Table F.4NCareer Progression of Life-Science PhDs from 26 High-Quality Institutions—US Citizens and Permanent Residents

Survey Year
1973 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1995
Panel A: Number in 1–2 Year Cohort
Not in Full-time S&E Work Force
Unemployed and seeking position309137301139
Part-time employed54578362284444
Working outside science and engineering214317125286820
Full-time employed in S&E field
Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions526374389214283242179
Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst11258871252458100
Postdoc total appointments (in any sector)47696311661194153113261555
Other academic position11681211182217193296
Industry9198227156145211166
Federal labs and other government1011189917912716988
Other jobs (including self-employed)751311501341018390
Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position)
Engaged primarily in research1079133717101607203318741943
Supported by federal grants/contracts1007123514131108n/a11281369
Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA89910371205910n/a10331239
Panel B: Number in 3–4 Year Cohort
Not in Full-time S&E Work Force
Unemployed and seeking position33318043282327
Part-time employed413152731029875
Working outside science and engineering463512314679110
Full-time employed in S&E field
Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions706745729536454378312
Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst1531117757499085
Postdoc total appointments (in any sector)168283495607622773793
Other academic position121141274290350302327
Industry91190334602452360437
Federal labs and other government10916015797141117176
Other jobs (including self-employed)1031221021601315779
Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position)
Engaged primarily in research79692915441588167414701619
Supported by federal grants/contracts937106211651124n/a9921112
Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA841907968915n/a8161062
Panel C: Number in 5–6 Year Cohort
Not in Full-time S&E Work Force
Unemployed and seeking position19129820825
Part-time employed649571116328689
Working outside science and engineering42553572497292
Full-time employed in S&E field
Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions733904946926719713513
Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst1651971158015061102
Postdoc total appointments (in any sector)21104135254328297381
Other academic position5392261201292200396
Industry123159196514402434400
Federal labs and other government15512116223017918498
Other jobs (including self-employed)649722516017025284
Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position)
Engaged primarily in research62796412391322160716571431
Supported by federal grants/contracts80110661170993n/a9531019
Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA6788931054888n/a862905
Panel D: Number in 7–8 Year Cohort
Not in Full-time S&E Work Force
Unemployed and seeking position1162202144
Part-time employed313478367112036
Working outside science and engineering245027581899149
Full-time employed in S&E field
Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions5827661078976925830900
Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst12020083714412638
Postdoc total appointments (in any sector)21573445112152143
Other academic position2845110186321253208
Industry74129233360623483429
Federal labs and other government113144198214147155198
Other jobs (including self-employed)75132199188147162231
Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position)
Engaged primarily in research4557099391309161314241545
Supported by federal grants/contracts64887010251047n/a10881081
Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA6047277971001n/a10501017
Panel E: Number in 9–10 Year Cohort
Not in Full-time S&E Work Force
Unemployed and seeking position19113312263418
Part-time employed3859805512055103
Working outside science and engineering2568671017712348
Full-time employed in S&E field
Tenure-track faculty position @ PhD Institutions50275398891312188841069
Tenure-track faculty position @ Other Inst149157119175104175117
Postdoc total appointments (in any sector)151045376324
Other academic position173170224202205195
Industry96153208261604391508
Federal labs and other government118155146205163248127
Other jobs (including self-employed)7881111236223204183
Research Involvement (in full-time S&E position)
Engaged primarily in research4056419531054163913251507
Supported by federal grants/contracts474749938942n/a10141197
Supported by HHS, NSF, and/or USDA447644899845n/a8951173

Source: Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1985, 1985, 1989, 1993, and 1995.

From: F, Data Tables for Chapter 3

Cover of Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists
Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists.
National Research Council (US) Committee on Dimensions, Causes, and Implications of Recent Trends in the Careers of Life Scientists.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998.
Copyright © 1998, National Academy of Sciences.

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.