] [PubMed: 18974308] [CrossRef]
Chambless DL, Ollendick TH. Empirically supported psychological interventions: controversies and evidence. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52:685–716. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.685. PMID: 11148322. [PubMed: 11148322] [CrossRef]
Manassis K, Russell K, Newton AS. The Cochrane Library and the treatment of childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders: and overview of reviews. Evidence-Base Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal. 2010;5:541–54. doi: 10.1002/ebch.508.
Medical Services Commission. Anxiety and depression in children and youth -- diagnosis and treatment. Victoria (BC): British Columbia Medical Services Commission; 2010 Jan 1.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), ed Social anxiety disorder: Recognition, assessment and treatment. ; 2013. [PubMed: 31869048]
Tol WA, Barbui C, van Ommeren M. Management of acute stress, PTSD, and bereavement: WHO recommendations. JAMA. 2013 Aug 07;310(5):477–8. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.166723. PMID: 23925613. [PubMed: 23925613] [CrossRef]
Whiteside SP, Deacon BJ, Benito K, et al. Factors associated with practitioners’ use of exposure therapy for childhood anxiety disorders. J Anxiety Disord. 2016 May;40:29–36. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.04.001. PMID: 27085463. [PMC free article: PMC4868775] [PubMed: 27085463] [CrossRef]
Ale CM, McCarthy DM, Rothschild LM, et al. Components of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Related to Outcome in Childhood Anxiety Disorders. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2015 Sep;18(3):240–51. doi: 10.1007/s10567-015-0184-8. PMID: 26001645. [PubMed: 26001645] [CrossRef]
Ipser JC, Stein DJ, Hawkridge S, et al. Pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jul 08(3):CD005170. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005170.pub2. PMID: 19588367. [PubMed: 19588367] [CrossRef]
Bridge JA, Iyengar S, Salary CB, et al. Clinical response and risk for reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in pediatric antidepressant treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2007 Apr 18;297(15):1683–96. doi: 10.1001/jama.297.15.1683. PMID: 17440145. [PubMed: 17440145] [CrossRef]
Birmaher B, Yelovich AK, Renaud J. Pharmacologic treatment for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1998 Oct;45(5):1187–204. doi: 10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70069-9. PMID: 9884682. [PubMed: 9884682] [CrossRef]
Blanco C, Antia SX, Liebowitz MR. Pharmacotherapy of social anxiety disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Jan 01;51(1):109–20. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01294-X. PMID: 11801236. [PubMed: 11801236] [CrossRef]
Connolly SD, Bernstein GA, Work Group on Quality I. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Feb;46(2):267–83. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000246070.23695.06. PMID: 17242630. [PubMed: 17242630] [CrossRef]
Barterian JA, Rappuhn E, Seif EL, et al. Current state of evidence for medication treatment of preschool internalizing disorders. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:286085. doi: 10.1155/2014/286085. PMID: 24600324. [PMC free article: PMC3926238] [PubMed: 24600324] [CrossRef]
Ivarsson T, Skarphedinsson G, Kornor H, et al. The place of and evidence for serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents: Views based on a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2015 May 30;227(1):93–103. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.01.015. PMID: 25769521. [PubMed: 25769521] [CrossRef]
Pine, D S, Walkup, et al. Fluvoxamine for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. New England Journal of Medicine. 2001 26 Apr;344(17):1279–85. doi:10.1056/NEJM200104263441703. PMID: 2001155341. [PubMed: 11323729] [CrossRef]
Kendall PC, Peterman JS. CBT for Adolescents With Anxiety: Mature Yet Still Developing. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;172(6):519–30. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.14081061. PMID: 26029805. [PubMed: 26029805] [CrossRef]
Merikangas KR, He JP, Burstein M, et al. Service utilization for lifetime mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: results of the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Jan;50(1):32–45. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2010.10.006. PMID: 21156268. [PMC free article: PMC4408275] [PubMed: 21156268] [CrossRef]
Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. AHRQ Publication No. 10(14)-EHC063-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; January 2014. Chapters available at: www​.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ. 2009 Jul 21;339:b2535. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b2535. PMID: 19622551. [PMC free article: PMC2714657] [PubMed: 19622551] [CrossRef]
Higgins JPT, Green S, eds. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]: The Cochrane Collaboration; 2011.
Wells G, Shea B, O’connell D, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. 2000.
Knapp G, Hartung J. Improved tests for a random effects meta-regression with a single covariate. Stat Med. 2003 Sep 15;22(17):2693–710. doi: 10.1002/sim.1482. PMID: 12939780. [PubMed: 12939780] [CrossRef]
Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, et al. GRADE guidelines 6. Rating the quality of evidence--imprecision. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011 Dec;64(12):1283–93. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2011.01.012. PMID: 21839614. [PubMed: 21839614] [CrossRef]
Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Sultan S, et al. GRADE guidelines: 9. Rating up the quality of evidence. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011 Dec;64(12):1311–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2011.06.004. PMID: 21802902. [PubMed: 21802902] [CrossRef]
Rosa-Alcazar A, I, Boix M, et al. Contributions of cognitive restructuring in the treatment of social phobia in adolescents. Behavioral Psychology / Psicologia Conductual: Revista Internacional Clinica y de la Salud Psicologia Conductual Revista Internacional de Psicologia Clinica de la Salud. 2013;21(1):6–23. PMID: CN-01038693 NEW.
