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Williams JW, Plassman BL, Burke J, et al. Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2010 Apr. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 193.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Cognitive Decline.

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Appendix GExcluded Studies

All excluded studies listed below (in alphabetical order) were reviewed in their full-text version. Following each reference, in italics, is the reason for exclusion. “Excluded,” in this context, means “not included for data abstraction.” Reasons for exclusion signify only the usefulness of the articles for this study and are not intended as criticisms of the articles.

  1. Aartsen MJ, Smits CHM, van Tilburg T, et al. Activity in older adults: cause or consequence of cognitive functioning? A longitudinal study on everyday activities and cognitive performance in older adults. Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences. 2002;57(2):P153–62. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 11867663]
  2. Aevarsson O, Skoog I. A longitudinal population study of the mini-mental state examination in the very old: relation to dementia and education. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000;11(3):166–75. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 10765048]
  3. Agostini JV, Tinetti ME, Han L, et al. Effects of statin use on muscle strength, cognition, and depressive symptoms in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(3):420–5. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 17341246]
  4. Akbaraly NT, Faure H, Gourlet V, et al. Plasma carotenoid levels and cognitive performance in an elderly population: results of the EVA Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(3):308–16. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 17389729]
  5. Akbaraly TN, Singh-Manoux A, Marmot MG, et al. Education attenuates the association between dietary patterns and cognition. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2009;27(2):147–54. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC2793407] [PubMed: 19182482]
  6. Akiyama H, Meyer JS, Mortel KF, et al. Normal human aging: factors contributing to cerebral atrophy. J Neurol Sci. 1997;152(1):39–49. Full Text: Exclude - outcome non-specific AD. [PubMed: 9395125]
  7. Albert MS, Jones K, Savage CR, et al. Predictors of cognitive change in older persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Psychol Aging. 1995;10(4):578–89. Full Text: Exclude - unable to extract results. [PubMed: 8749585]
  8. Aleman A, Muller M, de Haan EH, et al. Vascular risk factors and cognitive function in a sample of independently living men. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26(4):485–90. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 15653177]
  9. Alexander CN, Langer EJ, Newman RI, et al. Transcendental meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with the elderly. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989;57(6):950–64. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 2693686]
  10. Almeida OP, Norman P, Hankey G, et al. Successful mental health aging: results from a longitudinal study of older Australian men. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14(1):27–35. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16407579]
  11. Ampuero I, Ros R, Royuela A, et al. Risk factors for dementia of Alzheimer type and aging-associated cognitive decline in a Spanish population based sample, and in brains with pathology confirmed Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2008;14(2):179–91. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 18560129]
  12. Ancelin ML, Artero S, Portet F, et al. Non-degenerative mild cognitive impairment in elderly people and use of anticholinergic drugs: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ. 2006;332(7539):455–9. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC1382539] [PubMed: 16452102]
  13. Andel R, Crowe M, Pedersen NL, et al. Complexity of work and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based study of Swedish twins. Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences. 2005;60(5):P251–8. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16131619]
  14. Andersen G, Vestergaard K, Riis JO, et al. Dementia of depression or depression of dementia in stroke. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996;94(4):272–8. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 8911563]
  15. Andersen K, Launer LJ, Ott A, et al. Do nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The Rotterdam Study Neurology. 1995;45(8):1441–5. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 7644037]
  16. Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.[see comment] JAMA. 2004;291(14):1701–12. Full Text: Exclude - no cognitive endpoints. [PubMed: 15082697]
  17. Andre-Petersson L, Elmstahl S, Hagberg B, et al. Is blood pressure at 68 an independent predictor of cognitive decline at 81? Results from follow-up study "Men born in 1914", Malmo, Sweden. Aging Ment Health. 2003;7(1):61–72. Full Text: Exclude - observational N < 300. [PubMed: 12554316]
  18. Andrieu S, Gillette S, Amouyal K, et al. Association of Alzheimer’s disease onset with ginkgo biloba and other symptomatic cognitive treatments in a population of women aged 75 years and older from the EPIDOS study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58(4):372–7. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes inadequately assessed. [PubMed: 12663701]
  19. Andrieu S, Ousset PJ, Coley N, et al. GuidAge study: a 5-year double blind, randomised trial of EGb 761 for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease in elderly subjects with memory complaints. i. rationale, design and baseline data. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2008;5(4):406–15. Full Text: Exclude - insufficient outcomes data. [PubMed: 18690838]
  20. Annerbo S, Wahlund LO, Lokk J. The significance of thyroid-stimulating hormone and homocysteine in the development of Alzheimer’s disease in mild cognitive impairment: a 6-year follow-up study. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2006;21(3):182–8. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 16869339]
  21. Anonymous. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study: design and objectives. The ARIC investigators. Am J Epidemiol. 1989;129(4):687–702. Full Text: Exclude - Methods paper. [PubMed: 2646917]
  22. Anonymous. Final report on the aspirin component of the ongoing Physicians’ Health Study. Steering Committee of the Physicians’ Health Study Research Group.[see comment] N Engl J Med. 1989;321(3):129–35. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes not AD/CD. [PubMed: 2664509]
  23. Anonymous. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). SHEP Cooperative Research Group.[see comment] JAMA. 1991;265(24):3255–64. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 2046107]
  24. Anonymous. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging: risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease in Canada. Neurology. 1994;44(11):2073–80. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 7969962]
  25. Anonymous. Design of the Women’s Health Initiative clinical trial and observational study. The Women’s Health Initiative Study Group. Control Clin Trials. 1998;19(1):61–109. Full Text: Exclude - methods paper. [PubMed: 9492970]
  26. Anonymous. Potassium may help prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Potassium could be a possible deterrent for dementia, three new studies suggest. Health News. 2006;12(6):7–8. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 16826623]
  27. Anthony JC, Breitner JC, Zandi PP, et al. Reduced prevalence of AD in users of NSAIDs and H2 receptor antagonists: the Cache County study. Neurology. 2000;54(11):2066–71. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 10851364]
  28. Arauz A, Alonso E, Rodriguez-Saldana J, et al. Cognitive impairment and mortality in older healthy Mexican subjects: a population-based 10-year follow-up study. Neurol Res. 2005;27(8):882–6. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 16354550]
  29. Arlt S, Schulze F, Eichenlaub M, et al. Asymmetrical dimethylarginine is increased in plasma and decreased in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26(1):58–64. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 18617736]
  30. Aronson MK, Ooi WL, Morgenstern H, et al. Women, myocardial infarction, and dementia in the very old. Neurology. 1990;40(7):1102–6. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 2356012]
  31. Arvanitakis Z, Schneider JA, Wilson RS, et al. Diabetes is related to cerebral infarction but not to AD pathology in older persons. Neurology. 2006;67(11):1960–5. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes not AD/CD. [PubMed: 17159101]
  32. Arvanitakis Z, Wilson RS, Li Y, et al. Diabetes and function in different cognitive systems in older individuals without dementia. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(3):560–5. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16505506]
  33. Arve S, Tilvis RS, Lehtonen A, et al. Coexistence of lowered mood and cognitive impairment of elderly people in five birth cohorts. Aging (Milano) 1999;11(2):90–5. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 10386168]
  34. Ashman TA, Cantor JB, Gordon WA, et al. A comparison of cognitive functioning in older adults with and without traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2008;23(3):139–48. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 18520426]
  35. Atiea JA, Moses JL, Sinclair AJ. Neuropsychological function in older subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 1995;12(8):679–85. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 7587006]
  36. Atkinson HH, Cesari M, Kritchevsky SB, et al. Predictors of combined cognitive and physical decline. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(7):1197–202. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 16108938]
  37. Bachman DL, Wolf PA, Linn RT, et al. Incidence of dementia and probable Alzheimer’s disease in a general population: the Framingham Study. Neurology. 1993;43:515–9. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 8450993]
  38. Baldeiras I, Santana I, Proenca MT, et al. Peripheral oxidative damage in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2008;15(1):117–28. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 18780972]
  39. Ban TA, Morey L, Aguglia E, et al. Nimodipine in the treatment of old age dementias. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1990;14(4):525–51. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 2236581]
  40. Barnes DE, Covinsky KE, Whitmer RA, et al. Predicting risk of dementia in older adults. The late-life dementia risk index. Neurology. 2009 Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PMC free article: PMC2715571] [PubMed: 19439724]
  41. Barnes DE, Tager IB, Satariano WA, et al. The relationship between literacy and cognition in well-educated elders. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004;59(4):390–5. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 15071084]
  42. Barrett-Connor E, Edelstein SL. A prospective study of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cognitive function in an older population: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994;42(4):420–3. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 8144828]
  43. Basaria S, Wisniewski A, Dupree K, et al. Effect of high-dose isoflavones on cognition, quality of life, androgens, and lipoprotein in post-menopausal women. J Endocrinol Invest. 2009;32(2):150–5. Full Text: Exclude - CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 19411814]
  44. Bassuk SS, Berkman LF, Wypij D. Depressive symptomatology and incident cognitive decline in an elderly community sample. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(12):1073–81. Full Text: Exclude - SPMSQ single test. [PubMed: 9862549]
  45. Bassuk SS, Glass TA, Berkman LF. Social disengagement and incident cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly persons. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131(3):165–73. Full Text: Exclude - SPMSQ single test. [PubMed: 10428732]
  46. Bathum L, von Bornemann Hjelmborg J, Christiansen L, et al. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T and methionine synthase 2756A>G mutations: no impact on survival, cognitive functioning, or cognitive decline in nonagenarians. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(2):196–201. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline BPIncl. [PubMed: 17339646]
  47. Battino M, Bompadre S, Leone L, et al. Coenzyme Q, Vitamin E and Apo-E alleles in Alzheimer Disease. Biofactors. 2003;18:1–4. 277–81. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 14695944]
  48. Beard CM, Waring SC, O’Brien PC, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and Alzheimer’s disease: a case-control study in Rochester, Minnesota, 1980 through 1984. Mayo Clin Proc. 1998;73(10):951–5. Full Text: Exclude - outcome non-specific AD. [PubMed: 9787743]
  49. Becker JT, Chang YF, Lopez OL, et al. Depressed mood is not a risk factor for incident dementia in a community-based cohort. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17(8):653–63. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PMC free article: PMC2714703] [PubMed: 19634208]
  50. Beeri MS, Schmeidler J, Silverman JM, et al. Insulin in combination with other diabetes medication is associated with less Alzheimer neuropathology. Neurology. 2008;71(10):750–7. Full Text: Exclude - selected population. [PMC free article: PMC2676951] [PubMed: 18765651]
  51. Beeri MS, Silverman JM, Davis KL, et al. Type 2 diabetes is negatively associated with Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60(4):471–5. Full Text: Exclude - not applicablel population. [PMC free article: PMC3163091] [PubMed: 15933386]
  52. Bennett DA, Whitmer RA. NSAID exposure and risk of Alzheimer disease: is timing everything. Neurology. 2009;72(22):1884–5. Full Text: Exclude - editorial, no primary data. [PubMed: 19386996]
  53. Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Schneider JA, et al. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele, AD pathology, and the clinical expression of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 2003;60(2):246–52. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes non-specific AD. [PubMed: 12552039]
  54. Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Schneider JA, et al. Education modifies the relation of AD pathology to level of cognitive function in older persons. Neurology. 2003;60(12):1909–15. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes non-specific AD. [PubMed: 12821732]
