Table E.4Demographic and Other US Life-Science PhDs by Fine Field in 10- or 11-Year Cohorts

FY 86–96 Doctorate Recipients FY 76–85 Doctorate Recipients FY 66–75 Doctorate Recipients
Total PhDs
n
Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs Total PhDs
n
Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs Total PhDs
n
Women % Temp. Res. % Planning Postdoc % Median Time to Degree yrs **
Nonbiomedical doctoral fields
Agronomy and crop science14371343207.91475739126.6163613396.2
Animal breeding and genetics2271541247.1812131146.5
Animal husbandry155519166.3865122126.0
Animal nutrition6341927227.010391028136.3448627136.2
Animal science, other9622231317.22771331216.7
Botany12013820408.61428279287.217841710176.5
Conservation/renewable natural research1341933139.9
Dairy science1261433277.5
Fish and wildlife45271097.34372776.5
Fish science and management4271627189.21171417107.6
Food distribution10006.8
Food engineering921359228.0
Food science2693443198.011282537126.95381329146.6
Food science, other12653951208.0
Forest biology1972427308.5
Forest engineering176471210.5
Forest management1671235138.6
Forestry and related science, other5021734149.2
Forestry science2031223207.786262197.273001966.6
Horticulture science7782538198.0704153186.666533276.2
Plant breeding and genetics8171841257.62371527176.2
Plant pathology7422944368.09111729236.5987431196.3
Plant protection and pest management13831237.1
Plant science, other2522139298.0571128126.7
Poultry science1332139207.6
Soil chemistry/microbiology2392236308.3
Soil science195936248.0842744157.2512243166.7
Soil science, other6471444258.8
Wildlife4679117.310051397.5
Wildlife/range management4802120189.0
Wood sci and pulp/paper technology1661355158.5
Agricultural sciences, general671957188.854115668.56024776.8
Agricultural sciences, other2681840168.2754833107.085232986.2
Biomedical doctoral fields
Anatomy8214014628.01355315626.81163215366.0
Bacteriology1434016628.039318676.8
Biochemistry78563822727.06237279726.357722012625.8
Biomedical sciences2334118598.8
Biometrics & biostatistics6233927138.6470291487.3308191676.7
Biophysics11932526717.410521511656.710621010566.0
Biotechnology research322828287.6
Cell biology19274514757.6628355727.0414377496.0
Developmental Biology/embryology4184916827.6152395766.5340324515.9
Ecology20183114379.01771206287.3104798166.1
Endocrinology2484623658.0753911737.0
Entomology14832125328.515501320227.11726618166.3
Genetics, animal & plant10413512596.514092122396.0
Genetics, human & animal16784616717.5282466677.3
Hydrobiology40150257.016154176.7
Immunology18824513747.51257377736.5208277626.0
Microbiology41103920677.79443710647.0
Microbiology & bacteriology2416298626.33695229466.1
Molecular biology52474020787.51961338796.5864298745.7
Neurosciences25583913787.5552346796.9
Nutritional sciences14337023338.510066116307.1
Parasitology2063622508.41841616397.5631910377.1
Pathology, human & animal12743618498.39742611427.0605813256.9
Pharmacology, human & animal28893916717.02344247676.21537149506.0
Physiology, human & animal28983618637.82939237666.63087168466.0
Plant genetics3242831657.6702424507.7
Plant pathology3833037508.0972222366.3
Plant Physiology6653228538.15762317496.88171322316.2
Toxicology12043612457.9256255487.2
Zoology14503013408.72112234347.53008165266.3
Biological sciences, general30873920508.01908318437.01183248316.0
Biological sciences, other15603717498.31416317576.914052911356.2
Environmental health4733722208.93562410197.671170136.5
Epidemiology12855917209.32555914158.3
Pharmacy14173439227.87621919177.0559818136.2
Public health14646318119.821959958.8
Public health/epidemiology887441097.8792251047.3
Health science, general3174315308.1167307447.0125187316.0
Health sciences, other10844617169.19093110287.4701319236.9
Bioengineering and biomedical15492127367.3700613317.043928296.3
Pharmaceutical chemistry853322827.45521816416.5572817306.5
*

Total for 1973-1975. Data on race/ethnicity is available only for 1973 to date. Percentage calculated with base years 1973 to 1975.

**

Median computed only for period 1970 to 1975.

From: E, Data Tables for Chapter 2

Cover of Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists
Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists.
National Research Council (US) Committee on Dimensions, Causes, and Implications of Recent Trends in the Careers of Life Scientists.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998.
Copyright © 1998, National Academy of Sciences.

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