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Trikalinos TA, Terasawa T, Ip S, et al. Particle Beam Radiation Therapies for Cancer [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2009 Nov. (Comparative Effectiveness Technical Briefs, No. 1.)

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Particle Beam Radiation Therapies for Cancer [Internet].

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Appendix DTable of Excluded Studies

Appendix D TableList of excluded studies and reasons for exclusion

CitationPMIDReason for exclusion
Abrahamsen JF, Fossa SD. Long-term morbidity after curative radiotherapy for carcinoma of the bladder. A retrospective study. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 1990;166(9):580–3.2120783Not eligible RT
Allen BJ, Li Y, Rizvi SM, Russell PJ. Targeted alpha therapy of prostate cancer. Methods in Molecular Medicine 2003;81:333–57.12725130Not relevant
Anonymous. Special report: stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial lesions by gamma beam, linear accelerator, and proton beam methods. Tecnologica MAP Supplement 1999:26–7.10346748No primary data
Archambeau JO, Bennett GW, Levine GS, et al. Proton radiation therapy. Radiology 1974;110(2):445–57.4203944No primary data
Archambeau JO, Slater JD, Slater JM, et al. Role for proton beam irradiation in treatment of pediatric CNS malignancies. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 1992;22(2):287–94.1310964No primary data
Ask A, Johansson B, Glimelius B. The potential of proton beam radiation therapy in gastrointestinal cancer. Acta Oncologica 2005;44(8):896–903.16332599No primary data
Austin JP, Urie MM, Cardenosa G, et al. Probable causes of recurrence in patients with chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the base of skull and cervical spine. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 1993;25(3):439–44.8436522No primary data
Austin-Seymour M, Munzenrider JE, Verhey L, et al. [Fractionated proton radiotherapy] [review] [23 refs] [Russian]. Meditsinskaia Radiologiia 1987;32(8 ):88–94.3041170Publication language
Austin-Seymour M, Urie M, Munzenrider J, et al. Considerations in fractionated proton radiation therapy: clinical potential and results. Radiotherapy & Oncology 1990;17(1):29–35.2157240No primary data
Barker FG, Butler WE, Lyons S, et al. Dose-volume prediction of radiation-related complications after proton beam radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations [see comment]. Journal of Neurosurgery 2003;99(2):254–63.12924697No malignancy
Belletti S, Mensi A, Verzeletti L. Six years experience in the use of a 10 MeV microtron for radiation therapy. Acta Radiologica - Oncology 1984;23(5):375–8.6095608No primary data
Blomquist E, Carlsson J. Strategy for planned radiotherapy of malignant gliomas: postoperative treatment with combinations of high dose proton irradiation and tumor seeking radionuclides. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 1992;22(2):259–63.1310961No primary data
Bolsi A, Fogliata A, Cozzi L. Radiotherapy of small intracranial tumours with different advanced techniques using photon and proton beams: a treatment planning study. Radiotherapy & Oncology 200;68(1):1–14.12885446Tx planning study
Brandberg Y, Damato B, Kivela T, et al. The EORTC ophthalmic oncology quality of life questionnaire module (EORTC QLQ-OPT30). Development and pre-testing (Phase I-III). Eye 2004;18(3):283–9.15004578Not relevant
Bush DA, McAllister CJ, Loredo LN, et al. Fractionated proton beam radiotherapy for acoustic neuroma. Neurosurgery 2002;50(2):270– 3;discussion 273–5.11844261No malignancy
Castro JR, Gademann G, Collier JM, et al. [Heavy particle radiotherapy at the University of California Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Clinical studies by the Northern California Oncology Group] [review] [26 refs] [German]. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 1987;163(1):9–16.3101214No primary data
Carpentier A, Polivka M, Blanquet A, et al. Suboccipital and cervical chordomas: the value of aggressive treatment at first presentation of the disease. Journal of Neurosurgery 2002;97(5):1070–7.12450028No extractable data
Char DH, Bove R, Phillips TL. Laser and proton radiation to reduce uveal melanoma-associated exudative retinal detachments. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 2003;101:53-- 56;discussion 56–57.14971563Identical duplicate
Chauvel P, Iborra-Brassart N, Courdi A, et al. Proton therapy in ophthalmology: status report and problems encountered. Bulletin du Cancer Radiotherapie 1996;83 Suppl:215s–8s.8949783No primary data