  55. Benton D, Williams C, Brown A. Impact of consuming a milk drink containing a probiotic on mood and cognition. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61(3):355–61. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 year. [PubMed: 17151594]
  56. Bermejo-Pareja F, Benito-Leon J, Vega S, et al. Incidence and subtypes of dementia in three elderly populations of central Spain. J Neurol Sci. 2008;264:1–2. 63–72. Full Text: Exclude - incidence study (risk factor not focus of study) [PubMed: 17727890]
  57. Berr C, Coudray C, Bonithon-Kopp C, et al. Demographic and cardiovascular risk factors in relation to antioxidant status: the EVA Study. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998;68(1):26–35. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes not AD/CD. [PubMed: 9503045]
  58. Berr C, Richard MJ, Gourlet V, et al. Enzymatic antioxidant balance and cognitive decline in aging--the EVA study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(2):133–8. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 15074569]
  59. Berr C, Richard MJ, Roussel AM, et al. Systemic oxidative stress and cognitive performance in the population-based EVA study. Etude du Vieillissement Arteriel. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998;24:7–8. 1202–8. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9626575]
  60. Bes A, Orgogozo JM, Poncet M, et al. A 24-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre pilot study of the efficacy and safety of nicergoline 60 mg per day in elderly hypertensive patients with leukoaraiosis. Eur J Neurol. 1999;6(3):313–22. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 10210912]
  61. Bicikova M, Ripova D, Hill M, et al. Plasma levels of 7-hydroxylated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) metabolites and selected amino-thiols as discriminatory tools of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2004;42(5):518–24. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 15202788]
  62. Bierman EJ, Comijs HC, Jonker C, et al. Effects of anxiety versus depression on cognition in later life. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13(8):686–93. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16085784]
  63. Bird AS, Blizard RA, Mann AH. Treating hypertension in the older person: an evaluation of the association of blood pressure level and its reduction with cognitive performance. J Hypertens. 1990;8(2):147–52. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 2162877]
  64. Birns J, Morris R, Jarosz J, et al. The structural and functional consequences of diurnal variations in blood pressure in treated patients with hypertensive cerebrovascular disease. J Hypertens. 2009;27(5):1042–8. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 19337131]
  65. Bisol Balardin J, Vedana G, Ludwig A, et al. Contextual memory and encoding strategies in young and older adults with and without depressive symptoms. Aging Ment Health. 2009;13(3):313–8. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 19484594]
  66. Blasko I, Jungwirth S, Jellinger K, et al. Effects of medications on plasma amyloid beta (Abeta) 42: longitudinal data from the VITA cohort. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42(11):946–55. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 18155247]
  67. Blasko I, Kemmler G, Krampla W, et al. Plasma amyloid beta protein 42 in non-demented persons aged 75 years: effects of concomitant medication and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26(8):1135–43. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 15917096]
  68. Bogner HR, Richie MB, de Vries HF, et al. Depression, cognition, apolipoprotein e genotype: latent class approach to identifying subtype. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17(4):344–52. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC2726040] [PubMed: 19307863]
  69. Bohannon AD, Fillenbaum GG, Pieper CF, et al. Relationship of race/ethnicity and blood pressure to change in cognitive function. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50(3):424–9. Full Text: Exclude - SPMSQ single test. [PubMed: 11943035]
  70. Boita F, Couderc LJ, Crestani B, et al. Evaluation of pulmonary function in the elderly. Intergroupe Pneumo Geriatrie SPLF-SFGG. Rev Mal Respir. 2006;23(6):619–28. Full Text: Exclude: non-English. [PubMed: 17202967]
  71. Boland LL, Shahar E, Iber C, et al. Measures of cognitive function in persons with varying degrees of sleep-disordered breathing: the Sleep Heart Health Study. J Sleep Res. 2002;11(3):265–72. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 12220323]
  72. Bond GE, Burr RL, McCurry SM, et al. Alcohol and cognitive performance: a longitudinal study of older Japanese Americans. The Kame Project Int Psychogeriatr. 2005;17(4):653–68. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 16185373]
  73. Boritz TZ, Angus L, Monette G, et al. An empirical analysis of autobiographical memory specificity subtypes in brief emotion-focused and client-centered treatments of depression. Psychother Res. 2008;18(5):584–93. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 18816008]
  74. Boron JB, Turiano NA, Willis SL, et al. Effects of cognitive training on change in accuracy in inductive reasoning ability. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007;62(3):P179–86. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 year. [PubMed: 17507586]
  75. Boron JB, Willis SL, Schaie KW. Cognitive training gain as a predictor of mental status. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007;62(1):P45–52. Full Text: Exclude - comparator not placebo/control. [PubMed: 17284557]
  76. Bosch J, Yusuf S, Pogue J, et al. Use of ramipril in preventing stroke: double blind randomised trial. BMJ. 2002;324(7339):699–702. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes not AD/CD. [PMC free article: PMC99052] [PubMed: 11909785]
  77. Bosch J, Yusuf S, Pogue J, et al. Use of ramipril in preventing stroke: double blind randomised trial.[see comment][summary for patients in J Fam Pract 2002 Jul;51(7):595; PMID: 12160488] BMJ. 2002;324(7339):699–702. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PMC free article: PMC99052] [PubMed: 11909785]
  78. Bottiggi KA, Salazar JC, Yu L, et al. Long-term cognitive impact of anticholinergic medications in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14(11):980–4. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17068321]
  79. Bouchard M, Mergler D, Baldwin M, et al. Neurobehavioral functioning after cessation of manganese exposure: a follow-up after 14 years. Am J Ind Med. 2007;50(11):831–40. Full Text: Exclude - observational N < 300. [PubMed: 17096374]
  80. Brady CB, Gaziano JM, Cxypoliski RA, et al. Homocysteine lowering and cognition in CKD: the Veterans Affairs homocysteine study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54(3):440–9. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PMC free article: PMC2748786] [PubMed: 19628319]
  81. Brady CB, Spiro A 3rd, Gaziano JM. Effects of age and hypertension status on cognition: the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Neuropsychology. 2005;19(6):770–7. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16351352]
  82. Braszko JJ, Karwowska-Polecka W, Halicka D, et al. Captopril and enalapril improve cognition and depressed mood in hypertensive patients. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2003;14(4):323–43. Full Text: Exclude - observational N < 300. [PubMed: 15198305]
  83. Brayne C, Best N, Muir M, et al. Five-year incidence and prediction of dementia and cognitive decline in a population sample of women aged 70–79 at baseline. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1997;12(11):1107–18. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 9427095]
  84. Brayne C, Gao L, Dewey M, et al. Dementia before death in ageing societies--the promise of prevention and the reality. PLoS Med. 2006;3(10):e397. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PMC free article: PMC1626550] [PubMed: 17076551]
  85. Brehaut JC, Raina P, Lindsay J. Does cognitive status modify the relationship between education and mortality? Evidence from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Int Psychogeriatr. 2004;16(1):75–91. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 15190998]
  86. Breitner JC, Welsh KA, Helms MJ, et al. Delayed onset of Alzheimer’s disease with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and histamine H2 blocking drugs. Neurobiol Aging. 1995;16(4):523–30. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 8544901]
  87. Broe GA, Creasey H, Jorm AF, et al. Health habits and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in old age: a prospective study on the effects of exercise, smoking and alcohol consumption. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998;22(5):621–3. Full Text: Exclude - no outcomes data. [PubMed: 9744220]
  88. Broe GA, Grayson DA, Creasey HM, et al. Anti-inflammatory drugs protect against Alzheimer disease at low doses. Arch Neurol. 2000;57(11):1586–91. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 11074790]
  89. Brown DR, Wang Y, Ward A, et al. Chronic psychological effects of exercise and exercise plus cognitive strategies. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(5):765–75. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 7674883]
  90. Brown ES, Vera E, Frol AB, et al. Effects of chronic prednisone therapy on mood and memory. J Affect Disord. 2007;99:1–3. 279–83. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PMC free article: PMC1852520] [PubMed: 17030063]
  91. Bruce DG, Davis WA, Casey GP, et al. Predictors of cognitive decline in older individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(11):2103–7. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PMC free article: PMC2571054] [PubMed: 18650375]
  92. Bruce DG, Davis WA, Casey GP, et al. Predictors of cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008;51(2):241–8. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 18060658]
  93. Bruehl H, Wolf OT, Sweat V, et al. Modifiers of cognitive function and brain structure in middle-aged and elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Brain Res. 2009;1280:186–94. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PMC free article: PMC2749480] [PubMed: 19463794]
  94. Buchman AS, Wilson RS, Boyle PA, et al. Grip strength and the risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroepidemiology. 2007;29:1–2. 66–73. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17925596]
  95. Burke V, Beilin LJ, Cutt HE, et al. Moderators and mediators of behaviour change in a lifestyle program for treated hypertensives: a randomized controlled trial (ADAPT) Health Educ Res. 2008;23(4):583–91. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17890759]
  96. Burke V, Mansour J, Mori TA, et al. Changes in cognitive measures associated with a lifestyle program for treated hypertensives: a randomized controlled trial (ADAPT) Health Educ Res. 2008;23(2):202–17. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17483103]
  97. Butler SM, Ashford JW, Snowdon DA. Age, education, and changes in the Mini-Mental State Exam scores of older women: findings from the Nun Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996;44(6):675–81. Full Text: Exclude - likely dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 8642159]
  98. Bygren LO, Weissglas G, Wikstrom BM, et al. Cultural participation and health: a randomized controlled trial among medical care staff. Psychosom Med. 2009;71(4):469–73. Full Text: Exclude - <80% >= 50 yr old. [PubMed: 19321851]
  99. Cancelli I, Gigli GL, Piani A, et al. Drugs with anticholinergic properties as a risk factor for cognitive impairment in elderly people: a population-based study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28(6):654–9. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 19011434]
  100. Cao YJ, Mager DE, Simonsick EM, et al. Physical and cognitive performance and burden of anticholinergics, sedatives, and ACE inhibitors in older women. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;83(3):422–9. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17713474]
  101. Capurso C, Solfrizzi V, D’Introno A, et al. Short arm of chromosome 11 and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease: catalase and cathepsin D gene polymorphisms. Neurosci Lett. 2008;432(3):237–42. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 18248894]
  102. Carles S Jr, Curnier D, Pathak A, et al. Effects of short-term exercise and exercise training on cognitive function among patients with cardiac disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2007;27(6):395–9. Full Text: Exclude - RCT N<50. [PubMed: 18197075]
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  104. Carlsson C, Gleason C, Hess T, et al. Effects of simvastatin on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and cognition in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2008;13(2):187–97. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 18376061]
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  106. Carriere I, Fourrier-Reglat A, Dartigues JF, et al. Drugs with anticholinergic properties, cognitive decline, and dementia in an elderly general population: the 3-city study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(14):1317–24. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC2933398] [PubMed: 19636034]
  107. Cascalheira JF, Joao SS, Pinhancos SS, et al. Serum homocysteine: interplay with other circulating and genetic factors in association to Alzheimer’s type dementia. Clin Biochem. 2009;42(9):783–90. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 19232336]
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  110. Cassidy K, Kotynia-English R, Acres J, et al. Association between lifestyle factors and mental health measures among community-dwelling older women. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2004;38:11–12. 940–7. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 15555029]
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  113. Cervilla JA, Prince M, Joels S, et al. Does depression predict cognitive outcome 9 to 12 years later? Evidence from a prospective study of elderly hypertensives. Psychol Med. 2000;30(5):1017–23. Full Text: Exclude - Inadequate outcomes. [PubMed: 12027039]
  114. Chaves ML, Camozzato AL, Godinho C, et al. Incidence of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease in Southern Brazil. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2009;22(3):181–7. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 19307320]
  115. Chen R, Hu Z, Wei L, et al. Is the relationship between syndromes of depression and dementia temporal? The MRC-ALPHA and Hefei-China studies. Psychol Med. 2009;39(3):425–30. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 18570699]
