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Norris S, Weinstein J, Peterson K, et al. Drug Class Review: Direct Renin Inhibitors, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: Final Report [Internet]. Portland (OR): Oregon Health & Science University; 2010 Jan.

Cover of Drug Class Review: Direct Renin Inhibitors, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers

Drug Class Review: Direct Renin Inhibitors, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: Final Report [Internet].

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Appendix DExcluded trials

2=Wrong population, 3=wrong intervention, 4=wrong population, 5=wrong publication type, 6=wrong study design

Excluded trialsExclusion code
Head-to-head trials
Acbay O. Effects of low-dose losartan treatment on persistent microalbuminuria in normotensive type 1 diabetic subjects. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. Sep 2001;24(8):608–611.4
Aguilar D, Solomon SD, Kober L, et al. Newly diagnosed and previously known diabetes mellitus and 1-year outcomes of acute myocardial infarction: the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial. Circulation. Sep 21 2004;110(12):1572–1578.6
Alcocer L, Fernandez-Bonetti P, Campos E, Dominguez-Henkel R, de la Fuente JJ, Segovia-Ayala C. Clinical efficacy and safety of telmisartan 80 mg once daily compared with enalapril 20 mg once daily in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension: results of a multicentre study. International Journal of Clinical Practice. Dec 2004;Supplement.(145):23–28.2
Altiparmak MR, Trablus S, Apaydin S, et al. Is losartan as effective as enalapril on posttransplant persistent proteinuria? Transplantation Proceedings. Nov–Dec 2001;33(7–8):3368–3369.4
Anan F, Takahashi N, Ooie T, et al. Effects of valsartan and perindopril combination therapy on left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic arterial stiffness in patients with essential hypertension. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Jul 2005;61(5–6):353–359.2
Atmaca A, Gedik O. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and their combination on microalbuminuria in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Advances in Therapy. Jul–Aug 2006;23(4):615–622.4
Belonje AMS, Westenbrink BD, Voors AA, et al. Erythropoietin levels in heart failure after an acute myocardial infarction: determinants, prognostic value, and the effects of captopril versus losartan. American Heart Journal. Jan 2009;157(1):91–96.2
Bogale N, Orn S, James M, et al. Usefulness of either or both left and right bundle branch block at baseline or during follow-up for predicting death in patients following acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology. Mar 1 2007;99(5):647–650.6
Bohm M, Baumhakel M, Probstfield JL, et al. Sexual function, satisfaction, and association of erectile dysfunction with cardiovascular disease and risk factors in cardiovascular high-risk patients: substudy of the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial/Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNT Study in ACE-INtolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease (ONTARGET/TRANSCEND). American Heart Journal. Jul 2007;154(1):94–101.6
Campo C, Segura J, Fernandez ML, Guerrero L, Christiansen H, Ruilope LM. A prospective comparison of four antihypertensive agents in daily clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Hypertension. May–Jun 2001;3(3):139–144.2
Cheung R, Lewanczuk RZ, Rodger NW, et al. The effect of valsartan and captopril on lipid parameters in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and nephropathy. International Journal of Clinical Practice. Dec 1999;53(8):584–592.2
Demers C, McKelvie RS, Negassa A, Yusuf S, Investigators RPS. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the six-minute walk test in patients with heart failure. American Heart Journal. Oct 2001;142(4):698–703.2
el-Agroudy AE, Hassan NA, Foda MA, et al. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blocker on plasma levels of TGF-beta 1 and interstitial fibrosis in hypertensive kidney transplant patients. American Journal of Nephrology. Sep–Oct 2003;23(5):300–306.4
Elliott WJ. Double-blind comparison of eprosartan and enalapril on cough and blood pressure in unselected hypertensive patients. Eprosartan Study Group. Journal of Human Hypertension. Jun 1999;13(6):413–417.2
Erley CM, Bader B, Scheu M, Wolf S, Braun N, Risler T. Renal hemodynamics in essential hypertensives treated with losartan. Clinical Nephrology. Jan 1995;43 Suppl 1:S8–11.2
Fried LF, Duckworth W, Zhang JH, et al. Design of combination angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor for treatment of diabetic nephropathy (VA NEPHRON-D). Clinical Journal of The American Society of Nephrology: CJASN. Feb 2009;4(2):361–368.6
Gang Y, Ono T, Hnatkova K, et al. QT dispersion has no prognostic value in patients with symptomatic heart failure: an ELITE II substudy. Pacing & Clinical Electrophysiology. Jan 2003;26(1 Pt 2):394–400.2
Gansevoort RT, de Zeeuw D, de Jong PE. Is the antiproteinuric effect of ACE inhibition mediated by interference in the renin-angiotensin system? Kidney International. Mar 1994;45(3):861–867.6
