Table 6Delayed prescription studies

Study Target condition Rate of antibiotic use (comparison group) Rate of antibiotic use (intervention group) Reduction in antibiotic use (Intervention post - Control post )
Arroll et al 4 Common cold 87.0% 40.3% 46.7%
Dowell et al 8 Uncomplicated ARI 100.0% 45.0% 55.0%
Little et al 19 Pediatric otitis media 98.5% 24.0% 74.5%
MacFarlane et al 20 Acute bronchitis 62.0% 47.0% 15.0%
Pshetizky et al 38 Pediatric otitis media 63.0% 37.0% 26.0%

Studies using delayed prescriptions are those in which the antibiotic prescription is provided to the patient with instructions to use the prescription only if their condition did not improve with supportive measures within a set period of time. These studies did not report pre-intervention prescribing rates. In all studies, comparison group patients received antibiotic prescriptions with instructions to begin taking antibiotics immediately; the post-intervention control group percentages refer to the percent of patients who actually filled the prescription. In Dowell et al, the percentage of control group patients who used the antibiotic prescription was not stated. The studies by Macfarlane and Pshetizky also incorporated a brief educational intervention for patients.

From: 3, Results

Cover of Closing the Quality Gap: A Critical Analysis of Quality Improvement Strategies (Vol. 4: Antibiotic Prescribing Behavior)
Closing the Quality Gap: A Critical Analysis of Quality Improvement Strategies (Vol. 4: Antibiotic Prescribing Behavior).
Technical Reviews, No. 9.4.
Ranji SR, Steinman MA, Shojania KG, et al.

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