  116. Cherubini A, Andres-Lacueva C, Martin A, et al. Low plasma N-3 fatty acids and dementia in older persons: the InCHIANTI study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(10):1120–6. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC2646093] [PubMed: 17921425]
  117. Cherubini A, Martin A, Andres-Lacueva C, et al. Vitamin E levels, cognitive impairment and dementia in older persons: the InCHIANTI study. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26(7):987–94. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 15748776]
  118. Chiang CJ, Yip PK, Wu SC, et al. Midlife risk factors for subtypes of dementia: a nested case-control study in Taiwan. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;15(9):762–71. Full Text: Exclude - inadequate AD assessment. [PubMed: 17623813]
  119. Chiu CC, Su KP, Cheng TC, et al. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids monotherapy in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32(6):1538–44. Full Text: Exclude - RCT N<50. [PubMed: 18573585]
  120. Chodosh J, Kado DM, Seeman TE, et al. Depressive symptoms as a predictor of cognitive decline: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007;15(5):406–15. Full Text: Exclude - SPMSQ single test. [PubMed: 17353297]
  121. Christensen H, Jorm AF, Henderson AS, et al. The relationship between health and cognitive functioning in a sample of elderly people in the community. Age Ageing. 1994;23(3):204–12. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 8085505]
  122. Christensen H, Korten A, Jorm AF, et al. Activity levels and cognitive functioning in an elderly community sample. Age Ageing. 1996;25(1):72–80. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 8670533]
  123. Chui MH, Papanikolaou Y, Fontaine-Bisson B, et al. The TNF-alpha-238G > a single-nucleotide polymorphism protects against memory decline in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Behav Neurosci. 2007;121(3):619–24. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 17592954]
  124. Churchill JD, Galvez R, Colcombe S, et al. Exercise, experience and the aging brain. Neurobiol Aging. 2002;23(5):941–55. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 12392797]
  125. Clark MS, Bond MJ, Hecker JR. Environmental stress, psychological stress and allostatic load. Psychol Health Med. 2007;12(1):18–30. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 17129930]
  126. Clarke R, Harrison G, Richards S. Effect of vitamins and aspirin on markers of platelet activation, oxidative stress and homocysteine in people at high risk of dementia. J Intern Med. 2003;254(1):67–75. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 12823643]
  127. Clarke R, Sherliker P, Hin H, et al. Folate and vitamin B12 status in relation to cognitive impairment and anaemia in the setting of voluntary fortification in the UK. Br J Nutr. 2008;100(5):1054–9. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 18341758]
  128. Clarke R, Smith AD, Jobst KA, et al. Folate, vitamin B12, and serum total homocysteine levels in confirmed Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 1998;55(11):1449–55. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 9823829]
  129. Clarkson-Smith L, Hartley AA. Relationships between physical exercise and cognitive abilities in older adults. Psychol Aging. 1989;4(2):183–9. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 2789745]
  130. Cohen-Zion M, Stepnowsky C, Marler, et al. Changes in cognitive function associated with sleep disordered breathing in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(12):1622–7. Full Text: Exclude - observational N < 300. [PubMed: 11843994]
  131. Colcombe SJ, Kramer AF, Erickson KI, et al. Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(9):3316–21. Full Text: Exclude - outcome non-specified AD. [PMC free article: PMC373255] [PubMed: 14978288]
  132. Comijs HC, Dik MG, Deeg DJ, et al. The course of cognitive decline in older persons: results from the longitudinal aging study amsterdam. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2004;17(3):136–42. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 14739534]
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  134. Comijs HC, van Tilburg T, Geerlings SW, et al. Do severity and duration of depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline in older persons. Results of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2004;16(3):226–32. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 15462466]
  135. Conquer JA, Tierney MC, Zecevic J, et al. Fatty acid analysis of blood plasma of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, other types of dementia, and cognitive impairment. Lipids. 2000;35(12):1305–12. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 11201991]
  136. Corder EH, Beaumont H. Susceptibility groups for Alzheimer’s disease (OPTIMA cohort): integration of gene variants and biochemical factors. Mech Ageing Dev. 2007;128(1):76–82. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 17116317]
  137. Cordonnier C, van der Flier WM, Sluimer JD, et al. Prevalence and severity of microbleeds in a memory clinic setting. Neurology. 2006;66(9):1356–60. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 16682667]
  138. Correa Leite ML, Nicolosi A, Cristina S, et al. Nutrition and cognitive deficit in the elderly: a population study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(12):1053–8. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 11781671]
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  140. Corzo L, Zas R, Rodriguez S, et al. Decreased levels of serum nitric oxide in different forms of dementia. Neurosci Lett. 2007;420(3):263–7. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 17556102]
  141. Costa MM, Reus VI, Wolkowitz OM, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy and cognitive decline in memory-impaired post-menopausal women. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46(2):182–8. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 10418692]
  142. Cramer C, Haan M, Galea S, et al. Use of statins and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia in a cohort study. Neurology. 2008;71(5):344–50. Full Text: Exclude - outcome non-specific AD. [PMC free article: PMC2676946] [PubMed: 18663180]
  143. Crooks VC, Lubben J, Petitti DB, et al. Social network, cognitive function, and dementia incidence among elderly women. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(7):1221–7. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PMC free article: PMC2424087] [PubMed: 18511731]
  144. Crowe M, Andel R, Pedersen NL, et al. Do work-related stress and reactivity to stress predict dementia more than 30 years later. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2007;21(3):205–9. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 17804952]
  145. Csernansky JG, Dong H, Fagan AM, et al. Plasma cortisol and progression of dementia in subjects with Alzheimer-type dementia. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(12):2164–9. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PMC free article: PMC1780275] [PubMed: 17151169]
  146. Cui X, Lyness JM, Tu X, et al. Does depression precede or follow executive dysfunction? Outcomes in older primary care patients. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(8):1221–8. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 17671285]
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  149. Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, et al. Appendicular bone density and age predict hip fracture in women. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group.[see comment] JAMA. 1990;263(5):665–8. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes not AD/CD. [PubMed: 2404146]
  150. Cunningham CJ, Sinnott M, Denihan A, et al. Endogenous sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women with Alzheimer’s disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(3):1099–103. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 11238492]
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  152. Dam H. Depression in stroke patients 7 years following stroke. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;103(4):287–93. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 11328243]
  153. Dangour AD, Allen E, Elbourne D, et al. Fish consumption and cognitive function among older people in the UK: baseline data from the OPAL study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2009;13(3):198–202. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 19262951]
  154. Dargent-Molina P, Favier F, Grandjean H, et al. Fall-related factors and risk of hip fracture: the EPIDOS prospective study.[erratum appears in Lancet 1996 Aug 10;348(9024):416] Lancet. 1996;348(9021):145–9. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes not AD/CD. [PubMed: 8684153]
  155. Dartigues JF, Carcaillon L, Helmer C, et al. Vasodilators and nootropics as predictors of dementia and mortality in the PAQUID cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(3):395–9. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 17341242]
  156. Dartigues JF, Gagnon M, Barberger-Gateau P, et al. The Paquid epidemiological program on brain ageing. Neuroepidemiology. 1992;11(Suppl 1):14–8. Full Text: Exclude - methods paper. [PubMed: 1603241]
  157. Dassanayake T, Gawarammana IB, Weerasinghe V, et al. Auditory event-related potential changes in chronic occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120(9):1693–8. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PMC free article: PMC3145119] [PubMed: 19683468]
  158. de Castro MS, Fuchs FD, Santos MC, et al. Pharmaceutical care program for patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Report of a double-blind clinical trial with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Am J Hypertens. 2006;19(5):528–33. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 16647628]
  159. De Ronchi D, Fratiglioni L, Rucci P, et al. The effect of education on dementia occurrence in an Italian population with middle to high socioeconomic status. Neurology. 1998;50(5):1231–8. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9595968]
  160. Dealberto MJ, Pajot N, Courbon D, et al. Breathing disorders during sleep and cognitive performance in an older community sample: the EVA Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996;44(11):1287–94. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 8909342]
  161. Dealberto MJ, Sauron B, Derouesne C, et al. Factors associated with low cognitive performance in general practice. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1994;244(2):53–8. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 7948054]
  162. Deary IJ, Whalley LJ, Batty GD, et al. Physical fitness and lifetime cognitive change. Neurology. 2006;67(7):1195–200. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 17030752]
  163. Deary IJ, Whiteman MC, Pattie A, et al. Apolipoprotein e gene variability and cognitive functions at age 79: a follow-up of the Scottish mental survey of 1932. Psychol Aging. 2004;19(2):367–71. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 15222832]
  164. Deary IJ, Whiteman MC, Starr JM, et al. The impact of childhood intelligence on later life: following up the Scottish mental surveys of 1932 and 1947. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2004;86(1):130–47. Full Text: Exclude - methods paper. [PubMed: 14717632]
  165. Debling D, Amelang M, Hasselbach P, et al. Diabetes and cognitive function in a population-based study of elderly women and men. J Diabetes Complications. 2006;20(4):238–45. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16798475]
  166. DeCarli C, Miller BL, Swan GE, et al. Cerebrovascular and brain morphologic correlates of mild cognitive impairment in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Twin Study. Arch Neurol. 2001;58(4):643–7. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes non-specific AD. [PubMed: 11295996]
  167. DeCarli C, Mungas D, Harvey D, et al. Memory impairment, but not cerebrovascular disease, predicts progression of MCI to dementia. Neurology. 2004;63(2):220–7. Full Text: Exclude - observational N < 300. [PMC free article: PMC1820872] [PubMed: 15277612]
  168. Deeg DJH, van Tilburg T, Smit JH, et al. Attrition in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. The effect of differential inclusion in side studies. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002;55(4):319–28. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 11927198]
  169. den Heijer T, Launer LJ, Prins ND, et al. Association between blood pressure, white matter lesions, and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe. Neurology. 2005;64(2):263–7. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes non-specific AD. [PubMed: 15668423]
  170. Deschamps V, Astier X, Ferry M, et al. Nutritional status of healthy elderly persons living in Dordogne, France, and relation with mortality and cognitive or functional decline. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(4):305–12. Full Text: Exclude - observational N < 300. [PubMed: 11965506]
  171. Desmond DW, Tatemichi TK, Paik M, et al. Risk factors for cerebrovascular disease as correlates of cognitive function in a stroke-free cohort. Arch Neurol. 1993;50(2):162–6. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 8431135]
  172. desRosiers G, Hodges JR, Berrios G. The neuropsychological differentiation of patients with very mild Alzheimer’s disease and/or major depression. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995;43(11):1256–63. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 7594160]
  173. Devi G, Massimi S, Schultz S, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil for the treatment of menopause-related cognitive loss. Gender Medicine. 2007;4(4):352–8. Full Text: Exclude - RCT N<50. [PubMed: 18215726]
  174. Devore EE, Stampfer MJ, Breteler MM, et al. Dietary fat intake and cognitive decline in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(4):635–40. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PMC free article: PMC2660474] [PubMed: 19336640]
  175. Di Bari M, Pahor M, Franse LV, et al. Dementia and disability outcomes in large hypertension trials: lessons learned from the systolic hypertension in the elderly program (SHEP) trial. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153(1):72–8. Full Text: Exclude - not cognitive outcomes. [PubMed: 11159149]
  176. Di Bari M, Salti F, Nardi M, et al. Undertreatment of hypertension in community-dwelling older adults: a drug-utilization study in Dicomano, Italy. J Hypertens. 1999;17(11):1633–40. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 10608478]
  177. Diener HC, Sacco RL, Yusuf S, et al. Effects of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole versus clopidogrel and telmisartan on disability and cognitive function after recurrent stroke in patients with ischaemic stroke in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial: a double-blind, active and placebo-controlled study. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(10):875–84. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC2772657] [PubMed: 18757238]