Rosa A, Ana I, Olivares O, et al. The role of non-specific effects in the psychological treatment of adolescents with social phobia. Anuario de Psicologia. 2009 Apr;40(1):43–61. PMID: 2009-08210-003.
Gil B, F, Hernandez G, et al. [Cognitive-behavioural treatment in Mexican children with social phobia]. Anuario de Psicologia. 2009;40(1):89–104. PMID: CN-00753537 UPDATE.
Olivares R, Jose, Rosa-Alcazar A, et al. The relevance of the individualized attention in the treatment with adolescents under generalized social phobia. International journal of clinical and health psychology. 2006;6(3):565–80. PMID: CN-00634079 UPDATE.
Rodriguez, J O, Alcazar, et al. Early detection and treatment of adolescents with generalized social phobia. Psicothema. 2005;17(1):1–8. PMID: CN-00596495 UPDATE.
Amoros-Boix M, Rosa-Alcazar AI, Olivares-Olivares PJ. Role of the focus of attention in the treatment of generalized social phobia in adolescents. Anales De Psicologia. 2011 Oct;27(3):718–28. PMID: WOS:000293716800017.
Rosa A, Ana I, Olivares R, et al. The role of planned interaction in the treatment of generalized social phobia. Terapia Psicologica. 2007;25(2):205–12. PMID: 2008-02112-012.
Mendez, Xavier, Orgiles, et al. Psychological treatment of the phobia of the dark in a game situation: A controlled essay. Revista de Psicopatologia y Psicologia Clinica. 2003 Dec;8(3):199–210. PMID: 2004-12003-002.
Sanchez-Garcia R, Olivares J. Effectiveness of a program for early detection/intervention in children/adolescents with generalized social phobia. Anales De Psicologia. 2009 Dec;25(2):241–9. PMID: WOS:000272061800006.
Arándiga, Antonio V, Rodríguez, et al. Competencia social y autoestima en adolescentes con fobia social. Investigar el cambio curricular en el espacio europeo de educación superior. 2014:459–79.
Moller, C, Petermann, et al. Short- and long-term effects of a cognitive-behavioural training programme for children with social anxiety. [German]. Verhaltenstherapie. 2011 March;21(1):15–22. PMID: 2011134836.
Joormann, J, Unnewehr, et al. The efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group treatment for children and adolescents with social phobia: A controlled trial. [German]. Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie. 2002;31(4):284–90. PMID: 2002363778.
Ortbandt, C, Petermann, et al. Effects of a cognitive behavioral training program for children with social anxiety. Kindheit und Entwicklung. 2009;18(1):21–9.
Sheykhan R, Mohamadkhani S, Hasanabadi H. Self-Focused Attention in Treatment of Social Anxiety: A Controlled Clinical Trial. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2013;23(106):120–8.
Zarghami F, Heydarinasab L, Shairi MR, Shahrivar Z. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Treatment Based on Kendall’s Coping Program on Anxiety Disorders: A Transdiagnostic Approach.
Dadsetan P, Anari A, Sedghpour BS. Social anxiety disorders and drama-therapy. Journal of Iranian Psychologists. 2008;4(14):115–23.
Aydin A, Tekinsav Sutcu S, Sorias O. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy program for alleviating the symptoms of social anxiety in adolescents]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2010 Spring;21(1):25–36. PMID: 20204902. [PubMed: 20204902]
Abikoff H, McGough J, Vitiello B, et al. Sequential pharmacotherapy for children with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity and anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005 May;44(5):418–27. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000155320.52322.37. PMID: 15843763. [PubMed: 15843763] [CrossRef]
Alfano CA, Ginsburg GS, Kingery JN. Sleep-related problems among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Feb;46(2):224–32. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000242233.06011.8e. PMID: 17242626. [PubMed: 17242626] [CrossRef]
Beidel DC, Turner SM, Sallee FR, et al. SET-C versus fluoxetine in the treatment of childhood social phobia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Dec;46(12):1622–32. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e318154bb57. PMID: 18030084. [PubMed: 18030084] [CrossRef]
Black B, Uhde TW. Treatment of elective mutism with fluoxetine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994 Sep;33(7):1000–6. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199409000-00010. PMID: 7961338. [PubMed: 7961338] [CrossRef]
Birmaher B, Axelson DA, Monk K, et al. Fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;42(4):415–23. doi: 10.1097/01.CHI.0000037049.04952.9F. PMID: 12649628. [PubMed: 12649628] [CrossRef]
da Costa CZ, de Morais RM, Zanetta DM, et al. Comparison among clomipramine, fluoxetine, and placebo for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2013 Dec;23(10):687–92. doi: 10.1089/cap.2012.0110. PMID: 24350814. [PMC free article: PMC3870579] [PubMed: 24350814] [CrossRef]
Geller D, Donnelly C, Lopez F, et al. Atomoxetine treatment for pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid anxiety disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Sep;46(9):1119–27. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e3180ca8385. PMID: 17712235. [PubMed: 17712235] [CrossRef]
Gittelman K, Rachel, Klein, et al. School phobia: Diagnostic considerations in the light of imipramine effects. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1973 Mar;156(3):199–215. PMID: 1974-01582-001. [PubMed: 4698665]
Graae F, Milner J, Rizzotto L, et al. Clonazepam in childhood anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994 Mar–Apr;33(3):372–6. doi:10.1097/00004583-199403000-00011. PMID: 8169182. [PubMed: 8169182] [CrossRef]
