Table 6.2Studies on the association between smoking and oxidative injury

StudyPopulationGroupResultsComments
PrecessationPostcessationPercentage difference
8-OH-dG* in DNA from peripheral leukocytes
Kiyosawa et al. 199010 healthy male volunteers, aged 20–22 years, blood drawn before and 10 minutes after smoking 2 cigarettes in 10 minutesTotal3.3 (before smoking)5.1 (after smoking)54.58-OH-dG/106 dG
Takeuchi et al. 199479 healthy male factory workers, aged 25–59 yearsCurrent and never1.10 (never)1.075 (current)−2.38-OH-dG/105 dG; numbers were abstracted from figure
Former and never1.10 (never)1.00 (former)−9.1
Degan et al. 1995180 smokers and 73 nonsmokersTotal5.947.1420.28-OH-dG mol/105 mol dG
Lee et al. 199820 healthy volunteers, 15 smokers, aged 19–31 yearsTotal2.213.6163.38-OH-dG/105 dG
van Zeeland et al. 1999102 healthy adults, aged 25–45 yearsCurrent and never34.0 (never)29.3 (current)−13.88-OH-dG/106 dG
Former and never34.0 (never)35.2 (former)3.5
Lodovici et al. 200056 healthy male and female volunteers, aged 18–64 yearsCurrent and never15.3 (never)33.1 (current)116.38-OH-dG/106 dG
Former and never15.3 (never)17.8 (former)16.3
8-OH-dG in DNA from urine
Loft et al. 199283 randomly selected persons, aged 40–64 yearsTotal2.133.2050.28-OH-dG pmol/24 hours
Tagesson et al. 1993129 persons (30 asbestos-exposed workers, 28 rubber workers, 30 azo dye factory workers, 41 controls)Total1.3671.4788.1Weighted average; 8-OH-dG μmol/mol creatinine
Controls1.011.1311.9
Asbestos-exposed1.381.412.2
Rubber1.601.34−16.3
Azo dye2.101.88−10.5
Lagorio et al. 199465 randomly sampled gas station attendants, ItalyCurrent and never1.32 (never)1.41 (current)6.88-OH-dG μmol/mol creatinine
Former and never1.32 (never)1.29 (former)−2.3
Tagesson et al. 1996343 workers from the Swedish art glass industryTotal11.513.416.5Weighted average; 8-OH-dG nmol/L
Men12.614.111.9
Women9.312.130.1
Protein carbonyls in plasma
Lee et al. 199820 healthy volunteers, 15 smokers, aged 19–31 yearsTotal1.592.5661.0Protein carbonyl/nmol/mg of protein
Isoprostanes in plasma
Morrow et al. 1995Pilot: 16 smokers, 8 nonsmokers Main study: 10 smokers, 10 age- and gender-matched nonsmokersPilot: free9016684.4
Pilot: esterified29049671.0
Main: free103242135.0
Main: esterified34557466.4
Main: cessation/free25015660.32 weeks after cessation
Main: cessation/esterified62446933.0
Pilz et al. 200047 smokers ready to quit smoking, aged 30–66 yearsTotal: cessation49030063.3pmol/L (serum in plasma) 3 weeks after cessation
Isoprostanes in urine
Morrow et al. 199510 smokers, 10 age- and gender-matched nonsmokersTotal415870109.6pmol/nmol creatinine
Reilly et al. 199624 chronic smokers, 24 age- and gender-matched controls, aged 20–47 yearsTotal63.7122.592.3pmol/mmol creatinine
Moderate54.192.771.3
Heavy54.1176.5226.2dose-response relationship
Cessation145.5114.627.0
Practicò et al. 19986 smokers, 6 nonsmokers, aged 31–45 yearsTotal IPF2a pg/ng creatinine1,525740106.1Cox-dependent and independent excretion in human urine
Total 8-iso PGF2a pg creatinine27095184.2
Pilz et al. 200047 smokers ready to quit smoking, aged 30–66 yearsTotal: cessation58033075.83 weeks after cessation; pg 8-epi-PGF 2a/mg creatine
Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in malondialdehyde (MDA)
Harats et al. 198916 smokers, 12 age-matched nonsmokers, aged 23–56 yearsTotal (stored)0.2870.19844.9Smokers had not smoked for
Total (fresh)0.1800.15416.924–40 hours
Plasma: nmol/mL
LDL: nmol/mg protein
Harats et al. 199017 smokers before and 2 weeks after vitamin C supplementation; 10 smokers before and 90 minutes after smokingStudy IBefore smokingAfter smokingPlasma: nmol/mL
LDL: nmol/mg protein
 No treatment0.1060.18776.4
 Vitamin C treatment0.1380.1455.1
Study II: TBARS in LDL
 No treatment0.5841.275118.3
 Vitamin C treatment0.6831.33395.2
 Vitamin E treatment0.6270.6635.7
Study II: Plasma TBARS
 No treatment0.1060.19785.4
 Vitamin C treatment0.1070.11810.3
 Vitamin E treatment0.1190.1233.4
Scheffler et al. 199017 male smokers, 21 male nonsmokers, mean age 30–32 yearsTime course of TBARS in LDL during incubationLDL: nmol/mL
 0 hours110
 1 hour110
 2 hours94125
 3 hours147100
 4 hours147100
 5 hours147100
 6 hours147100
Scheffler et al. 199217 smokers, 21 nonsmokersIncubation for 3 hours14.27.394.5
1 week storage12.09.822.4
Duthie et al. 1993242 adults, aged 45–69 yearsTotal1.871.766.3nmol/mL
Miller et al. 1997107 nonsmokers, 14 smokers, mean age 48–49 yearsTotal242114.3μmol/mL
Mosca et al. 199790 adults, aged 39–80 yearsTotal: former vs. never0.05 (former)0.07 (never)−28.6LDL: μmol/nmol
Motoyama et al. 199740 healthy males, 20 smokers, 20 nonsmokers, aged 26–35 yearsTotal1.81.338.5nmol/mL
Smokers: pre/postsmoking2.7 (after smoking)1.7 (before smoking)35.3After: 10 minutes
Before: at least 8 hours of abstaining from smoking
Berr 199874 men and 815 women, aged 59–71 yearsMen2.972.902.41μmol/L in plasma
Women3.062.963.4
Durak et al. 199961 adults, aged 25–81 yearsTotal0.550.3177.4nmol/g tissue
*

8-OH-dG = 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine.

LDL = Low-density lipoprotein.

From: 6, Other Effects

Cover of The Health Consequences of Smoking
The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Office of the Surgeon General (US); Office on Smoking and Health (US).

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