  178. Dik M, Deeg DJ, Visser M, et al. Early life physical activity and cognition at old age. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003;25(5):643–53. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 12815502]
  179. Dik MG, Jonker C, Comijs HC, et al. Contribution of metabolic syndrome components to cognition in older individuals. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(10):2655–60. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 17563341]
  180. Dik MG, Jonker C, Hack CE, et al. Serum inflammatory proteins and cognitive decline in older persons. Neurology. 2005;64(8):1371–7. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 15851726]
  181. Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, et al. Smoking and dementia in male British doctors: prospective study. BMJ. 2000;320(7242):1097–102. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes non-specific AD. [PMC free article: PMC27350] [PubMed: 10775216]
  182. Doraiswamy P, Steffens D, McQuoid D. Statin use and hippocampal volumes in elderly subjects at risk for Alzheimer’s disease: a pilot observational study. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2004;19(5):275–8. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 15553983]
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  184. Dotson VM, Resnick SM, Zonderman AB. Differential association of concurrent, baseline, and average depressive symptoms with cognitive decline in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;16(4):318–30. Full Text: Exclude - Q2 continuous data only. [PMC free article: PMC2405887] [PubMed: 18378557]
  185. Downhill JE Jr, Robinson RG. Longitudinal assessment of depression and cognitive impairment following stroke. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1994;182(8):425–31. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 8040651]
  186. Draper K, Ponsford J. Cognitive functioning ten years following traumatic brain injury and rehabilitation. Neuropsychology. 2008;22(5):618–25. Full Text: Exclude - <80% >= 50 yo. [PubMed: 18763881]
  187. Dufouil C, Alperovitch A, Tzourio C. Influence of education on the relationship between white matter lesions and cognition. Neurology. 2003;60(5):831–6. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 12629242]
  188. Dufouil C, Ducimetiere P, Alperovitch A. Sex differences in the association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance. EVA Study Group Epidemiology of Vascular Aging. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146(5):405–12. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9290500]
  189. Dufouil C, Richard F, Fievet N, et al. APOE genotype, cholesterol level, lipid-lowering treatment, and dementia: the Three-City Study. Neurology. 2005;64(9):1531–8. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 15883313]
  190. Dunne MP, Macdonald D, Hartley LR. The effects of nicotine upon memory and problem solving performance. Physiol Behav. 1986;37(6):849–54. Full Text: Exclude - <80% >= 50 yo. [PubMed: 3786479]
  191. Edelstein SL, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E. Prospective association of smoking and alcohol use with cognitive function in an elderly cohort. J Womens Health. 1998;7(10):1271–81. Full Text: Exclude - outcome non-specific AD. [PubMed: 9929860]
  192. Elias MF, Elias PK, Sullivan LM, et al. Lower cognitive function in the presence of obesity and hypertension: the Framingham heart study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(2):260–8. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 12587008]
  193. Elias MF, Elias PK, Sullivan LM, et al. Obesity, diabetes and cognitive deficit: The Framingham Heart Study. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26(Suppl 1):11–6. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16223549]
  194. Elias MF, Robbins MA, Budge MM, et al. Arterial pulse wave velocity and cognition with advancing age. Hypertension. 2009;53(4):668–73. Full Text: Exclude - Risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC2716128] [PubMed: 19237680]
  195. Elias MF, Robbins MA, Elias PK, et al. A longitudinal study of blood pressure in relation to performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Health Psychol. 1998;17(6):486–93. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 9848798]
  196. Elias MF, Sullivan LM, D’Agostino RB, et al. Framingham stroke risk profile and lowered cognitive performance. Stroke. 2004;35(2):404–9. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 14726556]
  197. Elias MF, Sullivan LM, D’Agostino RB, et al. Homocysteine and cognitive performance in the Framingham offspring study: age is important. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;162(7):644–53. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16107567]
  198. Elias MF, Sullivan LM, Elias PK, et al. Left ventricular mass, blood pressure, and lowered cognitive performance in the Framingham offspring. Hypertension. 2007;49(3):439–45. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17224472]
  199. Elias MF, Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB, et al. Untreated blood pressure level is inversely related to cognitive functioning: the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;138(6):353–64. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 8213741]
  200. Elias PK, Elias MF, D’Agostino RB, et al. NIDDM and blood pressure as risk factors for poor cognitive performance. The Framingham Study Diabetes Care. 1997;20(9):1388–95. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9283785]
  201. Elias PK, Elias MF, Robbins MA, et al. Blood pressure-related cognitive decline: does age make a difference. Hypertension. 2004;44(5):631–6. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 15466661]
  202. Elkins JS, Johnston SC, Ziv E, et al. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and cognitive function in older women. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166(6):672–8. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17638709]
  203. Elkins JS, Yaffe K, Cauley JA, et al. Pre-existing hypertension and the impact of stroke on cognitive function. Ann Neurol. 2005;58(1):68–74. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 15984027]
  204. Emery CF, Shermer RL, Hauck ER, et al. Cognitive and psychological outcomes of exercise in a 1-year follow-up study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Health Psychol. 2003;22(6):598–604. Full Text: Exclude - RCT N<50. [PubMed: 14640857]
  205. Engelhart MJ, Ruitenberg A, Meijer J, et al. Plasma levels of antioxidants are not associated with Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive decline. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2005;19:2–3. 134–9. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 15627760]
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  315. Henderson VW, Guthrie JR, Dennerstein L. Serum lipids and memory in a population based cohort of middle age women. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(11):1530–5. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PMC free article: PMC1738219] [PubMed: 14617710]
  316. Henderson VW, Guthrie JR, Dudley EC, et al. Estrogen exposures and memory at midlife: a population-based study of women. Neurology. 2003;60(8):1369–71. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 12707448]
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  319. Hengstermann S, Laemmler G, Hanemann A, et al. Total serum homocysteine levels do not identify cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid elderly patients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2009;13(2):121–6. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 19214340]
  320. Hertzog C, Schaie KW, Gribbin K. Cardiovascular disease and changes in intellectual functioning from middle to old age. J Gerontol. 1978;33(6):872–83. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 744860]
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  327. Ho SC, Chan AS, Ho YP, et al. Effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on cognitive function in Chinese postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Menopause. 2007;14:489–99. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 17308499]
  328. Hofer SM, Christensen H, Mackinnon AJ, et al. Change in cognitive functioning associated with apoE genotype in a community sample of older adults. Psychol Aging. 2002;17(2):194–208. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 12061406]
  329. Hoffman LB, Schmeidler J, Lesser GT, et al. Less Alzheimer disease neuropathology in medicated hypertensive than nonhypertensive persons. Neurology. 2009;72(20):1720–6. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PMC free article: PMC2683736] [PubMed: 19228583]
  330. Hofman A, Ott A, Breteler MM, et al. Atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E, and prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in the Rotterdam Study.[see comment] Lancet. 1997;349(9046):151–4. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 9111537]
  331. Hogervorst E, Sadjimim T, Yesufu A, et al. High tofu intake is associated with worse memory in elderly Indonesian men and women. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26(1):50–7. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 18583909]
  332. Hohaus L. Remembering to age successfully: evaluation of a successful aging approach to memory enhancement. Int Psychogeriatr. 2007;19(1):137–50. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 16805927]
  333. Honig LS, Tang MX, Albert S, et al. Stroke and the risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003;60(12):1707–12. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 14676044]
  334. Houlihan LM, Harris SE, Luciano M, et al. Replication study of candidate genes for cognitive abilities: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Genes Brain Behav. 2009;8(2):238–47. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 19077115]
  335. Howe MN, Price IR. Effects of transdermal nicotine on learning, memory, verbal fluency, concentration, and general health in a healthy sample at risk for dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2001;13(4):465–75. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 12003253]
  336. Howe MN, Price IR. Effects of transdermal nicotine on learning, memory, verbal fluency, concentration, and general health in a healthy sample at risk for dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2001;13(4):465–75. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 12003253]
  337. Hsu HC. Does social participation by the elderly reduce mortality and cognitive impairment. Aging Ment Health. 2007;11(6):699–707. Full Text: Exclude - SPMSQ single test. [PubMed: 18074257]
  338. Hu L, Yue Y, Zuo PP, et al. Evaluation of neuroprotective effects of long-term low dose hormone replacement therapy on postmenopausal women brain hippocampus using magnetic resonance scanner. Chin Med Sci J. 2006;21(4):214–8. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 17249194]
  339. Huang CQ, Dong BR, Zhang YL, et al. Association of cognitive impairment with smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption, and exercise among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2009;22(3):190–6. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 19741330]
  340. Hughes TF, Andel R, Small BJ, et al. The association between social resources and cognitive change in older adults: evidence from the Charlotte County Healthy Aging Study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2008;63(4):P241–244. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 18689766]
  341. Huijbregts PP, Feskens EJ, Rasanen L, et al. Dietary patterns and cognitive function in elderly men in Finland, Italy and The Netherlands. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52(11):826–31. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9846596]
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  345. Israel L, Melac M, Milinkevitch D, et al. Drug therapy and memory training programs: a double-blind randomized trial of general practice patients with age-associated memory impairment. Int Psychogeriatr. 1994;6(2):155–70. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 7865703]
  346. Jack CR Jr, Petersen RC, Xu YC, et al. Prediction of AD with MRI-based hippocampal volume in mild cognitive impairment. Neurology. 1999;52(7):1397–403. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC2730146] [PubMed: 10227624]
  347. Jagger C, Matthews R, Matthews F, et al. The burden of diseases on disability-free life expectancy in later life. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(4):408–14. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 17452735]
  348. Jama JW, Launer LJ, Witteman JC, et al. Dietary antioxidants and cognitive function in a population-based sample of older persons. The Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144(3):275–80. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 8686696]
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  353. Jonsson L, Gerth W, Fastbom J. The potential economic consequences of cognitive improvement with losartan. Blood Press. 2002;11(1):46–52. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes not AD/CD. [PubMed: 11926351]
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  366. Karlamangla AS, Singer BH, Chodosh J, et al. Urinary cortisol excretion as a predictor of incident cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26(Suppl 1):80–4. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 16280187]
  367. Karlamangla AS, Singer BH, Reuben DB, et al. Increases in serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol may be beneficial in some high-functioning older adults: MacArthur studies of successful aging. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(4):487–94. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 15066061]
  368. Katsuya T, Baba S, Ishikawa K, et al. Epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E gene associates with lower blood pressure in young Japanese subjects: the Suita Study. J Hypertens. 2002;20(10):2017–21. Full Text: Exclude - Outcomes not AD/CD. [PubMed: 12359980]
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  383. Knight RG, McMahon J, Skeaff CM, et al. Reliable Change Index scores for persons over the age of 65 tested on alternate forms of the Rey AVLT. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22(4):513–8. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17452090]
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  411. Lee H, Wintermark M, Gean AD, et al. Focal lesions in acute mild traumatic brain injury and neurocognitive outcome: CT versus 3T MRI. J Neurotrauma. 2008;25(9):1049–56. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 18707244]