Hetzel GR, Hermsen D, Hohlfeld T, et al. Effects of candesartan and perindopril on renal function, TGF-beta1 plasma levels and excretion of prostaglandins in stable renal allograft recipients.[see comment]. Clinical Nephrology. Apr 2002;57(4):296–302.4
Hortal L, Fernandez A, Vega N, et al. Losartan versus ramipril in the treatment of postrenal transplant erythrocytosis. Transplantation Proceedings. Aug 1998;30(5):2127–2128.5
Kincaid-Smith P, Fairley K, Packham D. Randomized controlled crossover study of the effect on proteinuria and blood pressure of adding an angiotensin II receptor antagonist to an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in normotensive patients with chronic renal disease and proteinuria.[erratum appears in Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002 Jun;17(6):1153]. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. Apr 2002;17(4):597–601.3
Krimholtz MJ, Karalliedde J, Thomas S, Bilous R, Viberti G. Targeting albumin excretion rate in the treatment of the hypertensive diabetic patient with renal disease. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Mar 2005;16 Suppl 1:S42–47.6
Kum LC, Yip GW, Lee PW, et al. Comparison of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor alone and in combination with irbesartan for the treatment of heart failure. International Journal of Cardiology. Mar 28 2008;125(1):16–21.6
Lacourciere Y. The incidence of cough: a comparison of lisinopril, placebo and telmisartan, a novel angiotensin II antagonist. Telmisartan Cough Study Group. International Journal of Clinical Practice. Mar 1999;53(2):99–103.2
Lacourciere Y, Brunner H, Irwin R, et al. Effects of modulators of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on cough. Losartan Cough Study Group. Journal of Hypertension. Dec 1994;12(12):1387–1393.2
Lacourciere Y, Lefebvre J, Nakhle G, Faison EP, Snavely DB, Nelson EB. Association between cough and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II antagonists: the design of a prospective, controlled study. Journal of Hypertension - Supplement. Jul 1994;12(2):S49–53.5
Larochelle P, Flack JM, Marbury TC, Sareli P, Krieger EM, Reeves RA. Effects and tolerability of irbesartan versus enalapril in patients with severe hypertension. Irbesartan Multicenter Investigators. American Journal of Cardiology. Dec 15 1997;80(12):1613–1615.2
Liebson PR, Amsterdam EA. Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET): implications for reduced cardiovascular risk. Preventive Cardiology. 2009;12(1):43–50.4
Matsuda H, Hayashi K, Saruta T. Distinct time courses of renal protective action of angiotensin receptor antagonists and ACE inhibitors in chronic renal disease. Journal of Human Hypertension. Apr 2003;17(4):271–276.6
Mauer M, Zinman B, Gardiner R, et al. ACE-I and ARBs in early diabetic nephropathy. Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. Dec 2002;3(4):262–269.4
McKelvie RS, Rouleau J-L, White M, et al. Comparative impact of enalapril, candesartan or metoprolol alone or in combination on ventricular remodelling in patients with congestive heart failure.[see comment]. European Heart Journal. Oct 2003;24(19):1727–1734.2
Mimran A, Ruilope L, Kerwin L, et al. A randomised, double-blind comparison of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, irbesartan, with the full dose range of enalapril for the treatment of mild-to-moderate hypertension. Journal of Human Hypertension. Mar 1998;12(3):203–208.2
Nielsen S, Dollerup J, Nielsen B, Jensen HA, Mogensen CE. Losartan reduces albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension. An enalapril controlled 3 months study. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 1997;12 Suppl 2:19–23.2
Paster RZ, Snavely DB, Sweet AR, et al. Use of losartan in the treatment of hypertensive patients with a history of cough induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Clinical Therapeutics. Sep–Oct 1998;20(5):978–989.2
Ramsay LE, Yeo WW. ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists and cough. The Losartan Cough Study Group. Journal of Human Hypertension. Nov 1995;9 Suppl 5:S51–54.2
Ramsay LE, Yeo WW, Losartan Cough Study G. Double-blind comparison of losartan, lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with a previous angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-associated cough. Journal of Hypertension - Supplement. Jul 1995;13(1):S73–76.2
Rossing K, Jacobsen P, Pietraszek L, Parving H-H. Renoprotective effects of adding angiotensin II receptor blocker to maximal recommended doses of ACE inhibitor in diabetic nephropathy: a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Diabetes Care. Aug 2003;26(8):2268–2274.3
Russo D, Pisani A, Balletta MM, et al. Additive antiproteinuric effect of converting enzyme inhibitor and losartan in normotensive patients with IgA nephropathy. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. May 1999;33(5):851–856.6
Sato A, Tabata M, Hayashi K, Saruta T. Effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist candesartan, compared with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, on the urinary excretion of albumin and type IV collagen in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Clinical & Experimental Nephrology. Sep 2003;7(3):215–220.6
