Table 4.2. Characteristics of 13 longitudinal studies of smoking maintenance and cessation among women who smoked regularly

Demographic group/studyPopulationEnd pointStudy periodSample sizeFinal response rate (%)
Young persons
Cherry and Kiernan 1976 Female and male respondents to National Survey of Health and Development who completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory at age 16 years and had follow-up at ages 20 and 25 years
Relationship of personality scores to changes in smoking behavior9 years (1962-1971)2,75373
Rose et al. 1996 Girls and boys in grades 6-12 who were evaluated for psychosocial factors
Midwestern United States
Psychosocial measures as predictors of attempts to stop smoking and of smoking cessation in adult regular smokersFollow-up at 3 and 11 years (1984-1994)8,55673
Pregnant women
Cnattingius et al. 1992 Women registered at prenatal clinic
Uppsala, Sweden
Differences in predictors during pregnancy in women who stop smoking and those who continue to smoke24-26 and 34-36 weeks' gestation1,10498
O'Campo et al. 1992 Women recruited in third trimester of pregnancy
48% white, 52% black
Sociodemographic factors related to continued smoking during pregnancy; to early postpartum relapse to smoking; and to practices in infant feeding1-3 and 6-12 weeks after childbirth1,90090
Dejin-Karlsson et al. 1996 Primigravidas registered at four antenatal clinics over a 1-year period who reported smoking at conception
83% Swedish, 17% non-Swedish
Malmö, Sweden
Psychosocial factors related to continued smoking during pregnancy12 weeks' gestation40488
Nafstad et al. 1996 Mothers of children participating in the Oslo Birth Cohort who had completed information on smoking habits at all three assessments (early pregnancy, delivery, 1 year after childbirth)
Determinants for changes in maternal smoking behavior during and after pregnancy ** Early pregnancy, delivery, and 1 year after childbirth3,207 * 75
Young and middle-aged adults
Colditz et al., unpublished data National sample of female nurses in Nurses' Health Study United StatesFactors affecting smoking and smoking cessation, as determined in a long-term longitudinal studyFollow-up every 2 years for 10 years (1976-1986)121,70085
Kaprio and Koskenvuo 1988 Women and men with a twin ∼40% smokers FinlandPsychological, socioeconomic, and medical preditors of smoking cessation, continuation of smoking, or never smokingFollow-up at 6 years2,62089
Williamson et al. 1991 Non institutionalized civilian population of women and men from First National Health and Nutrition Examination Study
Women: 81% white, 18% black, 0.4% other
Men: 85% white, 15% black, 0.4% other
United States
Accurate estimates of weight gain related to cessation of smoking in general population6.7-12.5 years for women 6.7-12.6 years for men2,65393
Garvey et al. 1992 Female and male volunteers who had recently stopped smoking Boston, MassachusettsPredictors of early and late relapse to smoking in those who tried to stop smokingBimonthly follow-up for 1 year23590
Hibbard 1993 Female members of health maintenance organization who smoked and had long-term follow-up United StatesSocietal factors predicting smoking cessation> 15 years of follow-up16850
Osler 1993 Random sample of women and men in National Central Person Registry DenmarkSocial and individual factors associated with differences in smoking, physical activity, and consumption of fruits and vegetables, as determined in a longitudinal studyFollow-up at 5 years (1982-1987)1,67583
Older adults
Salive and Blazer 1993 Older adult women and men in a large population in Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly Trial46% white, 54% blackNorth CarolinaRelationship of smoking cessation and depression in a sample of older adults3 years67780

Multivariate analysis conducted on subgroup of 3,039 cohabitating women only.


Cessation attempt: smokers who reported cessation at delivery. Cessation: smokers who reported stopping smoking during 1st year after delivery.

From: Chapter 4. Factors Influencing Tobacco Use Among Women

Cover of Women and Smoking
Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Office on Smoking and Health (US).

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