Damato B, Lecuona K. Conservation of eyes with choroidal melanoma by a multimodality approach to treatment: an audit of 1632 patients. Ophthalmology 2004;111(5):977–83.15121377No extractable data
Dawson DM, Dingman JF. Hazards of proton-beam pituitary irradiation. New England Journal of Medicine 1970;282(25):1434.5445533No malignancy
Desjardins L, Levy-Gabriel C, Lumbroso-Lerouic L, et al. [Prognostic factors for malignant uveal melanoma. Retrospective study on 2,241 patients and recent contribution of monosomy-3 research] [French]. Journal Francais d Opthalmologie 2006;29(7):741–9.16988624Not relevant
Dubikaitis I, Fedotova TA. [Dynamics of the bioelectrical activity of the brain in patients with intrasellar pituitary adenomas irradiated with a proton beam] [Russian]. Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S - S - Korsakova 1985;85(3):372–5.2986397No malignancy
Feuvret L, Noel G, Weber DC et al. A treatment planning comparison of combined photon-proton beams versus proton beams-only for the treatment of skull base tumors. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2007;69(3):944–54.17889276Tx planning study
Fitzek M. Letter by M. Fitzek on Hocht S, Bechrakis NE, Nausner M, et al. Proton therapy of uveal melanomas in Berlin: 5 years of experience at the Hahn-Meitner Institut: in: Strahlenther Onkol 2004;180(7):419–24 (DOI 10.1007/s00066-004-1222-5) [comment]. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 2007;183(1):49;author reply 50.17225946No primary data
Fitzek MM, Linggood RM, Adams J, et al. Combined proton and photon irradiation for craniopharyngioma: long-term results of the early cohort of patients treated at Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory and Massachusetts General Hospital. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2006;64(5):1348–54.16580494No malignancy
Frau E, Rumen F, Noel G, et al. Low-dose proton beam therapy for circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas. Archives of Ophthalmology 2004;122(10):1471–5.15477458No malignancy
Goodman GB, Skarsgard LD, Thompson GB, et al. Pion therapy at TRIUMF. Treatment results for astrocytoma grades 3 and 4: a pilot study. Radiotherapy & Oncology 1990;17(1):21–8.2157239Not eligible RT
Graffman S, Brahme A, Larsson B. Proton radiotherapy with the Uppsala cyclotron. Experience and plans. Strahlentherapie 1985;161(12):764–70.3001977No primary data
Gragoudas ES, Egan KM, Seddon JM, et al. Survival of patients with metastases from uveal melanoma. Ophthalmology 1991;98(3):383– 9;discussion 390.2023760No primary data
Greiner R, Blattmann H, Thum P, et al. Anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma: pion irradiation with the dynamic conformation technique at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). Radiotherapy & Oncology 1990;17(1):37–46.2108474Not eligible RT
Gridley DS, Bonnet RB, Bush DA, et al. Time course of serum cytokines in patients receiving proton or combined photon/proton beam radiation for resectable but medically inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2004;60(3):759–66.15465192Not relevant
Griffin TW, Davis R, Laramore GE, et al. Mixed beam radiation therapy for unresectable squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck: the results of a randomized RTOG study. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 1984;10(12):2211–5.6439699Not eligible RT
Griffin TW, Weisberger EC, Laramore GE, et al. Complications of combined surgery and neutron radiation therapy in patients with advanced carcinoma of the head and neck. Radiology 1979;132(1):177–8.451196Not eligible RT
Gudjonsson O, Blomquist E, Lilja A, et al. Evaluation of the effect of high-energy proton irradiation treatment on meningiomas by means of 11C-L-methionine PET. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2000;27(12):1793–9.11189942No malignancy
Gudjonsson O, Blomquist E, Nyberg G, et al. Stereotactic irradiation of skull base meningiomas with high energy protons. Acta Neurochirurgica 1999;141(9):933–40.10526074No malignancy
Harsh GR, Thornton AF, Chapman PH, et al. Proton beam stereotactic radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2002;54(1):35–44.12182972No malignancy
Heesters MA, Kamman RL, Mooyaart EL, et al. Localized proton spectroscopy of inoperable brain gliomas. Response to radiation therapy. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 1993;17(1):27–35.8120569Not eligible RT
Heimann H, Gochman R, Hellmich M, et al. [Dry eye symptoms following retinal surgery and ocular tumour therapy] [German]. Ophthalmologe 2004;101(11):1098–104.15098135Not relevant
Heufelder J, Cordini D, Fuchs H, et al. [Five years of proton therapy of eye neoplasms at the Hahn-Meitner Institute, Berlin] [German]. Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Physik 2004;14(1):64–71.15104012Not relevant
