NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Office on Smoking and Health (US). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2006.

Cover of The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke

The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General.

Show details

Acknowledgments

This report was prepared by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under the general direction of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

Richard H. Carmona, M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.S., Surgeon General, United States Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Kenneth P. Moritsugu, M.D., M.P.H., Deputy Surgeon General, Office of the Surgeon General, United States Public Health Service, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE, Chief of Staff, Office of the Surgeon General, United States Public Health Service, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Karen A. Near, M.D., M.S., Senior Science Advisor, Office of the Surgeon General, United States Public Health Service, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Ron Schoenfeld, Ph.D., Senior Science Advisor, Office of the Surgeon General, United States Public Health Service, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Julie Louise Gerberding, M.D., M.P.H., Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Janet Collins, Ph.D., Director, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Barbara Bowman, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science (acting), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Corinne G. Husten, M.D., M.P.H., Director (acting), Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Terry F. Pechacek, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

The editors of the report were

Jonathan M. Samet, M.D., M.S., Senior Scientific Editor, Professor and Chairman, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Leslie A. Norman, Managing Editor, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Caran Wilbanks, Technical Editor, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Audrey Pinto, Technical Editor, Barrington, Rhode Island.

Contributing authors were

Stephen Babb, M.P.H., Health Education Specialist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

John T. Bernert, Ph.D., Supervisory Research Chemist, Emergency Response and Air Toxicants Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Coordinating Center for Environmental Health and Injury Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Derek G. Cook, Ph.D., Professor of Epidemiology, Division of Community Health Sciences, St. George’s, University of London, London, England.

David B. Coultas, M.D., Professor and Chairman, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Center at Tyler, Tyler, Texas.

Dawn DeMeo, M.D., Associate Physician, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Channing Laboratory, Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Karen Emmons, Ph.D., Professor, Harvard School of Public Health, Deputy Director of Community-Based Research, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Stanton Glantz, Ph.D., Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Steven N. Goodman, M.D., M.H.S., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Oncology, Pediatrics, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

S. Katharine Hammond, Ph.D., C.I.H., Professor of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California.

Stephen S. Hecht, Ph.D., Professor, University of Minnesota Cancer Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

John R. Hoidal, M.D., The Clarence M. and Ruth N. Birrer Presidential Professor and Chairman of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Jerelyn H. Jordan, Program Consultant, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Ichiro Kawachi, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Social Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, and Associate Professor of Medicine, Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Nora L. Lee, Research Program Coordinator, Center for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

David M. Mannino, M.D., Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary Epidemiology Research Laboratory, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

John F. McCarthy, Sc.D., C.I.H., President, Environmental Health and Engineering, Inc., Newton, Massachusetts.

Murray A. Mittleman, M.D., Dr.P.H., Associate Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology, Harvard University at Beth Israel Deaconness Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Patricia J. O’Campo, Ph.D., Alma and Baxter Ricard Chair in Inner City Health, Director, Centre for Research on Inner City Health, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario.

William Parmley, M.D., The Seventy, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Terry F. Pechacek, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Jonathan M. Samet, M.D., M.S., Professor and Chairman, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Donald R. Shopland Sr., U.S. Public Health Service (retired), Ringgold, Georgia.

John D. Spengler, Ph.D., Akira Yamaguchi Professor of Environmental Health and Human Habitation, Director, Environmental Health Department, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

David P. Strachan, M.D., Professor of Epidemiology, Division of Community Health Sciences, St. George’s, University of London, London, England.

Scott T. Weiss, M.D., M.S., Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Director, Respiratory, Environmental, and Genetic Epidemiology, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Anna H. Wu, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Reviewers were

Duane Alexander, M.D., Director, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

David L. Ashley, Ph.D., Chief, Emergency Response and Air Toxicants Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Coordinating Center for Environmental Health and Injury Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Edward L. Avol, M.S., Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Cathy L. Backinger, Ph.D., M.P.H., Acting Chief, Tobacco Control Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Stephen W. Banspach, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science, Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

John Baron, M.D., Professor, Departments of Medicine and Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire.

Rebecca Bascom, M.D., M.P.H., Professor of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

Glen C. Bennett, M.P.H., Coordinator, Advanced Technologies Applications in Health Education, Office of Prevention, Education, and Control, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Neal Benowitz, M.D., Professor of Medicine, Psychiatry, and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, and Chief, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Valerie Beral, F.R.C.P., Professor of Epidemiology, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

Michele Bloch, M.D., Ph.D., Medical Officer, Tobacco Control Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

William Blot, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer, International Epidemiology Institute, Ltd., Rockville, Maryland, and Professor, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Paolo Boffetta, M.D., M.P.H., Coordinator, Genetics and Epidemiology Cluster, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Michael B. Bracken, Ph.D., M.P.H., Susan Dwight Bliss Professor of Epidemiology, Center for Perinatal, Pediatric, and Environmental Epidemiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Patrick Breysse, Ph.D., Professor, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, and Director, Division of Environmental Health Engineering, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

John R. Britton, Professor of Epidemiology, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England.

