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Office of the Surgeon General (US); Office on Smoking and Health (US). The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2004.

Cover of The Health Consequences of Smoking

The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.

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Acknowledgments

This report was prepared by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the general direction of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

Richard Carmona, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.S., Surgeon General, U.S. Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Arthur Lawrence, Ph.D., R.Ph., Assistant Surgeon General, U.S. Public Health Service, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health (Operations), Office of Public Health and Science, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Kenneth Moritsugu, M.D., M.P.H., Deputy Surgeon General, U.S. Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Allan S. Noonan, M.D., M.P.H., Captain, U.S. Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Julie Louise Gerberding, M.D., M.P.H., Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

James S. Marks, M.D., M.P.H., Director, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Rosemarie M. Henson, M.S.S.W., M.P.H., Director, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Terry F. Pechacek, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

The editors of the report were

Jonathan M. Samet, M.D., M.S., Senior Scientific Editor, Professor and Chairman, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Leslie A. Norman, Managing Editor, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Caran Wilbanks, Technical Editor, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Contributing authors were

Anthony Alberg, Ph.D., M.P.H., Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Arthur L. Burnett, M.D., Associate Professor, Department of Urology, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Graham Colditz, M.D., Dr.P.H., Professor of Medicine, Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

David B. Coultas, M.D., Professor and Associate Chair, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida.

Mark D. Eisner, M.D., M.P.H., Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine and Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Jeffrey L. Fellows, Ph.D., Senior Research Associate, Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, Oregon.

Daniel E. Ford, M.D., M.P.H., Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology, Health Policy and Management, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Steven N. Goodman, M.D., Ph.D., M.H.S., Associate Professor of Oncology, Pediatrics, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, Department of Oncology, Division of Biostatistics, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Karl T. Kelsey, M.D., Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Professor, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Douglas P. Kiel, M.D., M.P.H., Director of Medical Research, Hebrew Rehabilitation Center for Aged, and Associate Professor of Medicine, Division on Aging, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

F. Javier Nieto, M.D., Ph.D., Chair, Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin.

Thomas E. Novotny, M.D., M.P.H., Director, International Programs, Institute for Global Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Patricia J. O’Campo, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Beverly Rockhill, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Jonathan M. Samet, M.D., M.S., Senior Scientific Editor, Professor and Chairman, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Ira Tager, M.D., M.P.H., Professor of Epidemiology, Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California.

Michael J. Thun, M.D., Vice President, Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Scott L. Tomar, D.M.D., Dr.P.H., Associate Professor, Division of Public Health Services and Research, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Penelope Webb, D.Phil., Research Fellow, The Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Sheila K. West, Ph.D., El Maghraby Professor of Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Reviewers were

Peter Achinstein, Ph.D., Professor of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, School of Arts and Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

E. Kathleen Adams, Ph.D., Health Economist, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

M. Femi Alao, Ph.D., Health Economist, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Duane Alexander, M.D., Director, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Michael C. R. Alavanja, Dr.P.H., Senior Investigator, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

John Baron, M.D., Professor, Departments of Medicine and Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire.

Alan B. Bloch, M.D., M.P.H., Medical Epidemiologist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

William Blot, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer, International Epidemiology Institute, Ltd., Rockville, Maryland, Professor, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Paolo Boffetta, M.D., M.P.H., Chief, Unit of Environmental Cancer Epidemiology, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Michael B. Bracken, Ph.D., Susan Dwight Bliss Professor and Head, Division of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Gregory A. Broderick, M.D., Secretary, Sexual Medicine Society of North America, and Professor of Urology, Residency Program Director, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.

David M. Burns, M.D., Professor of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California.

Tim Byers, M.D., M.P.H., Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, School of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado.

Arden Christen, D.D.S., M.S.D., M.A., Co-Director, Indiana University Nicotine Dependence Program, Medical and Dental Schools, and Acting Chair, Department of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana.

William G. Christen, Sc.D., Ph.D., Epidemiologist, Division of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Pelayo Correa, M.D., Boyd Professor of Pathology, Health Sciences Center, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Karen J. Cruickshanks, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Opthalmology and Visual Sciences, Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

Ronald M. Davis, M.D., Director, Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan.