Hocht S, Wachtlin J, Bechrakis NE, et al. Proton or photon irradiation for hemangiomas of the choroid? A retrospective comparison. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2006;66(2):345–51.16887287No malignancy
Holmberg K, Meijer AE, Harms-Ringdahl M, et al. Chromosomal instability in human lymphocytes after low dose rate gamma-irradiation and delayed mitogen stimulation. International Journal of Radiation Biology 1998;73(1):21–34.9464474Not relevant
Hug EB, Slater JD. Proton radiation therapy for pediatric malignancies: status report. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 1999;175(Suppl 2):89– 91.10394409Not relevant
Hug EB, Slater JD. Proton radiation therapy for chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the skull base [review] [35 refs]. Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 2000;11(4):627–38.11082173No primary data
Isacsson U, Lennernas B, Grusell E, et al. Comparative treatment planning between proton and x-ray therapy in esophageal cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 1998;41(2):441–50.9607363Tx planning study
Jones DT, Schreuder AN, Symons JE, et al. Status report of the NAC particle therapy programme. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 1999;175(Suppl 2):30–2.10394392Not relevant
Kang JH, Wilkens JJ, Oelfke U. Demonstration of scan path optimization in proton therapy. Medical Physics 2007;34(9):3457–64.17926947No primary data
Kang Y, Zhang X, Chang JY et al. 4D Proton treatment planning strategy for mobile lung tumors. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 67 (3):906 –14, 200717293240Tx planning study
Kaplan ID, Castro JR, Phillips TL. Helium charged particle radiotherapy for meningioma: experience at UCLBL. University of California Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1994 Jan 1;28(1):257–61.8270449No malignancy
Kaplan ID, Castro JR, Phillips TL. Helium charged particle radiotherapy for meningioma: experience at UCLBL. University of California Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 1994;28(1):257–61.8270449No malignancy
Keunen JE, Bleeker JC. [Eye-preserving treatment of uveal melanoma. Leidse Oogmelanoom Groep] [review] [26 refs] [Dutch]. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 1997;141(42 ):2005–9.9550751Publication language
Kiseleva VN, Grigorova TM, Poidenko VK, et al. [Results of combined gamma-proton irradiation of patients with cervical cancer] [Russian]. Akusherstvo i Ginekologiia 1986;(2):37–9.3010758Publication language
Kiseleva VN, Ruderman AI, Lebedev AI. [Prospects for using the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics proton beam for treating gynecologic cancer patients] [Russian]. Voprosy Onkologii 1983;29(6 ):34–41.6306925Publication language
Kligerman MM, von Essen CF, Khan MK, et al. Experience with pion radiotherapy. Cancer 1979;43(3):1043–51.371782Not eligible RT
Kondrat’ev BV, Vinogradov VM, Shalek RA, et al. [Proton irradiation of the pituitary gland for alleviating pain in patients with disseminated prostate cancer] [Russian]. Voprosy Onkologii 2006;52(1):92–4.16715713Publication language
Konnov BA, Lebedeva NA, Potin VV, et al. [Results of the treatment of patients with prolactinoma using a high-energy proton beam] [Russian]. Akusherstvo i Ginekologiia 1988;(11):44–7.2853579No malignancy
Koyama-Ito H, Kanai T, Minohara S, et al. Carbon ion therapy for ocular melanoma: planning orthogonal two-port treatment. Physics in Medicine & Biology 2007;52(17):5341–52.17762090Tx planning study
Krejcarek SC, Grant PE, Henson JW, et al. Physiologic and radiographic evidence of the distal edge of the proton beam in craniospinal irradiation. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2007;68(3):646–9.17449195Not relevant
Lee CH, Tait D, Nahum AE, et al. Comparison of proton therapy and conformal X-ray therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). British Journal of Radiology 1999;72(863):1078–84.10700825Tx planning study
Lee V, Hungerford JL. Proton beam therapy for posterior pole circumscribed choroidal haemangioma. Eye 1998;12(Pt 6):925–8.10325987No malignancy
Lo EH, Fabrikant JI. Delayed biologic reactions to stereotactic charged-particle radiosurgery in the human brain. Stereotactic & Functional Neurosurgery 1991;56(4):197–212.1808645No malignancy
Luu QT, Loredo LN, Archambeau JO, et al. Fractionated proton radiation treatment for pediatric craniopharyngioma: preliminary report. Cancer Journal 2006 Apr;12(2):155–9.16630407No malignancy