March JS, Entusah AR, Rynn M, et al. A Randomized controlled trial of venlafaxine ER versus placebo in pediatric social anxiety disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Nov 15;62(10):1149–54. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.02.025. PMID: 17553467. [PubMed: 17553467] [CrossRef]
Reinblatt SP, Riddle MA. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced apathy: a pediatric case series. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006 Feb–Apr;16(1–2):227–33. doi:10.1089/cap.2006.16.227. PMID: 16553543. [PubMed: 16553543] [CrossRef]
Reinblatt SP, DosReis S, Walkup JT, et al. Activation adverse events induced by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009 Apr;19(2):119–26. doi: 10.1089/cap.2008.040. PMID: 19364290. [PMC free article: PMC2856972] [PubMed: 19364290] [CrossRef]
Rynn MA, Siqueland L, Rickels K. Placebo-controlled trial of sertraline in the treatment of children with generalized anxiety disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Dec;158(12):2008–14. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.12.2008. PMID: 11729017. [PubMed: 11729017] [CrossRef]
Rynn MA, Riddle MA, Yeung PP, et al. Efficacy and safety of extended-release venlafaxine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in children and adolescents: two placebo-controlled trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Feb;164(2):290–300. doi: 10.1176/ajp.2007.164.2.290. PMID: 17267793. [PubMed: 17267793] [CrossRef]
Scharfstein LA, Beidel DC, Finnell LR, et al. Do pharmacological and behavioral interventions differentially affect treatment outcome for children with social phobia? Behav Modif. 2011 Sep;35(5):451–67. doi: 10.1177/0145445511408590. PMID: 21586501. [PubMed: 21586501] [CrossRef]
Strawn JR, Prakash A, Zhang Q, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of duloxetine for the treatment of children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;54(4):283–93. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2015.01.008. PMID: 25791145. [PubMed: 25791145] [CrossRef]
Wagner, K, Berard, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial ofparoxetine in children and adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2004;61(11):1153–62. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.61.11.1153. [PubMed: 15520363] [CrossRef]
Walkup J, Labellarte M, Riddle MA, et al. Treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders: an open-label extension of the research units on pediatric psychopharmacology anxiety study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2002 Fall;12(3):175–88. doi: 10.1089/104454602760386879. PMID: 12427292. [PubMed: 12427292] [CrossRef]
Ginsburg GS, Kendall PC, Sakolsky D, et al. Remission after acute treatment in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders: findings from the CAMS. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011 Dec;79(6):806–13. doi: 10.1037/a0025933. PMID: 22122292. [PMC free article: PMC3371083] [PubMed: 22122292] [CrossRef]
Gonzalez A, Peris TS, Vreeland A, et al. Parental anxiety as a predictor of medication and CBT response for anxious youth. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2015 Feb;46(1):84–93. doi: 10.1007/s10578-014-0454-6. PMID: 24610431. [PMC free article: PMC4159442] [PubMed: 24610431] [CrossRef]
Keeton CP, Ginsburg GS, Drake KL, et al. Benefits of child-focused anxiety treatments for parents and family functioning. Depress Anxiety. 2013 Sep;30(9):865–72. doi: 10.1002/da.22055. PMID: 23390005. [PMC free article: PMC4144828] [PubMed: 23390005] [CrossRef]
Nail, Jennifer E, Christofferson, et al. Academic impairment and impact of treatments among youth with anxiety disorders. Child & Youth Care Forum. 2015 Jun;44(3):327–42. doi: 10.1007/s10566-014-9290-x. PMID: 2014-51382-001. [CrossRef]
Piacentini J, Bennett S, Compton SN, et al. 24- and 36-week outcomes for the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 Mar;53(3):297–310. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.11.010. PMID: 24565357. [PMC free article: PMC3982864] [PubMed: 24565357] [CrossRef]
Rynn MA, Walkup JT, Compton SN, et al. Child/Adolescent anxiety multimodal study: evaluating safety. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015 Mar;54(3):180–90. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2014.12.015. PMID: 25721183. [PMC free article: PMC4362776] [PubMed: 25721183] [CrossRef]
Gonzalez, A, Peris, et al. Parental Anxiety as a Predictor of Medication and CBT Response for Anxious Youth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development. 2014:1–10. doi:10.1007/s10578-014-0454-6. [PMC free article: PMC4159442] [PubMed: 24610431] [CrossRef]
Klein RG, Koplewicz HS, Kanner A. Imipramine treatment of children with separation anxiety disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1992 Jan;31(1):21–8. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199201000-00005. PMID: 1347039. [PubMed: 1347039] [CrossRef]
Beidel DC, Turner SM, Morris TL. Behavioral treatment of childhood social phobia. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000 Dec;68(6):1072–80. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.68.6.1072. PMID: 11142541. [PubMed: 11142541] [CrossRef]
Ginsburg GS, Drake KL. School-based treatment for anxious african-american adolescents: a controlled pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002 Jul;41(7):768–75. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200207000-00007. PMID: 12108800. [PubMed: 12108800] [CrossRef]
Halldorsdottir T, Ollendick TH. Long-term outcomes of brief, intensive CBT for specific phobias: The negative impact of ADHD symptoms. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2016 May;84(5):465–71. doi: 10.1037/ccp0000088. PMID: 26900895. [PubMed: 26900895] [CrossRef]