Arnold R. Brody, Ph.D., Professor and Vice Chairman, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana.

David M. Burns, M.D., Professor of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California.

Carl J. Caspersen, Ph.D., M.P.H., Associate Director for Science, Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Terence L. Chorba, M.D., Associate Director for Science, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Ralph J. Coates, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Graham Colditz, M.D., Dr.P.H., Professor of Medicine, Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Adolfo Correa, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., Medical Epidemiologist, Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Daniel L. Costa, Sc.D., DABT, National Program Director for Air Research, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

David B. Coultas, M.D., Professor and Chairman, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Health Center at Tyler, Tyler, Texas.

Linda S. Crossett, R.D.H., Health Scientist, Research Application Branch, Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Ronald M. Davis, M.D., Director, Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan.

Mirjana V. Djordevic, Ph.D., Bio-analytical Chemist, Tobacco Control Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Lucinda England, M.D., M.S.P.H., Medical Epidemiologist, Maternal and Infant Health Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Michael P. Eriksen, Sc.D., Professor and Director, Institute of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Brenda Eskenazi, Ph.D., Professor of Maternal and Child Health and Epidemiology, and Director, Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California.

Jing Fang, M.D., M.S., Epidemiologist, Epidemiology and Surveillance Team, Division of Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Elizabeth T.H. Fontham, Dr.P.H., Dean, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Alison Freeman, ETS Policy Specialist, Indoor Environments Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Deborah Galuska, Ph.D., M.P.H., Associate Director for Science, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Samuel S. Gidding, M.D., Professor of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Nemours Cardiac Center, A.I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware.

Frank D. Gilliland, M.D., Ph.D., Professor, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Gary A. Giovino, Ph.D., M.S., Director, Tobacco Control Research Program, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York.

John Girman, Senior Science Advisor, Indoor Environments Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Thomas J. Glynn, Ph.D., Director, Cancer Science and Trends, American Cancer Society, Washington, D.C.

Keith L. Goddard, D.Sc., P.E., Director, Directorate of Evaluation and Analysis, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C.

Diane R. Gold, M.D., M.P.H., Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Associate Professor of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Allan Hackshaw, Deputy Director, Cancer Research UK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre, University College London, London, England.

Thomas P. Houston, M.D., Professor, Public Health and Family Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana.

George Howard, Dr.P.H., Chairman, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Gary W. Hunninghake, M.D., Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, and Director, Pulmonary Program in Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Jouni Jaakkola, M.D, Ph.D., D.Sc., Professor and Director, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, England.

David R. Jacobs Jr., Ph.D., Professor of Epidemiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Martin Jarvis, Professor, Cancer Research UK Health Behaviour Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, England.

Jennifer Jinot, ETS Risk Assessment Scientist, Mathematical Statistician, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Joel Kaufman, M.D., M.P.H., Associate Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Juliette Kendrick, M.D., Medical Officer, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Neil E. Klepeis, Ph.D., Post-Doctoral Researcher, Stanford University, and Exposure Science Consulting, Watsonville, California.

William Kohn, D.D.S., CAPT, Deputy Associate Director for Science (acting), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Petros Koutrakis, Ph.D., Professor of Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Darwin Labarthe, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., Director (acting), Division of Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

John Lehnherr, Director (acting), Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Youlian Liao, M.D., Epidemiologist, Deputy Associate Director for Science (acting), Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Catherine Lorraine, Director, Policy Development and Coordination Staff, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Maryland.

William R. Maas, D.D.S., M.P.H., Director, Division of Oral Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Jennifer H. Madans Ph.D., Associate Director for Science, National Center for Health Statistics, Coordinating Center for Health Information and Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland.

Fernando D. Martinez, M.D., Director, Arizona Respiratory Center, and Swift-McNear Professor of Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Kenneth P. Moritsugu, M.D., M.P.H., Deputy Surgeon General, Office of the Surgeon General, United States Public Health Service, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

Matthew L. Myers, President, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Washington, D.C.

Elizabeth G. Nabel, M.D., Director, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

David Nelson, M.D., M.P.H., Senior Scientific Advisor, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

F. Javier Nieto, M.D., Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin.

Thomas E. Novotny, M.D., M.P.H., Education Coordinator, UCSF Global Health Sciences, and Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Mark Parascandola, Ph.D., M.P.H., Epidemiologist, Tobacco Control Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Samuel F. Posner, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science, Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Bogdan Prokopczyk, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

Scott Rogers, M.P.H., Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

Dale P. Sandler, Ph.D., Chief, Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Laura A. Schieve, Ph.D., Epidemiologist, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Susan Schober, Ph.D., Senior Epidemiologist, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Program, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland.

