TABLE 2UL Critical Adverse Effects

NutrientAdverse Effect
CalciumMilk-alkali syndrome
PhosphorusElevated serum Pi
MagnesiumOsmotic diarrhea
Vitamin DSerum calcium > 11 mg/dl
FluorideChildren: moderate dental fluorosis
Adults: moderate skeletal fluorosis
NiacinFlushing
Vitamin B6Sensory neuropathy
FolateNeuropathy in B12-deficient individuals
CholineHypotension, fishy body odor

From: Derivation of ULs: Summary of Progress to Date

Cover of Dietary Reference Intakes
Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients.
Institute of Medicine (US) Food and Nutrition Board.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998.
Copyright © 1998, National Academy of Sciences.

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