Herbert JD, Gaudiano BA, Rheingold AA, et al. Cognitive behavior therapy for generalized social anxiety disorder in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. J Anxiety Disord. 2009 Mar;23(2):167–77. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.06.004. PMID: 18653310. [PMC free article: PMC4356535] [PubMed: 18653310] [CrossRef]
Hudson JL, Rapee RM, Deveney C, et al. Cognitive-behavioral treatment versus an active control for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders: a randomized trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 May;48(5):533–44. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819c2401. PMID: 19318990. [PubMed: 19318990] [CrossRef]
Kendall PC, Hudson JL, Gosch E, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disordered youth: a randomized clinical trial evaluating child and family modalities. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008 Apr;76(2):282–97. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.282. PMID: 18377124. [PubMed: 18377124] [CrossRef]
Khanna MS, Kendall PC. Exploring the role of parent training in the treatment of childhood anxiety. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009 Oct;77(5):981–6. doi: 10.1037/a0016920. PMID: 19803577. [PubMed: 19803577] [CrossRef]
Khanna MS, Kendall PC. Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for child anxiety: results of a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010 Oct;78(5):737–45. doi: 10.1037/a0019739. PMID: 20873909. [PubMed: 20873909] [CrossRef]
Last CG, Hansen C, Franco N. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of school phobia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998 Apr;37(4):404–11. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199804000-00018. PMID: 9549961. [PubMed: 9549961] [CrossRef]
Menzies RG, Clarke JC. A comparison of in vivo and vicarious exposure in the treatment of childhood water phobia. Behav Res Ther. 1993 Jan;31(1):9–15. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(93)90037-U. PMID: 8093340. [PubMed: 8093340] [CrossRef]
Muris, P, Meesters, et al. Cognitive coping vs emotional disclosure in the treatment of anxious children: A pilot-study. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. 2002;31(2):59–67. doi: 10.1080/16506070252959490. PMID: 2003069119. [CrossRef]
Ollendick TH, Ost LG, Reuterskiold L, et al. One-session treatment of specific phobias in youth: a randomized clinical trial in the United States and Sweden. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009 Jun;77(3):504–16. doi: 10.1037/a0015158. PMID: 19485591. [PubMed: 19485591] [CrossRef]
Pincus DB, May JE, Whitton SW, et al. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of panic disorder in adolescence. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2010;39(5):638–49. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2010.501288. PMID: 20706917. [PubMed: 20706917] [CrossRef]
Reigada, Laura C, Polokowski, et al. Treatment for comorbid pediatric gastrointestinal and anxiety disorders: A pilot study of a flexible health sensitive cognitive-behavioral therapy program. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology. 2015 Dec;3(4):314–26. doi: 10.1037/cpp0000116 PMID: 2015-55574-002. [CrossRef]
Ritter B. The group desensitization of children’s snake phobias using vicarious and contact desensitization procedures. Behav Res Ther. 1968 Feb;6(1):1–6. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(68)90033-8. PMID: 5689466. [PubMed: 5689466] [CrossRef]
Silk JS, Tan PZ, Ladouceur CD, et al. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Individual Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Child-Centered Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2016 Mar 16:1–13. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2016.1138408. PMID: 26983904. [PMC free article: PMC5218980] [PubMed: 26983904] [CrossRef]
Van S, F. J A, Dirksen, et al. Cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus treatment as usual for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2014 February;8(2):127–37. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2013.11.001. PMID: 2013783128. [CrossRef]
Masia W, Carrie, Colognori, et al. Can school counselors deliver cognitive-behavioral treatment for social anxiety effectively? A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2016 Mar:No Pagination Specified. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12550. PMID: 2016-14653-001. [PubMed: 27002215] [CrossRef]
Fujii, Cori, Renno, et al. Intensive cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in school-aged children with autism: A preliminary comparison with treatment-as-usual. School Mental Health. 2013;5(1):25–37. doi: 10.1007/s12310-012-9090-0. PMID: CN-01000510 UPDATE. [CrossRef]
Ginsburg GS, Becker KD, Drazdowski TK, et al. Treating Anxiety Disorders in Inner City Schools: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing CBT and Usual Care. Child Youth Care Forum. 2012 Feb;41(1):1–19. doi: 10.1007/s10566-011-9156-4. PMID: 22701295. [PMC free article: PMC3373959] [PubMed: 22701295] [CrossRef]
Ingul JM, Aune T, Nordahl HM. A randomized controlled trial of individual cognitive therapy, group cognitive behaviour therapy and attentional placebo for adolescent social phobia. Psychother Psychosom. 2014;83(1):54–61. doi: 10.1159/000354672. PMID: 24281563. [PubMed: 24281563] [CrossRef]