Lucinda England, M.D., M.S.P.H., Research Fellow, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Virginia L. Ernster, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Brenda Eskenazi, Ph.D., Professor of Maternal and Child Health and Epidemiology, and Director, Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California.

Diane Feskanich, Sc.D., Assistant Professor, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Frederick L. Ferris III, M.D., Director, Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Gary D. Friedman, M.D., M.S., Consulting Professor, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Lawrence Friedman, M.D., Assistant Director for Ethics and Clinical Research, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Frank D. Gilliland, M.D., Ph.D., Professor, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Edward Giovannucci, M.D., Sc.D., Associate Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Gary A. Giovino, Ph.D., M.S., Director, Tobacco Control Research Program, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York.

Thomas J. Glynn, Ph.D., Director, Cancer Science and Trends, American Cancer Society, Washington, D.C.

John C. Greene, D.M.D., M.P.H., Dean Emeritus, School of Dentistry, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Sander Greenland, M.A., M.S., Dr.P.H., C. Stat., Professor of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Sara G. Grossi, D.D.S., M.S., Clinical Director, Periodontal Disease Research Center, School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York.

Evan Hadley, M.D., Associate Director, Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Curtis C. Harris, M.D., Chief, Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Jiang He, M.D., Ph.D., Steward Professor of Epidemiology and Medicine, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana.

George Howard, Dr.P.H., Chairman, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama.

Paul W. Humphreys, Ph.D., Professor of Philosophy, Corcoran Department of Philosophy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

David Hunter, M.B.B.S., Sc.D., Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition, School of Public Health, Channing Laboratory, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Corinne G. Husten, M.D., M.P.H., Chief, Epidemiology Branch, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Martin Jarvis, Professor, Cancer Research UK Health Behaviour Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, England.

Richard E. Kanner, M.D., Professor, Division of Respiratory, Critical Care and Occupational Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Elizabeth A. Krall, Ph.D., M.P.H., Professor, Department of Health Policy and Health Services Research, School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Scott J. Leischow, Ph.D., Chief, Tobacco Control Research Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Matthew P. Longnecker, M.D., Sc.D., Lead Clinical Investigator, Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Anne C. Looker, Ph.D., Senior Research Epidemiologist, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland.

Catherine Lorraine, Director, Policy Development and Coordination Staff, Office of Policy, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland.

Teri Manolio, M.D., Ph.D., Director, Epidemiology and Biometry Program, Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Wendy Max, Ph.D., Professor of Health Economics and Co-Director, Institute for Health and Aging, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Joseph K. McLaughlin, Ph.D., President, International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

Kevin T. McVary, M.D., F.A.C.S., Associate Professor of Urology, Department of Urology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

Robert Mecklenburg, D.D.S., M.P.H., Coordinator, Tobacco and Oral Health Initiatives, Tobacco Control Research Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Lucinda Miner, Ph.D., Deputy Director, Office of Science Policy and Communications, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

John D. Minna, M.D., Director, Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research and Professor, Internal Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Arnold Monto, M.D., Professor of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, and Director, University of Michigan Bioterrorism Preparedness Initiative, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Kenneth Moritsugu, M.D., M.P.H., Deputy Surgeon General, U.S. Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Allan S. Noonan, M.D., M.P.H., Captain, Senior Advisor, U.S. Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Linda L. Pederson, Ph.D., Senior Scientific Advisor, Epidemiology Branch, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Senior Staff Fellow, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Diana B. Petitti, M.D., M.P.H., Director, Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente of Southern California, Pasadena, California.

Charles L. Poole, M.P.H., Sc.D., Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Carole Rivera, Manager, Prenatal Smoking Cessation Program, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

James M. Robins, M.D., Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Lynn Rosenberg, Sc.D., Professor, Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Richard B. Rothenberg, M.D., Professor, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Kenneth J. Rothman, Dr.P.H., Professor of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.

David A. Savitz, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Eyal Shahar, M.D., M.P.H., Professor, Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Ira D. Sharlip, M.D., Assistant Clinical Professor of Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Donald R. Shopland, U.S. Public Health Service (retired), Ringgold, Georgia.

