Table 2.22. Percentage (and 95% confidence interval) of current women smokers aged 18 years or older who reported selected indicators of nicotine dependence, by race or ethnicity and quantity of cigarettes smoked, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, United States, 1992-1994, aggregate data

CharacteristicIndicators of nicotine dependence
Felt dependent on cigarettesNeeded more cigarettes for same effectUnable to cut down * Felt sick when cut down on smoking * Any dependence indicator **
Women overall71.0 (±3.1)14.8 (±2.4)79.2 (±3.1)33.4 (±3.8)77.5 (±2.8)
< 15 cigarettes/day§ 61.7 (±4.9)10.5 (±2.2)70.2 (±4.9)27.8 (±4.8)68.9 (±4.7)
16-25 cigarettes/day80.2 (±3.6)13.8 (±3.3)85.5 (±4.0)35.3 (±5.2)85.4 (±3.1)
> 26 cigarettes/day78.6 (±9.2)29.0 (±9.0)90.8 (±7.7)44.8 (± 11.1)86.1 (±5.7)
Race/ethnicity
White74.2 (±3.6)14.6 (±2.8)79.6 (±3.6)33.8 (±4.4)79.8 (±3.3)
> 15 cigarettes/day§ 65.0 (±6.5)9.6 (±2.7)68.3 (±6.4)27.4 (±5.9)71.0 (±6.2)
16-25 cigarettes/day82.4 (±3.6)12.9 (±3.3)86.3 (±4.3)35.8 (±5.6)86.6 (±3.3)
> 26 cigarettes/day78.9 (±9.9)29.4 (±9.5)91.2 (±7.9)44.0 (± 11.6)86.6 (±6.0)
Black56.1 (±5.4)15.3 (±5.1)76.7 (±6.6)29.8 (±6.5)67.7 (±5.2)
> 15 cigarettes/day§ 55.7 (±6.0)13.4 (±4.2)75.4 (±7.8)28.2 (±8.4)65.8 (±6.5)
16-25 cigarettes/day53.0 (±14.0)20.1 (±17.6)80.5 (±16.1)28.6 (±10.3)71.5 (±9.9)
> 26 cigarettes/day70.8 (±13.8)19.4 (±15.1) >§<§ 79.0 (±24.5)54.6 (±24.1) >§<§ 75.4 (±12.9)
Hispanic56.8 (±5.7)15.6 (±4.6)78.8 (±6.9)33.9 (±6.8)65.8 (±5.5)
> 15 cigarettes/day§ 46.5 (±6.2)12.8 (±4.8)78.6 (±6.9)30.8 (±8.7)57.7 (±6.2)
16-25 cigarettes/day82.8 (±7.7)21.0 (±12.7)75.8 (±18.1)33.9 (±15.3)85.5 (±7.2)
> 26 cigarettes/day86.6 (±12.3)31.5 (±29.5) >§<§ 93.0 (±9.1)66.6 (±24.7) >§<§ 91.8 (±6.6)
Men overall66.2 (±3.1)13.2 (±2.3)75.6 (±3.6)35.7 (±5.2)72.1 (±2.9)
> 15 cigarettes/day§ 51.2 (±4.0)11.2 (±3.4)62.1 (±5.4)28.4 (±5.7)60.0 (±4.1)
16-25 cigarettes/day72.6 (±5.2)13.3 (±3.9)80.3 (±5.7)33.3 (±6.8)78.7 (±4.7)
> 26 cigarettes/day78.8 (±6.6)16.1 (±5.8)88.6 (±5.3)50.6 (± 11.8)80.4 (±6.6)

Note: Current smokers were persons who reported smoking > 100 cigarettes (about 5 packs) during their lifetime and who smoked at the time of the survey. Indicators of nicotine dependence were (1) "felt [they needed] or were dependent on cigarettes," (2) "needed larger amounts [more cigarettes' to get the same effect," (3) "felt unable to cut down on [their] use, even though [they] tried," and (4) "had withdrawal symptoms, that is, felt sick because [they] stopped or cut down on cigarette use."

*

Analysis of "unable to cut down" and "felt sick" was restricted to persons who reported trying to reduce their use of cigarettes during the preceding 12 months. In addition, for indicator "unable to cut down," because of the question design, respondents who reported not trying to reduce any drug use during the preceding 12 months were excluded from this analysis.

**

Current smokers who reported >1 of the 4 indicators of nicotine dependence.

§

Includes smokers who did not smoke daily.

>§<§

Estimate should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of respondents.Sources: Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, public use data tape, 1992; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, public use data tapes, 1993, 1994-A.

From: Chapter 2. Patterns of Tobacco Use Among Women and Girls

Cover of Women and Smoking
Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Office on Smoking and Health (US).

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