  412. Lee JY, Chang SM, Jang HS, et al. Illiteracy and the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease in the Yonchon County survey, Korea. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008;20(5):976–85. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 18452643]
  413. Lee L, Kang SA, Lee HO, et al. Relationships between dietary intake and cognitive function level in Korean elderly people. Public Health. 2001;115(2):133–8. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 11406779]
  414. Lee LK, Shahar S, Rajab N. Serum folate concentration, cognitive impairment, and DNA damage among elderly individuals in Malaysia. Nutr Res. 2009;29(5):327–34. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 19555814]
  415. Leibovici D, Ritchie K, Ledesert B, et al. The effects of wine and tobacco consumption on cognitive performance in the elderly: a longitudinal study of relative risk. Int J Epidemiol. 1999;28(1):77–81. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 10195668]
  416. Leibson CL, Rocca WA, Hanson VA, et al. Risk of dementia among persons with diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145(4):301–8. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 9054233]
  417. Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Reed T, Swan GE, et al. Association of sex steroid hormones with brain morphology and cognition in healthy elderly men. Neurology. 2005;65(10):1591–6. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16301487]
  418. Letenneur L, Dartigues JF, Commenges D, et al. Tobacco consumption and cognitive impairment in elderly people. A population-based study. Ann Epidemiol. 1994;4(6):449–54. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 7804499]
  419. Levine B, Stuss DT, Winocur G, et al. Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: effects on strategic behavior in relation to goal management. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2007;13(1):143–52. Full Text: Exclude - RCT N<50. [PubMed: 17166313]
  420. Li G, Cherrier MM, Tsuang DW, et al. Salivary cortisol and memory function in human aging. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27(11):1705–14. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 16274857]
  421. Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Langa KM, et al. Exposure to secondhand smoke and cognitive impairment in non-smokers: national cross sectional study with cotinine measurement. BMJ. 2009;338:b462. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC2643443] [PubMed: 19213767]
  422. Llewellyn DJ, Lang IA, Xie J, et al. Framingham Stroke Risk Profile and poor cognitive function: a population-based study. BMC Neurol. 2008;8:12. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC2386808] [PubMed: 18430227]
  423. Louis WJ, Mander AG, Dawson M, et al. Use of computerized neuropsychological tests (CANTAB) to assess cognitive effects of antihypertensive drugs in the elderly. Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. J Hypertens. 1999;17:1813–9. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 10703873]
  424. Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Mayeux R. Glycemic load and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. J Nutr Health Aging. 2007;11(3):238–41. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17508100]
  425. Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Miller J, et al. Higher folate intake is related to lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2008;12(9):648–50. Full Text: Exclude - summary duplicate of study outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC2727706] [PubMed: 18953463]
  426. Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Shea S, et al. Hyperinsulinemia and risk of Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2004;63(7):1187–92. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 15477536]
  427. Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Siddiqui M, et al. Alcohol intake and risk of dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(4):540–6. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of acope. [PubMed: 15066068]
  428. Luciano M, Gow AJ, Harris SE, et al. Cognitive ability at age 11 and 70 years, information processing speed, and APOE variation: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. Psychol Aging. 2009;24(1):129–38. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 19290744]
  429. Luciano M, Gow AJ, Taylor MD, et al. Apolipoprotein E is not related to memory abilities at 70 years of age. Behav Genet. 2009;39(1):6–14. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 18946731]
  430. Lupien S, Lecours AR, Lussier I, et al. Basal cortisol levels and cognitive deficits in human aging. J Neurosci. 1994;14:2893–903. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 8182446]
  431. Lupien SJ, Schwartz G, Ng YK, et al. The Douglas Hospital Longitudinal Study of Normal and Pathological Aging: summary of findings. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2005;30(5):328–34. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC1197277] [PubMed: 16151537]
  432. Luukinen H, Viramo P, Koski K, et al. Head injuries and cognitive decline among older adults: a population-based study. Neurology. 1999;52(3):557–62. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 10025787]
  433. MacKenzie SM, Dewar D, Stewart W, et al. The transcription of steroidogenic genes in the human cerebellum and hippocampus: a comparative survey of normal and Alzheimer’s tissue. J Endocrinol. 2008;196(1):123–30. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 18180323]
  434. MacLullich AM, Deary IJ, Starr JM, et al. Plasma cortisol levels, brain volumes and cognition in healthy elderly men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005;30(5):505–15. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 15721061]
  435. Madden DJ, Blumenthal JA, Allen PA, et al. Improving aerobic capacity in healthy older adults does not necessarily lead to improved cognitive performance. Psychol Aging. 1989;4(3):307–20. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 2803624]
  436. Mainous AG 3rd, Eschenbach SL, Wells BJ, et al. Cholesterol, transferrin saturation, and the development of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: results from an 18-year population-based cohort. Fam Med. 2005;37(1):36–42. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 15619154]
  437. Maioli F, Coveri M, Pagni P, et al. Conversion of mild cognitive impairment to dementia in elderly subjects: a preliminary study in a memory and cognitive disorder unit. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2007;44(Suppl 1):233–41. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 17317458]
  438. Mak Z, Kim JM, Stewart R. Leg length, cognitive impairment and cognitive decline in an African-Caribbean population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21(3):266–72. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 16477589]
  439. Malaguarnera M, Ferri R, Bella R, et al. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate in vascular dementia and in Alzheimer disease. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2004;42(9):1032–5. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 15497469]
  440. Mandal B, Roe B. Job loss, retirement and the mental health of older Americans. J Ment Health Policy Econ. 2008;11(4):167–76. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes not acceptably assessed. [PubMed: 19096091]
  441. Manly JJ, Bell-McGinty S, Tang MX, et al. Implementing diagnostic criteria and estimating frequency of mild cognitive impairment in an urban community. Arch Neurol. 2005;62(11):1739–46. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 16286549]
  442. Manly JJ, Touradji P, Tang MX, et al. Literacy and memory decline among ethnically diverse elders. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003;25(5):680–90. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 12815505]
  443. Manzato E, Roselli della Rovere G, Zambon S, et al. Cognitive functions are not affected by dietary fatty acids in elderly subjects in the Pro.V.A. study population. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2003;15(1):83–6. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 12841423]
  444. Marcellini F, Giuli C, Papa R, et al. Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study. Biogerontology. 2006;7:5–6. 339–45. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16969711]
  445. Marcopulos B, McLain C. Are our norms "normal"? A 4-year follow-up study of a biracial sample of rural elders with low education. Clin Neuropsychol. 2003;17(1):19–33. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 12854008]
  446. Marder K. Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2005;5(5):337–8. Full Text: Exclude - no primary data. [PubMed: 16131415]
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  448. Marin DB, Breuer B, Marin ML, et al. The relationship between apolipoprotein E, dementia, and vascular illness. Atherosclerosis. 1998;140(1):173–80. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 9733229]
  449. Marklund N, Peltonen M, Nilsson TK, et al. Low and high circulating cortisol levels predict mortality and cognitive dysfunction early after stroke. J Intern Med. 2004;256(1):15–21. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 15189361]
  450. Martin CK, Anton SD, Han H, et al. Examination of cognitive function during six months of calorie restriction: results of a randomized controlled trial. Rejuvenation Res. 2007;10(2):179–90. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PMC free article: PMC2664681] [PubMed: 17518698]
  451. Maruyama M, Matsui T, Tanji H, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid tau protein and periventricular white matter lesions in patients with mild cognitive impairment: implications for 2 major pathways. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(5):716–20. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 15148149]
  452. Marx BP, Brailey K, Proctor SP, et al. Association of time since deployment, combat intensity, and posttraumatic stress symptoms with neuropsychological outcomes following Iraq war deployment. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(9):996–1004. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 19736356]
  453. Mas E, Dupuy AM, Artero S, et al. Functional Vitamin E deficiency in ApoE4 patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2006;21(3):198–204. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 16407653]
  454. Masley S, Roetzheim R, Gualtieri T. Aerobic exercise enhances cognitive flexibility. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2009;16(2):186–93. Full Text: Exclude - <80% >= 50 yo. [PubMed: 19330430]
  455. Mathieu A, Mazza S, Decary A, et al. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea on cognitive function: a comparison between younger and older OSAS patients. Sleep Med. 2008;9(2):112–20. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 17513171]
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  459. McCaddon A, Hudson P, Davies G, et al. Homocysteine and cognitive decline in healthy elderly. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2001;12(5):309–13. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 11455131]
  460. McEntee WJ, Crook TH, Jenkyn LR, et al. Treatment of age-associated memory impairment with guanfacine. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1991;27(1):41–6. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 1862205]
  461. McGeer PL, McGeer EG. The inflammatory response system of brain: implications for therapy of Alzheimer and other neurodegenerative diseases. Brain Research - Brain Research Reviews. 1995;21(2):195–218. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 8866675]
  462. McGue M, Christensen K. Social activity and healthy aging: a study of aging Danish twins. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2007;10(2):255–65. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 17564515]
  463. McGuire LC, Ajani UA, Ford ES. Cognitive functioning in late life: the impact of moderate alcohol consumption. Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17(2):93–9. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 17027288]
  464. McGurn B, Deary IJ, Starr JM. Childhood cognitive ability and risk of late-onset Alzheimer and vascular dementia. Neurology. 2008;71(14):1051–6. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 18579804]
  465. McIlroy SP, Dynan KB, Lawson JT, et al. Moderately elevated plasma homocysteine, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, and risk for stroke, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease in Northern Ireland. Stroke. 2002;33(10):2351–6. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 12364720]
  466. McLaurin EY, Holliday SL, Williams P, et al. Predictors of cognitive dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Neurology. 2005;64(2):297–303. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 15668428]
  467. McLay RN, Maki PM, Lyketsos CG. Nulliparity and late menopause are associated with decreased cognitive decline. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003;15(2):161–7. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 12724456]
  468. McMorris T, Mielcarz G, Harris RC, et al. Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2007;14(5):517–28. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17828627]
  469. Meinert CL, McCaffrey LD, Breitner JC. Alzheimer’s Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial: design, methods, and baseline results. Alzheimers Dement. 2009;5(2):93–104. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC2866447] [PubMed: 19328435]
  470. Mendelsohn AB, Belle SH, Stoehr GP, et al. Use of antioxidant supplements and its association with cognitive function in a rural elderly cohort: the MoVIES Project. Monongahela Valley Independent Elders Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148(1):38–44. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9663402]
  471. Menec VH. The relation between everyday activities and successful aging: a 6-year longitudinal study. Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences. 2003;58(2):S74–82. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 12646596]
  472. Meyer JS, Rauch G, Rauch RA, et al. Risk factors for cerebral hypoperfusion, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. Neurobiol Aging. 2000;21(2):161–9. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 10867201]
  473. Meyer JS, Rauch GM, Crawford K, et al. Risk factors accelerating cerebral degenerative changes, cognitive decline and dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1999;14(12):1050–61. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 10607973]