Masia Warner C, Fisher PH, Shrout PE, et al. Treating adolescents with social anxiety disorder in school: an attention control trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Jul;48(7):676–86. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01737.x. PMID: 17593148. [PubMed: 17593148] [CrossRef]
Southam-Gerow MA, Weisz JR, Chu BC, et al. Does cognitive behavioral therapy for youth anxiety outperform usual care in community clinics? An initial effectiveness test. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;49(10):1043–52. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2010.06.009. PMID: 20855049. [PMC free article: PMC2945382] [PubMed: 20855049] [CrossRef]
Storch EA, Arnold EB, Lewin AB, et al. The effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus treatment as usual for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;52(2):132–42 e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.11.007. PMID: 23357440. [PubMed: 23357440] [CrossRef]
Storch EA, Salloum A, King MA, et al. A Randomized Controlled Trial in Community Mental Health Centers of Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Treatment as Usual for Children with Anxiety. Depress Anxiety. 2015 Nov;32(11):843–52. doi: 10.1002/da.22399. PMID: 26366886. [PubMed: 26366886] [CrossRef]
O’Brien, F, Olden, et al. Group cognitive behavioural therapy for children with anxiety disorder - An evaluation of the ‘Friends for Youth’ programme. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2007 March;24(1):5–12. doi:doi​.org/10.1017/S0790966700010065. PMID: 2007447394. [PubMed: 30290497]
Suveg C, Hudson JL, Brewer G, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered youth: secondary outcomes from a randomized clinical trial evaluating child and family modalities. J Anxiety Disord. 2009 Apr;23(3):341–9. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.01.003. PMID: 19216048. [PubMed: 19216048] [CrossRef]
Yen CF, Chen YM, Cheng JW, et al. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and their mothers. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2014 Jun;45(3):338–47. doi: 10.1007/s10578-013-0403-9. PMID: 24002227. [PubMed: 24002227] [CrossRef]
Abbasi, Z, Amiri, et al. The effective comparison between modular cognitive behavioral therapy (MCBT) and child-parent relationship training (CPRT) in children with separation anxiety symptoms. Social Sciences (Pakistan). 2016;11(6):890–902. doi: 10.3923/sscience.2016.890.902. [CrossRef]
Adler Nevo GW, Avery D, Fiksenbaum L, et al. Eight years later: outcomes of CBT-treated versus untreated anxious children. Brain Behav. 2014 Sep;4(5):765–74. doi: 10.1002/brb3.274. PMID: 25328851. [PMC free article: PMC4188368] [PubMed: 25328851] [CrossRef]
Afshari A, Neshat-Doost HT, Maracy MR, et al. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder. J Res Med Sci. 2014 Mar;19(3):221–7. PMID: 24949029. [PMC free article: PMC4061643] [PubMed: 24949029]
Arendt K, Thastum M, Hougaard E. Efficacy of a Danish version of the Cool Kids program: a randomized wait-list controlled trial. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015 May 27;133(2):109–21. doi: 10.1111/acps.12448. PMID: 26016532. [PubMed: 26016532] [CrossRef]
Baer S, Garland EJ. Pilot study of community-based cognitive behavioral group therapy for adolescents with social phobia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005 Mar;44(3):258–64. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200503000-00010. PMID: 15725970. [PubMed: 15725970] [CrossRef]
Barrett PM, Dadds MR, Rapee RM. Family treatment of childhood anxiety: a controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996 Apr;64(2):333–42. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.64.2.333. PMID: 8871418. [PubMed: 8871418] [CrossRef]
Barrett PM. Evaluation of cognitive-behavioral group treatments for childhood anxiety disorders. J Clin Child Psychol. 1998 Dec;27(4):459–68. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2704_10. PMID: 9866083. [PubMed: 9866083] [CrossRef]
Chalfant AM, Rapee R, Carroll L. Treating anxiety disorders in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: a controlled trial. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Nov;37(10):1842–57. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0318-4. PMID: 17171539. [PubMed: 17171539] [CrossRef]
Chiu AW, Langer DA, McLeod BD, et al. Effectiveness of modular CBT for child anxiety in elementary schools. Sch Psychol Q. 2013 Jun;28(2):141–53. doi: 10.1037/spq0000017. PMID: 23750860. [PMC free article: PMC4231200] [PubMed: 23750860] [CrossRef]
Cobham VE. Do anxiety-disordered children need to come into the clinic for efficacious treatment? J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012 Jun;80(3):465–76. doi: 10.1037/a0028205. PMID: 22545740. [PubMed: 22545740] [CrossRef]
Dewis LM, Kirkby KC, Martin F, et al. Computer-aided vicarious exposure versus live graded exposure for spider phobia in children. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2001 Mar;32(1):17–27. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7916(01)00019-2. PMID: 11729943. [PubMed: 11729943] [CrossRef]
Donovan CL, Cobham V, Waters AM, et al. Intensive group-based CBT for child social phobia: a pilot study. Behav Ther. 2015 May;46(3):350–64. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2014.12.005. PMID: 25892171. [PubMed: 25892171] [CrossRef]
Flannery S, E C, Kendall, et al. Group and individual cognitive-behavioral treatments for youth with anxiety disorders: A randomized clinical trial. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2000 June;24(3):251–78. doi: 10.1023/A:1005500219286. PMID: 2000223577. [CrossRef]
