Table 7.7

Relative risks for lung cancer associated with exposure to secondhand smoke during childhood among lifetime nonsmokers

Percentage with childhood secondhand smoke exposure
StudyPopulationChildhood secondhand smoke exposureCasesControlsRelative risk (95% confidence interval) with any exposure from a family member
United States
Garfinkel et al. 1985 Women
4 U.S. hospitals
Any childhood exposureNR*NR0.91 (0.74–1.12)
Wu et al. 1985 Women
Los Angeles
Parents40530.6 (0.2–1.7)
Janerich et al. 1990 Men and women
New York
Any childhood exposure70541.3 (0.85–1.99)
Brownson et al. 1992 WomenParents17250.7 (0.5–0.9)
MissouriOther household members25310.8 (0.6–1.1)
Stockwell et al. 1992 WomenMotherNRNR1.6 (0.6–4.3)
Central FloridaFatherNRNR1.2 (0.6–2.3)
SiblingsNRNR1.7 (0.8–3.9)
Fontham et al. 1994 WomenFather50550.83 (0.67–1.02)
5 U.S. citiesMother12130.86 (0.62–1.18)
Other household members21211.03 (0.80–1.32)
Any household member during childhood62650.89 (0.72–1.10)
Kabat et al. 1995 MenAny childhood exposure62650.90 (0.43–1.89)
Women
4 U.S. cities
68571.55 (0.95–2.79)
Canada
Johnson et al. 2001 Women
National cancer registry
Any childhood exposure83781.39 (0.8–2.2)
Europe
Pershagen et al. 1987 Women
Sweden
1 or both parents smoked19NR1.0 (0.4–2.3)
Svensson et al. 1989 WomenFather12710.9 (0.4–2.3)
SwedenMother353.3 (0.5–18.8)
Boffetta et al. 1998 Men and womenFatherNRNR0.76 (0.61–0.94)
7 European countriesMotherNRNR0.92 (0.57–1.49)
Any childhood exposure60660.78 (0.64–0.96)
Nyberg et al. 1998a MenFather69521.90 (0.69–5.23)
Mother40210.90 (0.14–6.00)
WomenFather46490.76 (0.42–1.37)
SwedenMother8150.29 (0.07–1.14)
Zaridze et al. 1998 Women
Russia
Father (assumed during childhood)49500.92 (0.64–1.32)
Kreuzer et al. 2000 Men and women
Germany
Any exposure62640.84 (0.63–1.11)
Asia
Koo et al. 1987 Women
Hong Kong
During childhoodNRNR2.07 (0.51–95.17)
Shimizu et al. 1988 WomenFatherNR411.1 (p >0.05)
JapanMotherNR34.0 (p <0.05)
Brothers or sistersNR320.8 (p >0.05)
Sobue 1990 WomenFather76800.79 (0.52–1.21)
JapanMother1291.33 (0.74–2.37)
Other household member22161.18 (0.76–1.84)
Wu-Williams et al. 1990 WomenFather44421.1 (0.8–1.4)
Northern ChinaMother29320.9 (0.6–1.1)
Sun et al. 1996 WomenFatherNRNR2.4 (1.6–3.5)
Northern ChinaMotherNRNR2.1 (1.3–3.3)
Wang et al. 1996 Women
Shenyang (China)
During childhood59610.91 (0.55–1.49)
Rapiti et al. 1999 WomenFather731812.6 (4.9–32.7)
IndiaMother3167.7 (1.6–37.2)
Zhong et al. 1999 Women
Shanghai (China)
During childhood34360.9 (0.5–1.6)
Lee et al. 2000 WomenFather49451.2 (0.9–1.6)
TaiwanMother321.5 (0.6–3.9)
Wang et al. 2000 MenDuring childhood63491.46 (0.6–3.7)
Women
Gansu (China) (nonindustrial)
67611.51 (1.0–2.2)
*

NR = Data were not reported.

The respective relative risks were 1.0, 1.1, and 2.1 associated with 0, 1–24, and ≥25 smoker-years, in childhood and adolescence. (Smoker-years = The number of years of exposure weighted by the number of smokers.)

The respective relative risks were 1.0, 1.6, 1.1, and 2.4 associated with 0, <18, 18–21, and >21 years, in childhood and adolescence.

From: 7, Cancer Among Adults from Exposure to Secondhand Smoke

Cover of The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke
The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Office on Smoking and Health (US).

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.