  474. Meyer JS, Rauch GM, Rauch RA, et al. Cardiovascular and other risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;903:411–23. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 10818532]
  475. Middleton LE, Kirkland SA, Maxwell CJ, et al. Exercise: a potential contributing factor to the relationship between folate and dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(7):1095–8. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 17608885]
  476. Mielke MM, Zandi PP, Sjogren M, et al. High total cholesterol levels in late life associated with a reduced risk of dementia. Neurology. 2005;64(10):1689–95. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 15911792]
  477. Milders M, Ietswaart M, Crawford JR, et al. Impairments in theory of mind shortly after traumatic brain injury and at 1-year follow-up. Neuropsychology. 2006;20(4):400–8. Full Text: Exclude - <80% >= 50 yo. [PubMed: 16846258]
  478. Millar K, Nicoll JA, Thornhill S, et al. Long term neuropsychological outcome after head injury: relation to APOE genotype. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(8):1047–52. Full Text: Exclude - -<80% >= 50 yo. [PMC free article: PMC1738588] [PubMed: 12876232]
  479. Min SK, Moon IW, Ko RW, et al. Effects of transdermal nicotine on attention and memory in healthy elderly non-smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;159(1):83–8. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 11797074]
  480. Mitchell JL, Cruickshanks KJ, Klein BE, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and its association with cognitive impairment. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(20):2485–90. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 14609785]
  481. Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2002;17(6):267–77. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 12404671]
  482. Miyasaka Y, Barnes ME, Petersen RC, et al. Risk of dementia in stroke-free patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation: data from a community-based cohort. Eur Heart J. 2007;28(16):1962–7. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17459900]
  483. Mocchegiani E, Giacconi R, Costarelli L, et al. Zinc deficiency and IL-6-174G/C polymorphism in old people from different European countries: effect of zinc supplementation. ZINCAGE study. Exp Gerontol. 2008;43(5):433–44. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 18267353]
  484. Moceri VM, Kukull WA, Emanuel I, et al. Early-life risk factors and the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 2000;54(2):415–20. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 10668705]
  485. Moffat SD, Zonderman AB, Harman SM, et al. The relationship between longitudinal declines in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations and cognitive performance in older men. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(14):2193–8. Full Text: Exclude - <80% are >= 50 yo. [PubMed: 10904463]
  486. Moffat SD, Zonderman AB, Metter EJ, et al. Longitudinal assessment of serum free testosterone concentration predicts memory performance and cognitive status in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(11):5001–7. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 12414864]
  487. Mooijaart SP, Gussekloo J, Frolich M, et al. Homocysteine, vitamin B-12, and folic acid and the risk of cognitive decline in old age: the Leiden 85-Plus study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(4):866–71. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 16210718]
  488. Mori K, Inatomi S, Ouchi K, et al. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2009;23(3):367–72. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 18844328]
  489. Morris MS, Jacques PF, Rosenberg IH, et al. Folate and vitamin B-12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive impairment in older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(1):193–200. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC1828842] [PubMed: 17209196]
  490. Morrison MF, Redei E, TenHave T, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and psychiatric measures in a frail, elderly residential care population. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47(2):144–50. Full Text: Exclude - selected population. [PubMed: 10664831]
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  492. Mortimer JA, Snowdon DA, Markesbery WR. Small head circumference is associated with less education in persons at risk for Alzheimer disease in later life. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2008;22(3):249–54. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 18580587]
  493. Muldoon MF, Barger SD, Ryan C, et al. Effects of lovastatin on cognitive function and psychological well-being. Am J Med. 2000;108(7):538–46. Full Text: Exclude - <80% >= 50 yo. [PubMed: 10806282]
  494. Muldoon MF, Ryan CM, Sereika SM, et al. Randomized trial of the effects of simvastatin on cognitive functioning in hypercholesterolemic adults.[see comment] Am J Med. 2004;117(11):823–9. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 15589485]
  495. Muldoon MF, Waldstein SR, Ryan CM, et al. Effects of six anti-hypertensive medications on cognitive performance. J Hypertens. 2002;20(8):1643–52. Full Text: Exclude - <80% >= 50 yo. [PubMed: 12172327]
  496. Murray MD, Lane KA, Gao S, et al. Preservation of cognitive function with antihypertensive medications: a longitudinal analysis of a community-based sample of African Americans. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(18):2090–6. Full Text: Exclude - <60 of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 12374517]
  497. Natale V, Albertazzi P, Zini M, et al. Exploration of cyclical changes in memory and mood in postmenopausal women taking sequential combined oestrogen and progestogen preparations. BJOG. 2001;108(3):286–90. Full Text: Exclude - sample not randomly assigned. [PubMed: 11281470]
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  499. Nemetz PN, Leibson C, Naessens JM, et al. Traumatic brain injury and time to onset of Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(1):32–40. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 9883791]
  500. Newman GC, Bang H, Hussain SI, et al. Association of diabetes, homocysteine, and HDL with cognition and disability after stroke. Neurology. 2007;69(22):2054–62. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 18040011]
  501. Newman MF, Grocott HP, Mathew JP, et al. Report of the substudy assessing the impact of neurocognitive function on quality of life 5 years after cardiac surgery. Stroke. 2001;32(12):2874–81. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 11739990]
  502. Nguyen HT, Black SA, Ray LA, et al. Predictors of decline in MMSE scores among older Mexican Americans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002;57(3):M181–5. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 11867656]
  503. Nilson LN, Backman L, Sallsten G, et al. Dose-related cognitive deficits among floor layers with previous heavy exposure to solvents. Arch Environ Health. 2003;58(4):208–17. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 14655900]
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  506. Nilsson P, Gullberg G, Ekesbo R, et al. No impaired cognitive function in treated patients with mild-moderate hypertension compared to normotensive controls. Blood Press. 1998;7(4):209–13. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 9858112]
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  508. Nilsson SE, Read S, Berg S, et al. Low systolic blood pressure is associated with impaired cognitive function in the oldest old: longitudinal observations in a population-based sample 80 years and older. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2007;19(1):41–7. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 17332720]
  509. Nilsson SE, Takkinen S, Tryding N, et al. Association of biochemical values with morbidity in the elderly: a population-based Swedish study of persons aged 82 or more years. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2003;63:7–8. 457–66. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 14743954]
  510. Nishinaga M, Takata J, Okumiya K, et al. High morning home blood pressure is associated with a loss of functional independence in the community-dwelling elderly aged 75 years or older. Hypertens Res. 2005;28(8):657–63. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16392770]
  511. Nolin P. Executive memory dysfunctions following mild traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006;21(1):68–75. Full Text: Exclude - <80% are >= 50 yo. [PubMed: 16456393]
  512. Nooyens AC, van Gelder BM, Verschuren WM. Smoking and cognitive decline among middle-aged men and women: the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(12):2244–50. Full Text: Exclude - <80% >= 50 yo. [PMC free article: PMC2636537] [PubMed: 18923116]
  513. ClinicalTrialsgov [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2000. Novartis Efficacy and safety of Rivastigmine in patients with mild cognitive impairment. [cited 2009 Jul 09]. Available from: http:​//clinicaltrials​.gov/ct/show/nct00134953.2005. Full Text: Exclude - no primary data.
  514. Nurk E, Refsum H, Tell GS, et al. Plasma total homocysteine and memory in the elderly: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Ann Neurol. 2005;58(6):847–57. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 16254972]
  515. Nybo M, Andersen K, Sorensen GL, et al. Serum surfactant protein D is correlated to development of dementia and augmented mortality. Clin Immunol. 2007;123(3):333–7. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17449329]
  516. Nys GM, van Zandvoort MJ, de Kort PL, et al. The prognostic value of domain-specific cognitive abilities in acute first-ever stroke. Neurology. 2005;64(5):821–7. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 15753416]
  517. Obidi CS, Pugeda JP, Fan X, et al. Race moderates age-related cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes. Exp Aging Res. 2008;34(2):114–25. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 18351498]
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  521. O’Hara R, Yesavage JA, Kraemer HC, et al. The APOE epsilon4 allele is associated with decline on delayed recall performance in community-dwelling older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46(12):1493–8. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 9848808]
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  523. Okereke OI, Pollak MN, Hu FB, et al. Plasma C-peptide levels and rates of cognitive decline in older, community-dwelling women without diabetes. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33(4):455–61. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC2396343] [PubMed: 18261857]
  524. Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Andres P, et al. Dietary intake and cognitive function in a group of elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(4):803–9. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9322553]
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  526. Oswald WD, Rupprecht R, Gunzelmann T, et al. The SIMA-project: effects of 1 year cognitive and psychomotor training on cognitive abilities of the elderly. Behav Brain Res. 1996;78(1):67–72. Full Text: Exclude - sample not randomly assigned. [PubMed: 8793039]
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  530. Ownby RL. Donepezil and vitamin E for mild cognitive impairment. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2006;8(1):9. Full Text: Exclude - no primary data. [PubMed: 16513036]
  531. Paganini-Hill A, Henderson VW. Estrogen replacement therapy and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(19):2213–7. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 8885820]
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  549. Pefanco MA, Kenny AM, Kaplan RF, et al. The effect of 3-year treatment with 0.25 mg/day of micronized 17beta-estradiol on cognitive function in older postmenopausal women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(3):426–31. Full Text: Exclude - does not measure cognitive decline. [PubMed: 17341247]
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  552. Perez-Stable EJ, Halliday R, Gardiner PS, et al. The effects of propranolol on cognitive function and quality of life: a randomized trial among patients with diastolic hypertension. Am J Med. 2000;108(5):359–65. Full Text: Exclude - < 80% >= 50 yo. [PubMed: 10759091]
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  558. Peterson SE, Stull MJ, Collins MW, et al. Neurocognitive function of emergency department patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;53(6):796–803. e1. Full Text: Exclude - <80% >= 50 yo. [PubMed: 19167782]
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  565. Ponholzer A, Madersbacher S, Rauchenwald M, et al. Serum androgen levels and their association to depression and Alzheimer dementia in a cohort of 75-year-old men over 5 years: results of the VITA study. Int J Impot Res. 2009;21(3):187–91. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 19404273]
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  580. Rastas S, Verkkoniemi A, Polvikoski T, et al. Atrial fibrillation, stroke, and cognition: a longitudinal population-based study of people aged 85 and older. Stroke. 2007;38(5):1454–60. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 17395865]
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  620. Rozzini R, Ferrucci L, Losonczy K, et al. Protective effect of chronic NSAID use on cognitive decline in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996;44(9):1025–9. Full Text: Exclude - SPMSQ single test. [PubMed: 8790225]
  621. Ryglewicz D, Rodo M, Kunicki PK, et al. Plasma antioxidant activity and vascular dementia. J Neurol Sci. 2002:203–204. 195–7. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 12417383]
  622. Saag KG, Rubenstein LM, Chrischilles EA, et al. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and cognitive decline in the elderly. J Rheumatol. 1995;22(11):2142–7. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 8596158]
  623. Sabia S, Kivimaki M, Shipley MJ, et al. Body mass index over the adult life course and cognition in late midlife: the Whitehall II Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(2):601–7. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC2714395] [PubMed: 19073790]
  624. Sabia S, Nabi H, Kivimaki M, et al. Health behaviors from early to late midlife as predictors of cognitive function: The Whitehall II study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170(4):428–37. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC2727179] [PubMed: 19574344]
  625. Sachdev PS, Brodaty H, Valenzuela MJ, et al. Clinical determinants of dementia and mild cognitive impairment following ischaemic stroke: the Sydney Stroke Study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2006;21:5–6. 275–83. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 16484805]