Flannery S, E C, Choudhury, et al. Group and individual cognitive-behavioral treatments for youth with anxiety disorders: 1-Year follow-up. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2005 April;29(2):253–9. doi:10.1007/s10608-005-3168-z. PMID: 2005221485. [CrossRef]
Gallagher HM, Rabian BA, McCloskey MS. A brief group cognitive-behavioral intervention for social phobia in childhood. J Anxiety Disord. 2004;18(4):459–79. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(03)00027-6. PMID: 15149708. [PubMed: 15149708] [CrossRef]
Gallo KP, Chan PT, Buzzella BA, et al. The impact of an 8-day intensive treatment for adolescent panic disorder and agoraphobia on comorbid diagnoses. Behav Ther. 2012 Mar;43(1):153–9. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2011.05.002. PMID: 22304887. [PMC free article: PMC3510263] [PubMed: 22304887] [CrossRef]
Hancock KM, Swain J, Hainsworth CJ, et al. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children With Anxiety: Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2016 Mar 21:1–16. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2015.1110822. PMID: 26998803. [PubMed: 26998803] [CrossRef]
Hayward C, Varady S, Albano AM, et al. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia in female adolescents: results of a pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000 Jun;39(6):721–6. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200006000-00010. PMID: 10846306. [PubMed: 10846306] [CrossRef]
Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Masek B, Henin A, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy for 4- to 7-year-old children with anxiety disorders: a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010 Aug;78(4):498–510. doi: 10.1037/a0019055. PMID: 20658807. [PubMed: 20658807] [CrossRef]
Holmes MC, Donovan CL, Farrell LJ, et al. The efficacy of a group-based, disorder-specific treatment program for childhood GAD--a randomized controlled trial. Behav Res Ther. 2014 Oct;61:122–35. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.08.002. PMID: 25193003. [PubMed: 25193003] [CrossRef]
Kendall, P C. Treating anxiety disorders in children: results of a randomized clinical trial. Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development. 1995doi:10.1037/0022-006X.62.1.100 ·. PMID: CN-00216211 UPDATE. [CrossRef]
Kendall PC, Flannery-Schroeder E, Panichelli-Mindel SM, et al. Therapy for youths with anxiety disorders: a second randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997 Jun;65(3):366–80. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.65.3.366. PMID: 9170760. [PubMed: 9170760] [CrossRef]
Leutgeb V, Schienle A. Changes in facial electromyographic activity in spider-phobic girls after psychotherapy. J Psychiatr Res. 2012 Jun;46(6):805–10. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.02.017. PMID: 22424962. [PMC free article: PMC3365240] [PubMed: 22424962] [CrossRef]
Masia-Warner C, Klein RG, Dent HC, et al. School-based intervention for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: results of a controlled study. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2005 Dec;33(6):707–22. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-7649-z. PMID: 16328746. [PubMed: 16328746] [CrossRef]
McConachie H, McLaughlin E, Grahame V, et al. Group therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2014 Aug;18(6):723–32. doi: 10.1177/1362361313488839. PMID: 24101715. [PubMed: 24101715] [CrossRef]
McNally Keehn RH, Lincoln AJ, Brown MZ, et al. The Coping Cat program for children with anxiety and autism spectrum disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Jan;43(1):57–67. doi: 10.1007/s10803-012-1541-9. PMID: 22588377. [PMC free article: PMC3537891] [PubMed: 22588377] [CrossRef]
Melfsen S, Kuhnemund M, Schwieger J, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy of socially phobic children focusing on cognition: a randomised wait-list control study. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2011 Feb 28;5(1):5. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-5-5. PMID: 21356037. [PMC free article: PMC3058082] [PubMed: 21356037] [CrossRef]
Mendlowitz SL, Manassis K, Bradley S, et al. Cognitive-behavioral group treatments in childhood anxiety disorders: the role of parental involvement. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999 Oct;38(10):1223–9. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199910000-00010. PMID: 10517054. [PubMed: 10517054] [CrossRef]
Miller LC, Barrett CL, Hampe E, et al. Comparison of reciprocal inhibition, psychotherapy, and waiting list control for phobic children. J Abnorm Psychol. 1972 Jun;79(3):269–79. PMID: 5033367. [PubMed: 5033367]
Hampe E, Noble H, Miller LC, et al. Phobic children one and two years posttreatment. J Abnorm Psychol. 1973 Dec;82(3):446–53. PMID: 4770914. [PubMed: 4770914]
Obler M, Terwilliger RF. Pilot study on the effectiveness of systematic desensitization with neurologically impaired children with phobic disorders. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1970 Jun;34(3):314–8. doi: 10.1037/h0029367. PMID: 5523436. [PubMed: 5523436] [CrossRef]
Olivares J, Olivares-Olivares PJ, Rosa-Alcazar AI, et al. The contribution of the therapist’s competence in the treatment of adolescents with generalized social phobia. Psicothema. 2014;26(4):483–9. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2014.69. PMID: 25340895. [PubMed: 25340895] [CrossRef]
Ost LG, Svensson L, Hellstrom K, et al. One-Session treatment of specific phobias in youths: a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001 Oct;69(5):814–24. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.69.5.814. PMID: 11680558. [PubMed: 11680558] [CrossRef]