Makarova GV, Matveev BP, Leonova NS, et al. [Initial experience with the use of the proton beam at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics to treat prostatic cancer] [Russian]. Meditsinskaia Radiologiia 1987;32(8):66–70.3041165Publication language
Marks LB, Light KL, Hubbs JL, et al. The impact of advanced technologies on treatment deviations in radiation treatment delivery. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2007;69(5):1579–86.18035214Not relevant
Minakova EI, Vasil’eva NN, Sviatukhina OV. [Single irradiation of the pituitary with a narrow beam of protons having 200 MeV of energy in generalized breast cancer] [Russian]. Meditsinskaia Radiologiia 1977;22(1):33–9.865251Publication language
Miyanaga N, Akaza H, Okumura T, et al. A bladder preservation regimen using intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: a prospective study. International Journal of Urology 2000;7(2):41–8.10710246Not relevant
Mock U, Bogner J, Georg D, et al. Comparative treatment planning on localized prostate carcinoma conformal photon-versus proton-based radiotherapy. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 2005;181(7):448–55.15995838Not relevant
Monzul’ GD, Kondrat’eva AP, Ratner TG, et al. [Proton irradiation of bone metastases] [Russian]. Meditsinskaia Radiologiia 1984;29(6):17–20.6330488Publication language
Monzul’ GD, Letiagin VP, Ratner TG, et al. [Proton irradiation of the hypophysis and gamma therapy of multiple bone metastases in the complex treatment of breast cancer] [Russian]. Meditsinskaia Radiologiia 1987;32(8):49–55.3041161Publication language
Monzul’ GD, Riabukhin I. [Treatment of disseminated breast cancer with combined irradiation of the hypophysis by protons and zone gamma irradiation of the skeleton] [Russian]. Voprosy Onkologii 1990;36(4):427–33.2161162Publication language
Mullins ME, Barest GD, Schaefer PW, et al. Radiation necrosis versus glioma recurrence: conventional MR imaging clues to diagnosis. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2005;26(8):1967–72.16155144Not relevant
Murray EM, Werner ID, Schmitt G, et al. Neutron versus photon radiotherapy for local control in inoperable breast cancer. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 2005;181(2):77–81.15702295Not eligible RT
Noel G, Bollet MA, Calugaru V, et al. Functional outcome of patients with benign meningioma treated by 3D conformal irradiation with a combination of photons and protons. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2005;62(5):1412–22.16029801No malignancy
Ohnishi T, Takahashi A, Yano T, et al. Hyperthermic enhancement of tumour growth inhibition by accelerated carbon-ions in transplantable human esophageal cancer. International Journal of Hyperthermia 1998 Apr;14(2):195–202.9589324Not relevant
Paquis P, Pignol JP, Breteau N. [Radiotherapy of high grade glioma: use of fast neutrons, therapy and enhancement by neutron capture] [French]. Neuro-Chirurgie 2000;46(1):23–33.10790640Not eligible RT
Pickles T, Goodman GB, Rheaume DE, et al. Pion radiation for high grade astrocytoma: results of a randomized study. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 1997;37(3):491–7.9112443Not eligible RT
Pommier P, Balosso J, Bolla M, et al. [The French project ETOILE: review of clinical data for light ion hadrontherapy] [French]. Cancer Radiotherapie 2002;6(6):369–78.12504776Not relevant
Porter RW, Detwiler PW, Han PP, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for cavernous malformations: Kjellberg’s experience with proton beam therapy in 98 cases at the Harvard Cyclotron [comment]. Neurosurgery 1999;44(2):424–5.9932903No malignancy
Price J, Wei WC, Chong CY. Cranial nerve damage in patients after alpha (heavy)-particle radiation to the pituitary. Ophthalmology 1979;86(6):1161–72.230438No malignancy
Ronson BB, Schulte RW, Han KP, et al. Fractionated proton beam irradiation of pituitary adenomas. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2006;64(2):425–34.16257131No malignancy
Ronson BB, Yonemoto LT, Rossi CJ, et al. Patient tolerance of rectal balloons in conformal radiation treatment of prostate cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2006;64(5):1367–70.16488552Not relevant
Ruderman AI, Novikova LA, Kiseleva VN. [Use of high energy protons in the combination treatment of cervix neoplasms] [Russian]. Meditsinskaia Radiologiia 1919:5–12.4218881Publication language
Schnabel K, Berberich W, Scharding B, et al. [Irradiation of grades III and IV astrocytomas with new types of radiation] [review] [32 refs] [German]. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 1986;162(5):285–90.3012809No primary data
Schneider U, Lomax A, Besserer J, et al. The impact of dose escalation on secondary cancer risk after radiotherapy of prostate cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2007;68(3):892–7.17459608Not relevant
