BOX 2Development of Tolerable Upper In take Levels (ULs)

Components of Hazard Identification

  • Evidence of adverse effects in humans
  • Causality
  • Relevance of experimental data
  • Mechanisms of toxic action
  • Quality and completeness of the database
  • Identification of distinct and highly sensitive subpopulations

Components of Dose-Response Assessment

  • Data selection
  • Identification of no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) (or lowest-observed-adverse-effect level [LOAEL] and critical endpoint
  • Uncertainty assessment
  • Derivation of a UL
  • Characterization of the estimate and special considerations

From: Steps in the Development of the Tolerable Upper Intake Level

Cover of Dietary Reference Intakes
Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients.
Institute of Medicine (US) Food and Nutrition Board.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998.
Copyright © 1998, National Academy of Sciences.

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