Ost, L G, Cederlund, et al. Behavioral treatment of social phobia in youth: Does parent education training improve the outcome? Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2015 April 01;67:19–29. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2015.02.001. PMID: 2015788786. [PubMed: 25727679] [CrossRef]
Rapee RM, Abbott MJ, Lyneham HJ. Bibliotherapy for children with anxiety disorders using written materials for parents: A randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006 Jun;74(3):436–44. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.436. PMID: 16822101. [PubMed: 16822101] [CrossRef]
Reaven, J A, Blakeley S, et al. Cognitive-behavioral group treatment for anxiety symptoms in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A pilot study. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. 2009 March;24(1):27–37. doi:10.1177/1088357608327666. PMID: 2009069887. [CrossRef]
Sánchez G, Raquel, Rodríguez, et al. Intervención temprana en niños y adolescentes con fobia social. Anuario de psicología/The UB Journal of psychology. 2009;40(1):75–88.
Santucci LC, Ehrenreich-May J. A randomized controlled trial of the child anxiety multi-day program (CAMP) for separation anxiety disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2013 Jun;44(3):439–51. doi: 10.1007/s10578-012-0338-6. PMID: 23053618. [PMC free article: PMC3582853] [PubMed: 23053618] [CrossRef]
Schneider S, Blatter-Meunier J, Herren C, et al. Disorder-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy for separation anxiety disorder in young children: a randomized waiting-list-controlled trial. Psychother Psychosom. 2011;80(4):206–15. doi: 10.1159/000323444. PMID: 21494062. [PubMed: 21494062] [CrossRef]
Shortt AL, Barrett PM, Fox TL. Evaluating the FRIENDS program: a cognitive-behavioral group treatment for anxious children and their parents. J Clin Child Psychol. 2001 Dec;30(4):525–35. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3004_09. PMID: 11708240. [PubMed: 11708240] [CrossRef]
Silverman WK, Kurtines WM, Ginsburg GS, et al. Treating anxiety disorders in children with group cognitive-behaviorial therapy: a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999 Dec;67(6):995–1003. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.67.6.995 PMID: 10596522. [PubMed: 10596522] [CrossRef]
Spence SH, Donovan C, Brechman-Toussaint M. The treatment of childhood social phobia: the effectiveness of a social skills training-based, cognitive-behavioural intervention, with and without parental involvement. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000 Sep;41(6):713–26. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00659. PMID: 11039684. [PubMed: 11039684] [CrossRef]
Spence SH, Holmes JM, March S, et al. The feasibility and outcome of clinic plus internet delivery of cognitive-behavior therapy for childhood anxiety. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006 Jun;74(3):614–21. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.614. PMID: 16822117. [PubMed: 16822117] [CrossRef]
Spence SH, Donovan CL, March S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of online versus clinic-based CBT for adolescent anxiety. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011 Oct;79(5):629–42. doi: 10.1037/a0024512. PMID: 21744945. [PubMed: 21744945] [CrossRef]
Treadwell KR, Kendall PC. Self-talk in youth with anxiety disorders: states of mind, content specificity, and treatment outcome. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996 Oct;64(5):941–50. doi: 10.1037//0022-006X.64.5.941 PMID: 8916623. [PubMed: 8916623] [CrossRef]
Warner CM, Colognori D, Kim RE, et al. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of persistent functional somatic complaints and pediatric anxiety: an initial controlled trial. Depress Anxiety. 2011 Jul;28(7):551–9. doi: 10.1002/da.20821. PMID: 21681863. [PMC free article: PMC3128648] [PubMed: 21681863] [CrossRef]
Waters AM, Ford LA, Wharton TA, et al. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for young children with anxiety disorders: Comparison of a Child + Parent condition versus a Parent Only condition. Behav Res Ther. 2009 Aug;47(8):654–62. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.04.008. PMID: 19457471. [PubMed: 19457471] [CrossRef]
Wergeland GJ, Fjermestad KW, Marin CE, et al. An effectiveness study of individual vs. group cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in youth. Behav Res Ther. 2014 Jun;57:1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.03.007. PMID: 24727078. [PubMed: 24727078] [CrossRef]
Wergeland GJ, Fjermestad KW, Marin CE, et al. Predictors of treatment outcome in an effectiveness trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for children with anxiety disorders. Behav Res Ther. 2016 Jan;76:1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2015.11.001. PMID: 26583954. [PubMed: 26583954] [CrossRef]
White SW, Ollendick T, Albano AM, et al. Randomized controlled trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Feb;43(2):382–94. doi: 10.1007/s10803-012-1577-x. PMID: 22735897. [PMC free article: PMC3494811] [PubMed: 22735897] [CrossRef]
Wood JJ, Drahota A, Sze K, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized, controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009 Mar;50(3):224–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01948.x. PMID: 19309326. [PMC free article: PMC4231198] [PubMed: 19309326] [CrossRef]
Olivares, J, Garcia L, et al. Results at long-term among three psychological treatments for adolescents with generalized social phobia (I): Statistical significance. Psicologia Conductual. 2002;10(1):147–64. PMID: 2002236025.