Schneider U, Lomax A, Lombriser N. Comparative risk assessment of secondary cancer incidence after treatment of Hodgkin’s disease with photon and proton radiation. Radiation Research 2000;154(4):382–8.11023601Not relevant
Shibuya H, Tsujii H. The structural characteristics of radiation oncology in Japan in 2003. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2005;62(5):1472–6.16029809No primary data
Studer UE, Gerber E, Zimmermann A, et al. Late results in patients treated with pi-mesons for bladder cancer [see comment]. Cancer 1993;71(2):439–47.8422636Not eligible RT
Suit HD, Goitein M, Munzenrider J, et al. Increased efficacy of radiation therapy by use of proton beam. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 1990;166(1):40–4.2154047No primary data
Taghian AG, Kozak KR, Katz A, et al. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using proton beams: Initial dosimetric experience. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2006;65(5):1404–10.16730137Tx planning study
Takahashi T, Mitsuhashi N, Furuta M, et al. Apoptosis induced by heavy ion (carbon) irradiation of two human tumours with different radiosensitivities in vivo: relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon beam. Anticancer Research 1998 Feb;18(1A):253–6.9568086Tx planning study
Trofimov A, Nguyen PL, Coen JJ, et al. Radiotherapy treatment of early-stage prostate cancer with IMRT and protons: a treatment planning comparison. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2007;69(2):444–53.17513063Tx planning study
Tsunemoto H, Ishikawa T, Morita S, et al. Indications of particle radiation therapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the esophagus. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 1992;22(2):321–4.1310967No primary data
Tsunemoto H, Morita S, Ishikawa T, et al. Proton therapy in Japan. Radiation Research 1985;Supplement 8:S235–43.3003785No primary data
Vernimmen FJ, Harris JK, Wilson JA, et al. Stereotactic proton beam therapy of skull base meningiomas. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2001;49(1):99–105.11163502No malignancy
Watkins L, Khudados ES, Kaleoglu M, et al. Skull base chordomas: a review of 38 patients, 1958–88. British Journal of Neurosurgery 1993;7(3):241–8.8338644Not eligible RT
Weber DC, Bogner J, Verwey J, et al. Proton beam radiotherapy versus fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for uveal melanomas: A comparative study. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2005;63(2):373–84.16168832Tx planning study
Weber DC, Lomax AJ, Rutz HP, et al. Spot-scanning proton radiation therapy for recurrent, residual or untreated intracranial meningiomas [see comment]. Radiotherapy & Oncology 2004;71(3):251–8.15172139No malignancy
Weber DC, Chan AW, Bussiere MR, et al. Proton beam radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: tumor control and cranial nerve toxicity. Neurosurgery 2003;53(3):577–86;discussion 586–8.12943574No malignancy
Wittig A, Moss RL, Stecher-Rasmussen F, et al. Neutron activation of patients following boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors at the high flux reactor (HFR) Petten (EORTC Trials 11961 and 11011). Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 2005;181(12):774–82.16362787Not eligible RT
Woodruff KH, Castro JR, Quivey JM, et al. Postmortem examination of 22 pancreatic carcinoma patients treated with helium ion irradiation. Cancer 1984;53(3):420–5.6318947Not relevant
Zherbin EA, Konnov BA, Mel’nikov LA, et al. [Proton therapy: clinico-methodological aspects, treatment results] [Russian]. Meditsinskaia Radiologiia 1987;32(8):17–22.3041155Publication language
Zografos L, Chamot L, Bercher L, et al. [Contribution of ultrasound biomicroscopy to conservative treatment of anterior uveal melanoma] [French]. Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde 208:414–417.8766068Tx planning study
Zografos L, Egger E, Bercher L, et al. Proton beam irradiation of choroidal hemangiomas. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1998;126(2):261–8.9727520No malignancy
Zografos L, Gailloud C, Bercher L. [Irradiation treatment of choroidal hemangiomas] [review] [20 refs] [French]. Journal Francais d Opthalmologie 1989;12(11):797–807.2700992No malignancy
Zytkovicz A, Daftari I, Phillips TL, et al. Peripheral dose in ocular treatments with CyberKnife and Gamma Knife radiosurgery compared to proton radiotherapy. Physics in Medicine & Biology 2007;52(19):5957–71.17881812Not relevant

RT: radiotherapy; Tx: treatment

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