Lawrence Schoen, M.S., President and Principal Engineer, Schoen Engineering, Inc., Columbia, Maryland.

Ron Schoenfeld, Ph.D., Senior Science Advisor, Office of the Surgeon General, United States Public Health Service, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D.C.

David Schwartz, M.D., M.P.H., Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Director, National Toxicology Program; and Professor of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Harold E. Seifried, Ph.D., DABT, Chemist, Toxicologist, Industrial Hygenist, Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Frank E. Speizer, M.D., Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital; Edward H. Kass Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; and Professor of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Margaret R. Spitz, M.D., M.P.H., Professor and Chair, Department of Epidemiology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas.

Meir J. Stampfer, M.D., Dr.P.H., Department Chair of Epidemiology; Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition, School of Public Health; and Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

James W. Stephens, Ph.D., Associate Director for Science, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Washington, D.C.

Gary D. Stoner, Ph.D., Professor, Division of Hematology and Oncology, College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Esther Sumartojo, Ph.D., M.Sc., Acting Associate Director for Science and Public Health, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Ira Tager, M.D., M.P.H., Professor of Epidemiology, Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California.

Michael J. Thun, M.D., Vice President, Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia.

Edward Trapido, Sc.D., Associate Director, Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Noel S. Weiss, M.D., Dr.P.H., Professor, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Scott T. Weiss, M.D., M.S., Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Director, Respiratory, Environmental, and Genetic Epidemiology, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Elizabeth M. Whelan, Sc.D., M.P.H., M.S., President, American Council on Science and Health, New York, New York.

Allen J. Wilcox, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Durham, North Carolina.

Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr.P.H., Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition, and Chair, Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Gayle Windham, Ph.D., Research Scientist (Epidemiology), Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Health Services, Richmond, California.

Deborah M. Winn, Ph.D., Chief, Clinical and Genetic Epidemiology Research Branch, Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Alistair Woodward, Ph.D., Head, School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Other contributors were

Nicole C. Ammerman, Sc.M., Ph.D. Candidate, Research Assistant, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Mary Bedford, Proofreader, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

Caroline M. Fichtenberg, M.S., Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Charlotte Gerczak, M.L.A., Research Writer and Special Projects Coordinator, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Roberta B. Gray, Senior Administrative Assistant to Dr. Jonathan M. Samet, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Kat Jackson, Statistician, RTI International, Atlanta, Georgia.

Mooim Kang, Graphics Specialist, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

Teresa Kelly, M.S., Project Director, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

Elizabeth Khaykin, M.H.S., Sc.M., Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Nancy Leonard, Administrative Assistant II to Dr. Jonathan M. Samet, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Allison MacNeil, M.P.H., Health Scientist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

William T. Marx, M.L.I.S., Health Communications Specialist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Linda McLaughlin, Word Processing Specialist, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

Laura Nelson, M.A., Senior Writer, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

Alyce Ortuzar, Copy Editor, Cygnus Corporation, Rockville, Maryland.

Margot Raphael, Senior Editor, American Institutes for Research, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Susan Schober, Ph.D., Senior Epidemiologist, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Program, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland.

Angela Trosclair, M.S., Statistician, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Glenda Vaughn, Public Health Analyst, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Deborah Williams, Desktop Publishing Specialist to Dr. Jonathan M. Samet, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Peggy E. Williams, M.S., Writer-Editor, Quantell, Inc., Marietta, Georgia.

Database contributors were

Mahshid Amini, Health Education Specialist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Nicole C. Ammerman, Sc.M., Ph.D. Candidate, Research Assistant, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Erika Avila-Tang, Ph.D., M.H.S., Project Coordinator, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Jeffrey H. Chrismon, P.M.P., Project Manager, Northrup Grumman Mission Systems, Atlanta, Georgia.

Oyelola ‘Yomi Faparusi, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Mental Hygiene, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Caroline M. Fichtenberg, M.S., Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Ola Gibson, Software Engineer, Northrup Grumman Mission Systems, Atlanta, Georgia.

Hope L. Johnson, M.P.H., Ph.D. Candidate, Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Bindu Kalesan, M.Sc., M.P.H., Biostatistician, Asthma and Allergy Center, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Elizabeth Khaykin, M.H.S., Sc.M., Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Georgette Lavetsky, M.H.S., Epidemiologist, Office of Substance Abuse Services, Howard County Health Department, Columbia, Maryland.

Maria Jose Lopez, B.Sc., Ph.D. Candidate, Evaluation and Intervention Methods Service, Public Health Agency, Barcelona, Spain.

Sharon Mc Aleer, Web Designer, Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, Atlanta, Georgia.

Georgiana Onicescu, B.Sc., Master’s Candidate in Biostatistics, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Patti R. Seikus, M.P.H., Health Communications Specialist, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Stephen Strathdee, User Support Specialist, Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Views

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...