Rapee, Ronald M. Group treatment of children with anxiety disorders: Outcome and predictors of treatment response. Australian Journal of Psychology. 2000;52(3):125–9. doi: 10.1080/00049530008255379. [CrossRef]
Van S, F. J A, Bogels, et al. CBT for anxiety disorders in children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2015 01 Jun;83(3):512–23. doi:10.1037/a0039108. PMID: 2015938821. [PubMed: 25894668] [CrossRef]
Muris P, Meesters C, van Melick M. Treatment of childhood anxiety disorders: a preliminary comparison between cognitive-behavioral group therapy and a psychological placebo intervention. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2002 Sep–Dec;33(3–4):143–58. doi:10.1016/S0005-7916(02)00025-3. PMID: 12628633. [PubMed: 12628633] [CrossRef]
Lee SS, Victor AM, James MG, et al. School-Based Interventions for Anxious Children: Long-Term Follow-Up. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2016 Apr;47(2):183–93. doi: 10.1007/s10578-015-0555-x. PMID: 26003419. [PMC free article: PMC4658320] [PubMed: 26003419] [CrossRef]
Bernstein GA, Borchardt CM, Perwien AR, et al. Imipramine plus cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of school refusal. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;39(3):276–83. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200003000-00008. PMID: 10714046. [PubMed: 10714046] [CrossRef]
Melvin GA, Dudley AL, Gordon MS, et al. Augmenting Cognitive Behavior Therapy for School Refusal with Fluoxetine: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2016 Aug 02doi:10.1007/s10578-016-0675-y. PMID: 27485100. [PubMed: 27485100] [CrossRef]
Mancini C, Van Ameringen M, Oakman JM, et al. Serotonergic agents in the treatment of social phobia in children and adolescents: a case series. Depress Anxiety. 1999;10(1):33–9. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6394(1999)10:1<33::AID-DA6>3.0.CO;2-H. PMID: 10499188. [PubMed: 10499188] [CrossRef]
Renaud J, Birmaher B, Wassick SC, et al. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of childhood panic disorder: a pilot study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 1999;9(2):73–83. doi: 10.1089/cap.1999.9.73. PMID: 10461817. [PubMed: 10461817] [CrossRef]
Eichstedt JA, Tobon JI, Phoenix E, et al. Worried no more: The effects of medication status on treatment response to a CBT group for children with anxiety in a community setting. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;16(2):265–77. doi: 10.1177/1359104510366282. PMID: 21059669. [PubMed: 21059669] [CrossRef]
Moncrieff J, Wessely S, Hardy R. Active placebos versus antidepressants for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004(1):CD003012. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003012.pub2. PMID: 14974002. [PMC free article: PMC8407353] [PubMed: 14974002] [CrossRef]
Sharma T, Guski LS, Freund N, et al. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment: systematic review and meta-analyses based on clinical study reports. BMJ. 2016 Jan 27;352:i65. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i65. PMID: 26819231. [PMC free article: PMC4729837] [PubMed: 26819231] [CrossRef]
Dobson ET, Strawn JR. Pharmacotherapy for Pediatric Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Systematic Evaluation of Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability. Paediatr Drugs. 2016 Feb;18(1):45–53. doi: 10.1007/s40272-015-0153-1. PMID: 26660158. [PMC free article: PMC4925147] [PubMed: 26660158] [CrossRef]
Murad MH, Montori VM, Ioannidis JP, et al. How to read a systematic review and meta-analysis and apply the results to patient care: users’ guides to the medical literature. JAMA. 2014 Jul;312(2):171–9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.5559. PMID: 25005654. [PubMed: 25005654] [CrossRef]


Related information

  • PMC
    PubMed Central citations
  • PubMed
    Links to PubMed

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...