Table 10Description of participants in the diagnostic test accuracy review: Methacholine vs. ECT

Author YearParticipants enrolled (N); analyzed (N)
Age (mean±SD)
Males: N (%)
Recruitment
Country
Index of activity (fitness level)
History of asthma N (%); Asthma severity;
Atopic status N (%);
History of ICS N (%)
History of EIB/EIA
Baseline lung function (FEV1)
Baseline FEV1 L
% predicted
Anderson23 2009510; 375 (performed all tests)
24.3±10.2; range 6–50
182 (48.2)
Clinic (referred for investigation of asthma-type symptoms)
U.S.
NR
Suspected asthma at step 1 NAEPPII asthma severity grading; mild to stable NAEPPII score 1.2±0.5
293 (78)
none within 4 wk prior to study
NR
3.32±0.82 L
93.6%±10%
Avital24 198970; 70
11.3; range 5–19
NR
NR
Israel
NR
Severe=14; moderate=22; mild=34
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Avital25 2000135; 128
12.4±3.9; range 6–25
NR
Clinic (pediatric pulmonology)
Israel
NR
ATS criteria; mild=85 (63.0), moderate=50 (37.0)
NR
38 (28.1) inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate
NR
NR
86.1±10.1%
All but 4 were above 70% predicted, these 4 had mean FEV1 65.8±3.9% predicted
Chatham26 198225; 25
All: 26.4±4.7, asthmatics: 26.5±4.6
All: 15 (60), asthmatics: 9 (60)
Clinic and newspaper advertising
U.S.
NR
15 (60); mild (all asymptomatic)
15 (60)
12/15 (80); none for 4 wk
History of EIA in asthmatics 11/15 (73.3)
NR
All: 78.0±3.0%; asthmatics: 76.6±2.7%
Clough27 199160; 60
Range 7–8
38 (63.3)
Clinic (all registered to 86 general practitioner offices were sent questionnaire)
United Kingdom
NR
24 (40) physician Dx or receiving anti-asthma med or parent thought child had asthma
NR
All taking beta-agonists: 21 inhalation, 3 orally; 3 SCG; 1 oral theophylline
Atopy 30 (50); ICS 2 (3.3)
NR
NR
NR
Eggleston28 197945; 45
21.1±3.1; range 16–30
27 (60)
NR
U.S.
NR
45 (100) defined by ATS; NR
42 (93.3)
5 (11.1)
Most had history of EIA
NR
94.6±3.9%
Foresi29 198625; 25
12.5±2.8; range 9–19
19(76)
NR
Italy
NR
25 (100) clinical Hx of asthma; all FEV1 >70% predicted, all stable in previous month;
25 (100)
none on ICS
NR
NR
91.9±9.1%
Henriksen30 200274; 58
mean 17.9 (95% CI: 17.6, 18.3)
16 (25.4)
Adolescents with wheeze from previous phase of study
Norway
Physical activity hr/wk, mean (95% CI)=3.1 (2.8–3.5)
NR; beta-agonist=11(19)
NR
ICS=4(6.6)
NR
NR
Mean (95% CI)=104(100–107)
Kiviloog31 197357; 57
31; range 15–61
26(45.6)
Clinic (lung clinic outpatients)
Sweden
NR
57 (100) defined by ATS, NR extrinsic asthma 32 (56.1%)
NR
47 (82.5%)
NR
NR
Koh32 199656; 53
9.9±2.5; range 6–15
41(73.2)
NR
South Korea
NR
53 (100); mild, stable; beta-agonist prn, SCG 11/56
43 (76.8)
NR
NR
NR
97.7±13.6% (all ≥ 70% predicted)
Lin33 199142 (22 asymptomatic asthma, 20 matched controls); 22 (only asthma pts analyzed)
Range 20–40
12(60)
Authors selected subjects
China
NR
22 asthma patients; stable medicated
NR
NR
NR
Before MCH=2.99±0.48 L, before ECT=2.97±0.45 L
NR
Pedersen34 200821; 16
18.3±2.7
0
Elite swimmers (invited to participate)
Denmark
Athletic (4+ d per wk activity); elite swimmers 22.2±4 hr/wk
None
1 (6.3)
NA
NR
4.34±0.57 L
110.8±14.6%
Sekerel35 199712; 12
9.83±1.8
7(58.3)
Clinic (allergy outpatient)
Turkey
NR
12 (100) confirmed by ATS criteria; stable, varying severity
NR
6 (50)
Baseline EIB median fall FEV1=22% (range 4.0–35.0)
NR
NR
Souza36 200543; 30
11±3; range 6–15
14 (46.7)
Clinic (pulmonary outpatient)
Brazil
NR
Hx of ≥2 episodes dyspnea and/or wheezing relieved with bronchodilators; other Dx ruled out; stable at testing
NR
None
NR
2.39±0.7 L
98±12 %
Verges37 200539=competitive athletes, 13=controls
Athletes=22.4±4.8, controls=27±7
Athletes=26(66.7), controls=7(53.8)
Competitive athletes and healthy sedentary subjects
France
13 <2 hr physical activity per wk, 39 >12 hr/wk during 4 mo preceeding study
NR; NR
none had allergic asthma
ICS: 2 athletes
EIB: 4 athletes
Athletes=4.3±7.5 L, controls=4.24±1.08 L
Athletes=106.0±12.1%, controls=110±19%

ATS = American Thoracic Society; BHR = bronchial hyper-responsiveness; CI = confidence interval; d = day(s); Dx = diagnosis; ECT = exercise challenge test; EIB/EIA = exercise-induced bronchoconstriction/asthma; FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in 1 second; hr = hour(s); Hx = history; ICS = inhaled corticosteroids; L = liters; MCH = methacholine; NAEPPII = National Asthma Education and Prevention Program; NR = not reported; prn = as needed; SABA = short-acting beta-agonist; SCG = sodium cromoglycate; SD = standard deviation; Tx = treatment; wk = week(s)

From: 3, Results

Cover of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction and Asthma
Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction and Asthma.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 189.
Dryden DM, Spooner CH, Stickland MK, et al.

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.