Table 3.10. Relative risks for lung cancer among women, by smoking status and histologic type, case-control studies

StudyYearsSmoking statusRelative risk (95% confindence interval)
Squamous cell carcinomaKreyberg I * Small cell carcinomaAdeno-arcinoma
Lubin and Blot 1984 1976-1980Never smoked1.01.01.0
Ever smoked
1-9 cigarettes/day2.8 ** 2.3 ** 1.0 **
10-19 cigarettes/day2.4 ** 2.4 ** 2.0 **
20-29 cigarettes/day5.3 ** 6.2 ** 1.1 **
>30 cigarettes/day4.2 ** 5.6 ** 2.3 **
Potter et al. 1985 1976-1980Nonsomkers1.01.01.0
Smokers8.3 ** 52.3 ** 4.0 **
Wu et al. 1985 1981-1982Nonsmokers1.01.0
Former Smokers7.7 (0.8-70.3)1.2 (0.6-6.4)
Current Smokers35.3 (4.7-267.3)4.1 (2.3-7.5)
1-20 cigarettes/day17.7 (2.3-138.2)2.7 (1.4-5.4)
>21 cigarettes/day94.4 (9.9-904.6)6.5 (3.1-13.9)
Benhamou et al. 1987 1976-1980Nonsmokers1.01.0
Smokers6.6 (3.0-14.4)2.1 (0.7-6.4)
Schoenberg et al. 1989 1982-1983Nosmokers1.01.01.0
All smokers
<20 cigarettes/day
<35 years2.7 (1.4-5.1)19.0 (6.4-56.5)2.0 (1.3-3.2)
>35 years12.0 (7.4-19.6)62.5 (22.3-176.0)3.9 (2.6-5.9)
>20 cigarettes/day
<35 years7.7 (4.1-14.3)40.6 (13.5-122.0)3.4 (2.0-5.6
>35 years21.4 (13.1-34.9)140.0 (49.8-391.0)6.8 (4.5-10.1)
Svensson et al.1989 1983-1986Never somoked1.01.01.0
Former smokers4.0 (1.0-16.9)9.1 (1.4-69.7)1.8 (0.8-4.3)
Current smokers
<10 cigarettes/day9.7 (2.9-45.9)33.7 (6.9-265.3)2.2 (1.0-5.8)
11-20 cigarettes/day36.2 (12.0-168.9)72.1 (11.9-452.6)5.4 (2.4-13.2)
> cigarettes/day96.0 (6.9-)§ 215.8 (18.3-)§ 19.7 (1.7-)§
Katsouyanni et al.1991 1987-1989Nonsmokers1.01.0
Former smokers4.7 (1.05-21.11.8 (0.4-8.7)
Current smokers
<20 cigarettes/day3.2 (1.1-8.9)1.4 (0.52-3.49)
<20 cigarettes/day19.5 (5.4-71.1)3.0 (0.76-11.41)
Morabia and Wynder 19911985-1990Former smokers
<20 cigarettes-day0.4 (0.1-1.2)0.5 (0.1-2.0)0.7 (0.4-1.3)
>20 cigarettes-day2.0 (1.0-4.3)1.8 (0.7-4.9)0.9 (0.5-1.5)
Current smokers
1-19 cigerettes-day >§<§ 1.01.01.0
20-29 cigarettes-day1.5 (0.7-3.3)1.8 (0.7-4.9)1.3 (0.9-2.6)
>30 cigarettes-day2.7 (1.3-5.7)3.2 (1.2-8.1)1.5 (0.9-2.6)
Osann 19911969-1977Never smoked1.01.0
Former smokers12.6 (1.4-113.0)1.7 (0.5-5.3)
Current smokers
<20 cigarettes-day12.1 (1.5-96.3)0.9 (0.3-2.7)
>20 cigarettes-day71.2 (8.3-609.0)3.8 (1.6-8.8)
Brownson et al.1992b 1984-1990Never smoked1.01.01.0
Former smokers19.2 (15.2-24.2)29.8 (22.0-40.3)7.2 (6.2-8.5)
Current smokers20.6 (16.6-25.6)42.5 (32.1-56.6)7.2 (6.2-8.3)
<20 cigarettes-day11.7 (8.7-15.8)25.6 (18.1-36.3)5.8 (4.7-7.1)
>20 cigarettes-day26.1 (20.7-32.8)53.1 (39.5-71.3)8.6 (7.3-10.1)
Osann et al. 1993 1984-1986Never smoked1.01.01.0
Former smokers13.5 (6.8-27.0)43.3 (15.1-124.0)5.8 (3.8-9.0)
Ever smoked
<40 cigarettes-day24.0 (12.7-45.5)76.7 (27.5-215.0)8.8 (6.1-12.8)
>40 cigarettes-day72.3 (36.8-142.0)316.1 (111.0-900.0)24.2 (15.8-37.2)
Risch et al. 1993 1981-1985Never smoked1.01.01.0
Smoked > pack-years101.0 (15.3-660.0)87.3 (26.7-286.0)8.8 (3.7-20.8)
Zang and Wynder 19961981-1994Never smoked1.01.0
Current smokers
1-10 cigarettes-day9.3 (3.9-22.1)4.5 (2.7-7.7)
11-20 cigarettes-day33.0 (16.3-66.6)14.2 (9.6-20.9)
21-40 cigarettes-day74.9 (37.0-151.5)27.2 (17.8-41.6)
>41 cigarettes-day85.3 (29.5-247.1)34.3 (16.2-72.5)
*

Kreyberg I includes squamous cell, small cell, and large cell carcinoma.

**

95% confidence interval was not reported.

§

Upper confidence limit is not given; estimates are imprecise because of the small number of persons in the high-exposure category.

>§<§

Referent group.

From: Chapter 3. Health Consequences of Tobacco Use Among Women

Cover of Women and Smoking
Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Office on Smoking and Health (US).

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