Table 7.4

Quantitative estimate of lung cancer risk with differing sources of exposure to secondhand smoke

StudyData sourceExposure vs. referentRelative risk95% confidence interval
Previous meta-analyses
Hackshaw et al. 1997 37 studiesSmoking vs. nonsmoking spouse1.241.13–1.36
Zhong et al. 2000 40 studies (including 37 from Hackshaw et al. 1997)Smoking vs. nonsmoking husband1.201.12–1.29
Spousal smoking (52 studies)
Meta-analysis conducted for this 2006 Surgeon General’s reportCase-control (44 studies)Smoking vs. nonsmoking spouse1.211.13–1.30
Cohort (8 studies)Smoking vs. nonsmoking spouse1.291.125–1.49
MenSmoking vs. nonsmoking wife1.371.05–1.79
WomenSmoking vs. nonsmoking husband1.221.13–1.31
United States and CanadaSmoking vs. nonsmoking spouse1.151.04–1.26
EuropeSmoking vs. nonsmoking spouse1.161.03–1.30
AsiaSmoking vs. nonsmoking spouse1.431.24–1.66
Workplace exposure (25 studies)
Meta-analysis conducted for this 2006 Surgeon General’s reportNonsmokers (25 studies)Workplace secondhand smoke vs. none1.221.13–1.33
Nonsmoking men (11 studies)Workplace secondhand smoke vs. none1.120.86–1.50
Nonsmoking women (25 studies)Workplace secondhand smoke vs. none1.221.10–1.35
Nonsmokers in the United States and Canada (8 studies)Workplace secondhand smoke vs. none1.241.03–1.49
Nonsmokers in Europe (7 studies)Workplace secondhand smoke vs. none1.130.96–1.34
Nonsmokers in Asia (10 studies)Workplace secondhand smoke vs. none1.321.13–1.55
Childhood exposure (24 studies)
Meta-analysis conducted for this 2006 Surgeon General’s reportMen and womenMaternal smoking1.150.86–1.52
Men and womenPaternal smoking1.100.89–1.36
Men and womenSmoking by either parent1.110.94–1.31
WomenMaternal smoking1.280.93–1.78
WomenPaternal smoking1.170.91–1.50
United States and Canada (8 studies)Smoking by either parent0.930.81–1.07
Europe (6 studies)Smoking by either parent0.810.71–0.92
Asia (10 studies)Smoking by either parent1.591.18–2.15

From: 7, Cancer Among Adults from Exposure to Secondhand Smoke

Cover of The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke
The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Office on Smoking and Health (US).

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