Table 2.15. Trends (%) in live births in which mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, by selected characteristics, United States, 1989-1998

Characteristic198919911993199519971998
Overall * 19.517.815.813.913.212.9
Age (years) *
<1818.316.014.414.215.115.1
18-2423.621.219.217.417.217.1
25-4917.215.813.912.111.010.5
Race/ethnicity **
White, non-Hispanic21.720.518.617.116.516.2
Black, non-Hispanic17.214.612.710.69.89.6
Hispanic8.06.35.04.34.14.0
American Indian or Alaska Native23.022.621.620.920.820.2
Asian or Pacific Islander5.75.24.33.43.23.1
Education (number of years) §
< 820.818.315.212.612.111.7
9-1135.031.929.026.225.725.5
1222.220.619.317.717.116.8
13-1513.612.411.310.59.99.6
> 165.04.23.12.72.42.2
Number of cigarettes/day
< 1057.860.462.765.467.968.6
11-2035.633.832.130.128.127.6
> 216.65.85.24.64.03.8

Note: Percentage excludes live births for mothers with unknown smoking status.

*

Includes data for 43 states and the District of Columbia (DC) in 1989; 46 states and DC in 1991-1993; and 46 states, DC, and New York City in 1995-1998. Excludes data for California, Indiana, New York State, and South Dakota for all years; Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma in 1989; and New York City in 1989-1993, which did not require the reporting of mother's tobacco use during pregnancy on the birth certificate.

**

For American Indians or Alaska Natives and Asians or Pacific Islanders, includes data for 43 states and DC in 1989; 46 states and DC in 1991-1993; and 46 states, DC, and New York City in 1995-1998. Excludes data for California, Indiana, New York State, and South Dakota for all years; Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma in 1989; and New York City in 1989-1993, which did not require the reporting of mother's tobacco use during pregnancy on the birth certificate. For white non-Hispanics, black non-Hispanics, and Hispanics, includes data for 42 states and DC in 1989; 45 states and DC in 1991; 46 states and DC in 1993; and 46 states, DC, and New York City in 1995-1998. Excludes data for California, Indiana, New York State, and South Dakota for all years; Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma in 1989; New Hampshire in 1989-1991; and New York City in 1989-1993, which did not require the reporting of mother's tobacco use during pregnancy or mother's Hispanic origin on the birth certificate.

§

Includes data for 42 states and DC in 1989; 45 states and DC in 1991; 46 states and DC in 1993; and 46 states, DC, and New York City in 1995-1998. Excludes data for California, Indiana, New York State, and South Dakota for all years; Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma in 1989; Washington in 1989-1991; and New York City in 1989-1993, which did not require the reporting of mother's tobacco use during pregnancy or mother's education on the birth certificate. Sources: National Center for Health Statistics 1992, 1994a; Ventura et al. 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000; Mathews 1998.

From: Chapter 2. Patterns of Tobacco Use Among Women and Girls

Cover of Women and Smoking
Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Office on Smoking and Health (US).

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