Schulz E, Bech JN, Pedersen EB, Muller GA. A randomized, double-blind, parallel study on the safety and antihypertensive efficacy of losartan compared to captopril in patients with mild to moderate hypertension and impaired renal function. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 1999;14 Suppl 4:27–28.5
Shoda J, Kanno Y, Suzuki H. A five-year comparison of the renal protective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with non-diabetic nephropathy.[see comment]. Internal Medicine. 2006;45(4):193–198.6
Solomon SD, Appelbaum E, Manning WJ, et al. Effect of the direct Renin inhibitor aliskiren, the Angiotensin receptor blocker losartan, or both on left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation. Feb 3 2009;119(4):530–537.2
Suzuki H, Kusuyama T, Omori Y, et al. Inhibitory effect of candesartan cilexetil on left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. International Heart Journal. Sep 2006;47(5):715–725.3
Trojian TH, Jackson EA. Is losartan superior to captopril in reducing all-cause mortality in elderly patients with symptomatic heart failure? Journal of Family Practice. Aug 2000;49(8):759–760.4
Tylicki L, Renke M, Rutkowski P, et al. Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with high-dose angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor for nephroprotection: an open, controlled, randomized study. Scandinavian Journal of Urology & Nephrology. 2008;42(4):381–388.6
Woo KT, Lau YK, Wong KS, Chiang GS. ACEI/ATRA therapy decreases proteinuria by improving glomerular permselectivity in IgA nephritis. Kidney International. Dec 2000;58(6):2485–2491.6
Yin Y, Dalal D, Liu Z, et al. Prospective randomized study comparing amiodarone vs. amiodarone plus losartan vs. amiodarone plus perindopril for the prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence in patients with lone paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.[see comment]. European Heart Journal. Aug 2006;27(15):1841–1846.4
Active-control trials
Benz J, Oshrain C, Henry D, Avery C, Chiang YT, Gatlin M. Valsartan, a new angiotensin II receptor antagonist: a double-blind study comparing the incidence of cough with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Feb 1997;37(2):101–107.2
Berl T, Hunsicker LG, Lewis JB, et al. Cardiovascular outcomes in the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy.[see comment][summary for patients in Ann Intern Med. 2003 Apr 1;138(7):I43; PMID: 12667050]. Annals of Internal Medicine. Apr 1 2003;138(7):542–549.6
Hasford J, Bussmann WD, Delius W, Koepcke W, Lehmann K, Weber E. First dose hypotension with enalapril and prazosin in congestive heart failure. International Journal of Cardiology. Jun 1991;31(3):287–293.6
Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR, et al. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes.[see comment]. New England Journal of Medicine. Sep 20 2001;345(12):851–860.6
Rossing K, Christensen PK, Jensen BR, Parving H-H. Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in diabetic nephropathy: a randomized double-blind crossover study.[see comment]. Diabetes Care. Jan 2002;25(1):95–100.2
Placebo-controlled trials
Anonymous. Safety and Efficacy of the Antihypertensive Drug Aliskiren in Patients with Hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes and Proteinuria. ClinicalTrials. Gov, National Institutes of Health [http://www​]. 2005.5
Blanchet M, Sheppard R, Racine N, et al. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor plus irbesartan on maximal and submaximal exercise capacity and neurohumoral activation in patients with congestive heart failure. American Heart Journal. May 2005;149(5):938. e931–937.6
Chrysant SG, Murray AV, Hoppe UC, et al. Long-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of aliskiren in combination with valsartan in patients with hypertension: a 6-month interim analysis. Current Medical Research & Opinion. Apr 2008;24(4):1039–1047.6
Iodice C, Balletta MM, Minutolo R, et al. Maximal suppression of rennin-angiotensin system in nonproliferative glomerulonephritis. Kidney International. Jun 2003;63(6):2214–2221.6
Kim MJ, Song JH, Suh JH, Lee SW, Kim GA. Additive antiproteinuric effect of combination therapy with ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonist: differential short-term response between IgA nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy. Yonsei Medical Journal. Jun 30 2003;44(3):463–472.6
Kostis JB, Shelton B, Gosselin G, et al. Adverse effects of enalapril in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD). SOLVD Investigators. American Heart Journal. Feb 1996;131(2):350–355.6
McMurray JJ, Ostergren J, Swedberg K, et al. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function taking angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM-Added trial.[see comment]. Lancet. Sep 6 2003;362(9386):767–771.3
Tan KC, Chow WS, Ai VH, Lam KS. Effects of angiotensin II receptor antagonist on endothelial vasomotor function and urinary albumin excretion in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. Diabetes/Metabolism Research Reviews. Jan–Feb 2002;18(1):71–76.6
Copyright © 2009, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.
Bookshelf ID: NBK47126


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