Table 68Hypertension and elevated blood pressure among persons 20 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, 1988–1994, 1999–2002, and 2003–2006

[Data are based on interviews and physical examinations of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]

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Sex, age, race and Hispanic origin 1, and percent of poverty levelHypertension 2,3(elevated blood pressure and/or taking antihypertensive medication)Elevated blood pressure 2
20 years and over, age-adjusted4Percent of population
Both sexes525.530.031.318.519.917.9
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White only, male25.627.631.219.717.617.4
 White only, female23.028.528.315.118.515.9
 Black or African American only, male37.540.642.230.328.226.5
 Black or African American only, female38.343.544.126.428.823.9
Mexican male26.926.824.822.221.515.3
Mexican female25.027.928.620.421.219.2
Percent of poverty level:6
 Below 100%31.733.935.022.523.322.6
 100%–less than 200%26.633.534.119.323.021.1
 200% or more23.928.230.317.518.216.6
20 years and over, crude
Both sexes524.
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White only, male24.328.332.418.717.817.9
 White only, female24.632.833.416.421.618.8
 Black or African American only, male31.135.938.825.525.224.8
 Black or African American only, female32.541.942.822.227.222.4
Mexican male16.416.516.613.914.110.9
Mexican female15.918.820.012.713.813.0
Percent of poverty level:6
 Below 100%25.730.328.818.721.118.3
 100%–less than 200%26.734.836.819.824.122.5
 200% or more22.
20–34 years7.1**7.37.6
35–44 years17.
45–54 years29.
55–64 years40.645.050.228.424.826.4
65–74 years54.459.664.139.934.929.2
75 years and over60.469.065.049.750.638.2
20–34 years2.9*2.7*2.2*2.4*1.4 *
35–44 years11.
45–54 years23.931.836.213.719.120.0
55–64 years42.653.954.427.031.928.6
65–74 years56.272.770.838.253.040.8
75 years and over73.683.180.259.964.455.4

Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20%–30%. Data not shown have an RSE greater than 30%.


Persons of Mexican origin may be of any race. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The two non-Hispanic race categories shown in the table conform to the 1997 Standards. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group. Prior to data year 1999, estimates were tabulated according to the 1977 Standards. Estimates for single-race categories prior to 1999 included persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race.


Hypertension is defined as having measured elevated blood pressure and/or taking antihypertensive medication. Elevated blood pressure is defined as having a measured systolic pressure of at least 140 mmHg or diastolic pressure of at least 90 mmHg. Those with elevated blood pressure also may be taking prescribed medicine for high blood pressure. Those taking antihypertensive medication may not have measured elevated blood pressure but are still classified as having hypertension. See Appendix II, Blood pressure, elevated.


Respondents were asked, “Are you now taking prescribed medicine for your high blood pressure?”


Age-adjusted to the 2000 standard population using five age groups: 20–34 years, 35–44 years, 45–54 years, 55–64 years, and 65 years and over (65–74 years for estimates for 20–74 years). Age-adjusted estimates may differ from other age-adjusted estimates based on the same data and presented elsewhere if different age groups are used in the adjustment procedure. See Appendix II, Age adjustment.


Includes persons of all races and Hispanic origins, not just those shown separately.


Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size. Persons with unknown percent of poverty level are excluded (5% in 2003–2006). See Appendix II, Family income; Poverty.

NOTES: Percents are based on the average of blood pressure measurements taken. In 2003–2006, 81% of participants had three blood pressure readings. See Health, United States, 2003, Table 66 for a longer trend based on a single blood pressure measurement, which provides comparable data across five time periods (1960–1962 through 1999–2000). Excludes pregnant women. Estimates for persons 20 years and over are used for setting and tracking Healthy People 2010 objectives. Standard errors are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. Available from: http://www​ Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III.

SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2009
Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology.
National Center for Health Statistics (US) .
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2010 Jan.

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