  626. Sachs-Ericsson N, Blazer DG. Racial differences in cognitive decline in a sample of community-dwelling older adults: the mediating role of education and literacy. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13(11):968–75. Full Text: Exclude - SPMSQ single test. [PubMed: 16286440]
  627. Sachs-Ericsson N, Joiner T, Plant EA, et al. The influence of depression on cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly persons. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005;13(5):402–8. Full Text: Exclude - SPMSQ single test. [PubMed: 15879589]
  628. Sacktor N, Gray S, Kawas C, et al. Systolic blood pressure within an intermediate range may reduce memory loss in an elderly hypertensive cohort. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1999;12(1):1–6. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 10447147]
  629. Saczynski JS, Jonsdottir MK, Garcia ME, et al. Cognitive impairment: an increasingly important complication of type 2 diabetes: the age, gene/environment susceptibility--Reykjavik study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168(10):1132–9. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC2727243] [PubMed: 18836152]
  630. Salloway S, Correia S, Richardson S. Key lessons learned from short-term treatment trials of cholinesterase inhibitors for amnestic MCI. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008;20(1):40–6. Full Text: Exclude - no primary data. [PubMed: 17597552]
  631. Salloway S, Ferris S, Kluger A, et al. Efficacy of donepezil in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 2004;63(4):651–7. Full Text: Exclude - not longitufinal SB-AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 15326237]
  632. Salminen EK, Portin RI, Koskinen AI, et al. Estradiol and cognition during androgen deprivation in men with prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2005;103(7):1381–7. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 15717315]
  633. Samieri C, Feart C, Letenneur L, et al. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and depressive symptomatology are independent predictors of dementia risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(3):714–21. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 18779288]
  634. Santanello NC, Barber B, Applegate W, et al. Effect of pharmacologic lipid lowering on health-related quality of life in older persons: results from the Cholesterol Reduction in Seniors Program (CRISP) Pilot Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45(1):8–14. Full Text: Exclude - AD/VD f/u < 1 year. [PubMed: 8994481]
  635. Saxby BK, Harrington F, McKeith IG, et al. Effects of hypertension on attention, memory, and executive function in older adults. Health Psychol. 2003;22(6):587–91. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 14640855]
  636. Scarmeas N, Albert SM, Manly JJ, et al. Education and rates of cognitive decline in incident Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77(3):308–16. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PMC free article: PMC2077720] [PubMed: 16484637]
  637. Scarmeas N, Stern Y, Mayeux R, et al. Mediterranean diet, Alzheimer disease, and vascular mediation. Arch Neurol. 2006;63(12):1709–17. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC3024906] [PubMed: 17030648]
  638. Schantz SL, Sweeney AM, Gardiner JC, et al. Neuropsychological assessment of an aging population of Great Lakes fisheaters. Toxicol Ind Health. 1996;12:3–4. 403–17. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 8843557]
  639. Schippling S, Kontush A, Arlt S, et al. Increased lipoprotein oxidation in Alzheimer’s disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;28(3):351–60. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 10699746]
  640. Schmand B, Jonker C, Geerlings MI, et al. Subjective memory complaints in the elderly: depressive symptoms and future dementia. Br J Psychiatry. 1997;171:373–6. Full Text: Exclude - AD f/u < 2 yr. [PubMed: 9373429]
  641. Schmand B, Smit J, Lindeboom J, et al. Low education is a genuine risk factor for accelerated memory decline and dementia. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997;50(9):1025–33. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 9363037]
  642. Schmand B, Smit JH, Geerlings MI, et al. The effects of intelligence and education on the development of dementia. A test of the brain reserve hypothesis. Psychol Med. 1997;27(6):1337–44. Full Text: Exxclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 9403905]
  643. Schmidt R, Fazekas F, Koch M, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging cerebral abnormalities and neuropsychologic test performance in elderly hypertensive subjects. A case-control study. Arch Neurol. 1995;52(9):905–10. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 7661729]
  644. Schmidt R, Hayn M, Reinhart B, et al. Plasma antioxidants and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older adults: results of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46(11):1407–10. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9809763]
  645. Schoeman R, Carey P, Seedat S. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in South African adolescents: a case-control study of cognitive deficits. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197(4):244–50. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 19363380]
  646. Scott RD, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E, et al. The association of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and cognitive function in an older cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46(10):1217–22. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9777902]
  647. Scuteri A, Coluccia R, Castello L, et al. Left ventricular mass increase is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly independently of blood pressure. Eur Heart J. 2009;30(12):1525–9. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 19406864]
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  650. Seeman TE, Huang MH, Bretsky P, et al. Education and APOE-e4 in longitudinal cognitive decline: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005;60(2):P74–83. Full Text: Exclude - SPMSQ single test. [PubMed: 15746021]
  651. Seeman TE, McEwen BS, Singer BH, et al. Increase in urinary cortisol excretion and memory declines: MacArthur studies of successful aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(8):2458–65. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 9253318]
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  653. Selhub J, Morris MS, Jacques PF, et al. Folate-vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(2):702S–6S. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC2647758] [PubMed: 19141696]
  654. Senanarong V, Jamjumrus P, Harnphadungkit K, et al. Risk factors for dementia and impaired cognitive status in Thai elderly. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001;84(4):468–74. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 11460955]
  655. Sendelbach S, Lindquist R, Watanuki S, et al. Correlates of neurocognitive function of patients after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Am J Crit Care. 2006;15(3):290–8. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 16632771]
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  657. Serrano S, Domingo J, Rodriguez-Garcia E, et al. Frequency of cognitive impairment without dementia in patients with stroke: a two-year follow-up study. Stroke. 2007;38(1):105–10. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 17158334]
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  660. Shahinian VB, Kuo YF, Freeman JL, et al. Risk of the "androgen deprivation syndrome" in men receiving androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(4):465–71. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PMC free article: PMC2222554] [PubMed: 16505268]
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  663. Shepherd CE, Piguet O, Broe GA, et al. Histocompatibility antigens, aspirin use and cognitive performance in non-demented elderly subjects. J Neuroimmunol. 2004;148:1–2. 178–82. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 14975599]
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  667. Sink KM, Leng X, Williamson J, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and cognitive decline in older adults with hypertension: results from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(13):1195–202. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes inadequately assessed. [PMC free article: PMC2881686] [PubMed: 19597068]
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  678. Sobel E, Davanipour Z, Sulkava R, et al. Occupations with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a possible risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142(5):515–24. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 7677130]
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  680. Solfrizzi V, Colacicco AM, D’Introno A, et al. Dietary fatty acids intakes and rate of mild cognitive impairment. The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Exp Gerontol. 2006;41(6):619–27. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 16697546]
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  682. Solfrizzi V, Panza F, Torres F, et al. High monounsaturated fatty acids intake protects against age-related cognitive decline. Neurology. 1999;52(8):1563–9. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 10331679]
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  686. Sparks D, Kryscio R, Sabbagh M, et al. Reduced risk of incident AD with elective statin use in a clinical trial cohort. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2008;5(4):416–21. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 18690839]
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  688. Spindler AA, Renvall MA. Nutritional status and psychometric test scores in cognitively impaired elders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1989;561:167–77. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 2735676]
  689. Spinks H, Dalgleish T. Attentional processing and levels of symptomatology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): a preliminary longitudinal study. J Affect Disord. 2001;62(3):229–32. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 11223112]
  690. Stanley TO, Mackensen GB, Grocott HP, et al. The impact of postoperative atrial fibrillation on neurocognitive outcome after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Anesth Analg. 2002;94(2):290–5. table of contents. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 11812686]
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  692. Starr JM, Deary IJ, Fox H, et al. Blood pressure and cognition in the Aberdeen 1936 birth cohort. Gerontology. 2007;53(6):432–7. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 18042996]
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  694. Starr JM, Deary IJ, Inch S, et al. Age-associated cognitive decline in healthy old people. Age Ageing. 1997;26(4):295–300. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9271293]
  695. Starr JM, Deary IJ, Inch S, et al. Blood pressure and cognitive decline in healthy old people. J Hum Hypertens. 1997;11(12):777–81. Full Text: Exclude - not general population. [PubMed: 9468003]
  696. Starr JM, McGurn B, Whiteman M, et al. Life long changes in cognitive ability are associated with prescribed medications in old age. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004;19(4):327–32. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 15065225]
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  700. Steffens DC, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Burke JR, et al. Methodology and preliminary results from the neurocognitive outcomes of depression in the elderly study. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2004;17(4):202–11. Full Text: Exclude - not applicable population. [PubMed: 15533991]
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  703. Stewart R, Hirani V. Dental health and cognitive impairment in an English national survey population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(9):1410–4. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17767683]
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  705. Stewart R, Prince M, Mann A. Age, vascular risk, and cognitive decline in an older, British, African-Caribbean population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(11):1547–53. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 14687383]
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  710. Sun Q, Townsend MK, Okereke OI, et al. Adiposity and weight change in mid-life in relation to healthy survival after age 70 in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009;339:b3796. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD unacceptably assessed. [PMC free article: PMC3230231] [PubMed: 19789407]
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  720. Tang WK, Chan SS, Chiu HF, et al. Frequency and determinants of prestroke dementia in a Chinese cohort. J Neurol. 2004;251(5):604–8. Full Text: Exclude - <60% of dementia is AD. [PubMed: 15164196]
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  722. Tedesco MA, Ratti G, Mennella S, et al. Comparison of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide on cognitive function and quality of life in hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens. 1999;12:1130–4. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 10604491]
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  726. Thyrum ET, Blumenthal JA, Madden DJ, et al. Family history of hypertension influences neurobehavioral function in hypertensive patients. Psychosom Med. 1995;57(5):496–500. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 8552742]
  727. Tierney MC, Yao C, Kiss A, et al. Neuropsychological tests accurately predict incident Alzheimer disease after 5 and 10 years. Neurology. 2005;64(11):1853–9. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 15955933]
  728. Tilvis RS, Kahonen-Vare MH, Jolkkonen J, et al. Predictors of cognitive decline and mortality of aged people over a 10-year period. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004;59(3):268–74. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 15031312]
  729. Tinetti ME, McAvay GJ, Fried TR, et al. Health outcome priorities among competing cardiovascular, fall injury, and medication-related symptom outcomes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(8):1409–16. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC3494099] [PubMed: 18662210]
  730. Toobert DJ, Strycker LA, Glasgow RE, et al. Enhancing support for health behavior change among women at risk for heart disease: the Mediterranean Lifestyle Trial. Health Educ Res. 2002;17(5):574–85. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 12408202]