David Sidransky, M.D., Professor, Otolaryngology and Oncology, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Frank E. Speizer, M.D., Co-Director, Channing Laboratory, Edward H. Kass Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Senior Physician, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Robert D. Sperduto, M.D., Expert Consultant, Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Meir J. Stampfer, M.D., Dr.P.H., Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition, and Department Chair of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Kyle Steenland, Ph.D., Professor, Environmental and Occupational Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Donna F. Stroup, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Mervyn Susser, M.B., B.Ch., F.R.C.P.E., Sergievsky Professor of Epidemiology Emeritus and Special Lecturer, Sergievsky Center and Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Lawrence A. Tabak, D.D.S., Ph.D., Director, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Michael J. Thun, M.D., Vice President, Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Thomas L. Vaughan, M.D., M.P.H., Program Head, Program in Epidemiology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and Professor, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Douglas Weed, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., Dean, Education and Training, Chief, Office of Preventive Oncology, and Director, Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Scott T. Weiss, M.D., M.S., Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Director, Respiratory, Environmental, and Genetic Epidemiology, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr.P.H., Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition, and Chair, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Richard A. Windsor, Ph.D., M.P.H., Professor, Department of Prevention and Community Health, School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D.C.

Robert Alan Wise, M.D., Professor, Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Other contributors were

Nicole Ammerman, Master’s Candidate in Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Rupa Basu, Ph.D., M.P.H., Environmental Epidemiologist, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Mary Bedford, Proofreader, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

Darcell Campbell, Administrative Assistant to Dr. Jonathan Samet, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Charlotte Gerczak, M.L.A., Research Writer and Special Projects Coordinator, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Roberta B. Gray, Senior Administrative Assistant to Dr. Jonathan Samet, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Lynn Hughley, Lead Graphic Artist, TRW Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.

Mooim Kang, Graphics Specialist, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

William T. Marx, M.L.I.S., Technical Information Specialist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Linda McLaughlin, Word Processing Specialist, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

Alyce Ortuzar, Copy Editor, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

Margot Raphael, Project Director, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

Angela Trosclair, M.S., Statistician, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Deborah Williams, Desktop Publishing Specialist, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Peggy E. Williams, M.S., Writer-Editor, Constella Group, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.

Database contributors were

Jose J. Arbelaez, M.D., M.H.S., Ph.D. Candidate, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Nilsa Ivette Loyo Berríos, M.H.S., Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Garrett Booth, M.P.H., Research Assistant, Department of Mental Hygiene, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Marion Ceraso, M.H.S., Senior Policy Analyst, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin.

Ming-Feng Chin, M.H.S., Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Jeffrey H. Chrismon, PMP, Project Manager, Northrup Grumman Mission Systems, Atlanta, Georgia.

Oyelola ‘Yomi Faparusi, M.D., Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Mental Hygiene, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Ola Gibson, Software Engineer, Northrup Grumman Mission Systems, Atlanta, Georgia.

Prabhu Krishnadas, M.S., Usability Specialist, Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, Atlanta, Georgia.

Georgette Lavetsky, M.H.S., Epidemiologist, Center for Epidemiology and Health Services Research AIDS Administration, Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, Maryland.

Joel London, M.P.H., C.H.E.S., Health Communications Specialist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Wadih Maalouf, M.P.H., Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Mental Hygiene, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

William T. Marx, M.L.I.S., Technical Information Specialist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Sharon Mc Aleer, Web Designer, Northrup Grumman Mission Systems, Atlanta, Georgia.

Paulette Murphy, M.L.I.S., Technical Information Specialist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Tracy Sides, M.P.H., Epidemiologist, Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Stephen Strathdee, User Support Specialist, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Erika Tang, M.H.S., Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Epidemiology and Project Manager, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Angela Trosclair, M.S., Statistician, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Nancy Williams, M.S.P.H., Health Communications Specialist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Peggy E. Williams, M.S., Writer-Editor, Constella Group, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.

Heather Wipfli, M.S., Research Associate, Department of Epidemiology and Project Manager, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

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