Box 4-1. Early and late risk factors for violence at age 15 to 18 and proposed protective factors, by domain

DomainRisk FactorProtective Factor *
Early Onset (age 6-11)Late Onset (age 12-14)
IndividualGeneral offensesGeneral offensesIntolerant attitude toward deviance
Substance usePsychological condition
Being male RestlessnessHigh IQ
Aggression ** Difficulty concentrating ** Being female
Psychological condition Risk takingPositive social orientation
HyperactivityAggression ** Perceived sanctions for transgressions
Problem (antisocial) behaviorBeing male
Physical violence
Exposure to television violenceAntisocial attitudes, beliefs
Crimes against persons
Medical, physicalProblem (antisocial) behavior
Low IQLow IQ
Antisocial attitudes, beliefs Dishonesty ** Substance use
FamilyLow socioeconomic status/povertyPoor parent-child relationsWarm, supportive relationships with parents or other adults
Harsh, lax discipline; poor monitoring, supervision
Antisocial parents
Poor parent-child relationsLow parental involvementParents' positive evaluation of peers
Harsh, lax, or inconsistent disciplineAntisocial parents
Broken homeParental monitoring
Broken homeLow socioeconomic status/poverty
Separation from parents
Other conditionsAbusive parents
Abusive parentsOther conditions
Neglect Family conflict **
SchoolPoor attitude, performancePoor attitude, performanceCommitment to school
Academic failureRecognition for involvement in conventional activities
Peer GroupWeak social tiesWeak social tiesFriends who engage in conventional behavior
Antisocial peersAntisocial, delinquent peers
Gang membership
CommunityNeighborhood crime, drugs
Neighborhood disorganization

* Age of onset not known.

** Males only.

From: Chapter 4 -- Risk Factors for Youth Violence

Cover of Youth Violence
Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Office of the Surgeon General (US); National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (US); National Institute of Mental Health (US); Center for Mental Health Services (US).
Rockville (MD): Office of the Surgeon General (US); 2001.

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