Table 3.2Markers of subclinical atherosclerosis used in epidemiologic studies

DiseaseMarkerStudy technique
Generalized atherosclerosisAnkle-arm index
Carotid intimal-medial thickness
Blood pressure measured with Doppler
B-mode ultrasound
Coronary atherosclerosisCoronary calciumComputerized tomography
Cerebrovascular diseaseLacunar infarctsMagnetic resonance imaging

From: 3, Cardiovascular Diseases

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The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.
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