  731. Toro P, Schonknecht P, Schroder J. Type II diabetes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: results from a prospective population-based study in Germany. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;16(4):687–91. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 19387105]
  732. Trompet S, de Craen AJ, Slagboom P, et al. Genetic variation in the interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme associates with cognitive function. The PROSPER study. Brain. 2008;131:1069–77. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 18304957]
  733. Trompet S, Westendorp RG, Kamper AM, et al. Use of calcium antagonists and cognitive decline in old age. The Leiden 85-plus study. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29(2):306–8. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 17101196]
  734. Troyer AK, Murphy KJ, Anderson ND, et al. Changing everyday memory behaviour in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomised controlled trial. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2008;18(1):65–88. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 17943615]
  735. Tsivgoulis G, Alexandrov AV, Wadley VG, et al. Association of higher diastolic blood pressure levels with cognitive impairment. Neurology. 2009;73(8):589–95. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PMC free article: PMC2731621] [PubMed: 19704077]
  736. Tsutsumi T, Don BM, Zaichkowsky LD, et al. Physical fitness and psychological benefits of strength training in community dwelling older adults. Appl Human Sci. 1997;16(6):257–66. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 9545677]
  737. Tucker KL, Qiao N, Scott T, et al. High homocysteine and low B vitamins predict cognitive decline in aging men: the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(3):627–35. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 16155277]
  738. Tucker-Drob EM, Johnson KE, Jones RN. The cognitive reserve hypothesis: a longitudinal examination of age-associated declines in reasoning and processing speed. Dev Psychol. 2009;45(2):431–46. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC3230274] [PubMed: 19271829]
  739. Uusvaara J, Pitkala KH, Tienari PJ, et al. Association between anticholinergic drugs and apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and poorer cognitive function in older cardiovascular patients: a cross-sectional study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(3):427–31. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 19278396]
  740. van de Rest O, Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, et al. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial. Neurology. 2008;71(6):430–8. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 18678826]
  741. van den Berg E, Biessels GJ, de Craen AJ, et al. The metabolic syndrome is associated with decelerated cognitive decline in the oldest old. Neurology. 2007;69(10):979–85. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 17785666]
  742. van den Berg E, de Craen AJ, Biessels GJ, et al. The impact of diabetes mellitus on cognitive decline in the oldest of the old: a prospective population-based study. Diabetologia. 2006;49(9):2015–23. Full Text: Exclude - obervational N<300. [PubMed: 16804671]
  743. van den Berg E, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, et al. Cognitive functioning in elderly persons with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome: the Hoorn study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26(3):261–9. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 18841011]
  744. Van den Heuvel DM, ten Dam VH, de Craen AJ, et al. Increase in periventricular white matter hyperintensities parallels decline in mental processing speed in a non-demented elderly population. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006;77(2):149–53. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PMC free article: PMC2077562] [PubMed: 16421114]
  745. van den Heuvel N, Smits CH, Deeg DJ, et al. Personality: a moderator of the relation between cognitive functioning and depression in adults aged 55–85. J Affect Disord. 1996;41(3):229–40. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 8988456]
  746. van Dongen MC, van Rossum E, Kessels AG, et al. The efficacy of ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: new results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48(10):1183–94. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 11037003]
  747. van Gelder BM, Tijhuis M, Kalmijn S, et al. Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and subsequent 5-y cognitive decline in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(4):1142–7. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 17413117]
  748. van Gelder BM, Tijhuis MA, Kalmijn S, et al. Physical activity in relation to cognitive decline in elderly men: the FINE Study. Neurology. 2004;63(12):2316–21. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 15623693]
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  750. Van Ness PH, Kasl SV. Religion and cognitive dysfunction in an elderly cohort. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2003;58(1):S21–9. Full Text: Exclude - SPMSQ single test. [PMC free article: PMC4353608] [PubMed: 12496305]
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  752. van Swieten JC, Geyskes GG, Derix MM, et al. Hypertension in the elderly is associated with white matter lesions and cognitive decline. Ann Neurol. 1991;30(6):825–30. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 1789694]
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  754. Vanhanen M, Koivisto K, Kuusisto J, et al. Cognitive function in an elderly population with persistent impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(3):398–402. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 9540022]
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  756. Vaughan C, Goldstein FC, Tenover JL. Exogenous testosterone alone or with finasteride does not improve measurements of cognition in healthy older men with low serum testosterone. J Androl. 2007;28(6):875–82. Full Text: Exclude - RCT N<50. [PubMed: 17609296]
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  763. Vinkers DJ, Gussekloo J, Stek ML, et al. Temporal relation between depression and cognitive impairment in old age: prospective population based study. BMJ. 2004;329(7471):881. Full Text: Exclude - Q2 continuous data only. [PMC free article: PMC523108] [PubMed: 15345599]
  764. Vinkers DJ, Stek ML, van der Mast RC, et al. Generalized atherosclerosis, cognitive decline, and depressive symptoms in old age. Neurology. 2005;65(1):107–12. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 16009894]
  765. Viramo P, Luukinen H, Koski K, et al. Orthostatic hypotension and cognitive decline in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999;47(5):600–4. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 10323655]
  766. Viswanath B, Janardhan Reddy YC, Kumar KJ, et al. Cognitive endophenotypes in OCD: a study of unaffected siblings of probands with familial OCD. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33(4):610–5. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 19272409]
  767. Vitaliano PP, Echeverria D, Yi J, et al. Psychophysiological mediators of caregiver stress and differential cognitive decline. Psychol Aging. 2005;20(3):402–11. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 16248700]
  768. Vlad SC, Miller DR, Kowall NW, et al. Protective effects of NSAIDs on the development of Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2008;70(19):1672–7. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PMC free article: PMC2758242] [PubMed: 18458226]
  769. Vogiatzoglou A, Refsum H, Johnston C, et al. Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly. Neurology. 2008;71(11):826–32. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 18779510]
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  771. Wadley VG, McClure LA, Howard VJ, et al. Cognitive status, stroke symptom reports, and modifiable risk factors among individuals with no diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. Stroke. 2007;38(4):1143–7. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 17322077]
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  773. Waldstein SR, Brown JR, Maier KJ, et al. Diagnosis of hypertension and high blood pressure levels negatively affect cognitive function in older adults. Ann Behav Med. 2005;29(3):174–80. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 15946111]
  774. Waldstein SR, Katzel LI. Gender differences in the relation of hypertension to cognitive function in older adults. Neurol Res. 2004;26(5):502–6. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 15265267]
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  779. Wang JY, Zhou DH, Li J, et al. Leisure activity and risk of cognitive impairment: the Chongqing aging study. Neurology. 2006;66(6):911–3. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 16291928]
  780. Wang L, van Belle G, Kukull WB, et al. Predictors of functional change: a longitudinal study of nondemented people aged 65 and older. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50(9):1525–34. Full Text: Exclude - outcomes unacceptably assessed. [PubMed: 12383150]
  781. Wang XM, Fu H, Liu GX, et al. Effect of modified wuzi yanzong granule on patients with mild cognitive impairment from oxidative damage aspect. Chin J Integr Med. 2007;13(4):258–63. Full Text: Exclude - non-Western country. [PubMed: 18180889]
  782. Wardle J, Rogers P, Judd P, et al. Randomized trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering dietary treatment on psychological function. Am J Med. 2000;108(7):547–53. Full Text: Exclude - AD f/u < 2 yr. [PubMed: 10806283]
  783. Weber P, Meluzinova H, Kubesova H, et al. Insulin treatment in diabetics 75+ years: experiences and results in outpatient care. Adv Gerontol. 2008;21(1):143–7. Full Text: Exclude - comparator is not placebo/control. [PubMed: 18546839]
  784. Weil M, Bressler J, Parsons P, et al. Blood mercury levels and neurobehavioral function. JAMA. 2005;293(15):1875–82. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 15840862]
  785. Wenisch E, Cantegreil-Kallen I, De Rotrou J, et al. Cognitive stimulation intervention for elders with mild cognitive impairment compared with normal aged subjects: preliminary results. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2007;19(4):316–22. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 17726363]
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  790. White LR, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, et al. Brain aging and midlife tofu consumption. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2):242–55. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 10763906]
  791. Whitmer RA, Gunderson EP, Quesenberry CP Jr, et al. Body mass index in midlife and risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007;4(2):103–9. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 17430231]
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  793. Wilkie FL, Eisdorfer C, Nowlin JB. Memory and blood pressure in the aged. Exp Aging Res. 1976;2(1):3–16. Full Text: Exclude - observational N<300. [PubMed: 1017437]
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  796. Wilson RS, Barnes LL, Bennett DA, et al. Proneness to psychological distress and risk of Alzheimer disease in a biracial community. Neurology. 2005;64(2):380–2. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 15668449]
  797. Wilson RS, Mendes De Leon CF, Bennett DA, et al. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in a community population of older persons. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75(1):126–9. Full Text: Exclude - Q2 continuous data only. [PMC free article: PMC1757443] [PubMed: 14707321]
  798. Wolf PA, Beiser A, Elias MF, et al. Relation of obesity to cognitive function: importance of central obesity and synergistic influence of concomitant hypertension. The Framingham Heart Study. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007;4(2):111–6. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 17430232]
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  801. Wolkowitz OM, Kramer JH, Reus VI, et al. DHEA treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology. 2003;60(7):1071–6. Full Text: Exclude - dementia @ baseline. [PubMed: 12682308]
  802. Wolozin B, Kellman W, Ruosseau P, et al. Decreased prevalence of Alzheimer disease associated with 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Arch Neurol. 2000;57(10):1439–43. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 11030795]
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  804. Woo J, Lau E, Ho SC, et al. Comparison of Pueraria lobata with hormone replacement therapy in treating the adverse health consequences of menopause. Menopause. 2003;10(4):352–61. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 12851519]
  805. Woo J, Lynn H, Lau WY, et al. Nutrient intake and psychological health in an elderly Chinese population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;21(11):1036–43. Full Text: Exclude - AD f/u < 2 yr. [PubMed: 16955432]
  806. Woods NF, Carr MC, Tao EY, et al. Increased urinary cortisol levels during the menopausal transition. Menopause. 2006;13(2):212–21. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 16645535]
  807. Worth RM, Kagan A. Ascertainment of men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii through World War II Selective Service registration. J Chronic Dis. 1970;23(5):389–97. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 5492969]
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  809. Wroolie TE, Kenna HA, Williams KE, et al. Cognitive effects of memantine in postmenopausal women at risk of dementia: a pilot study. Acta Neurol Scand. 2009;119(3):172–9. Full Text: Exclude - AD/CD f/u < 1 yr. [PubMed: 18705678]
  810. Wu JH, Haan MN, Liang J, et al. Impact of antidiabetic medications on physical and cognitive functioning of older Mexican Americans with diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study. Ann Epidemiol. 2003;13(5):369–76. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 12821276]
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  812. Wurzelmann J, Frishman WH, Aronson M, et al. Neuropsychological effects of antihypertensive drugs. Cardiol Clin. 1987;5(4):689–701. Full Text: Exclude - not longitudinal. [PubMed: 3454252]
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  820. Yaffe K, Lui LY, Grady D, et al. Cognitive decline in women in relation to non-protein-bound oestradiol concentrations. Lancet. 2000;356(9231):708–12. Full Text: Exclude - risk factor out of scope. [PubMed: 11085689]
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Bookshelf ID: NBK47062

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