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Whitlock EP, Williams SB, Gold R, et al. Screening and Interventions for Childhood Overweight [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2005 Jul. (Evidence Syntheses, No. 36.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Screening and Interventions for Childhood Overweight [Internet].

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Appendix G. Exclusion Table for Key Questions 2b and 2c

References and Reason for Exclusion

  1. Abraham S, Nordsieck M. Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health Rep. 1960;75:263–73. Unusable reference standard. [PMC free article: PMC1929420] [PubMed: 13791533]
  2. Abraham S, Collins G, Nordsieck M. Relationship of childhood weight status to morbidity in adults. HSMHA Health Rep. 1971;86(3):273–284. Unusable reference standard Poor quality rating. [PMC free article: PMC1937073] [PubMed: 5547793]
  3. Abrantes MM, Lamounier JA, Colosimo EA. Comparison of body mass index values proposed by Cole et al. (2000) and Must et al. (1991) for identifying obese children with weight-for-height index recommended by the World Health Organization. Public Health Nutrition. 2003;6(3):307–311. Non-US population. [PubMed: 12740080]
  4. Allison DB, Zannolli R, Faith MS, Heo M, Pietrobelli A, VanItallie TB, Pi-Sunyer FX, Heymsfield SB. Weight loss increases and fat loss decreases all-cause mortality rate: results from two independent cohort studies. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 1999;23(6):603–611. Wrong age group. [PubMed: 10411233]
  5. Aristimuno GG, Foster TA, Voors AW, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Influence of persistent obesity in children on cardiovascular risk factors: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Circulation. 1984;69(5):895–904. Wrong age group Not an outcome of interest. [PubMed: 6705165]
  6. Arslanian S. Insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy African-American vs American white children. Clin Pediatr(Phila) 1998;37(2):81–88. Not a longitudinal study Not an outcome of interest Wrong measure of OW. [PubMed: 9492115]
  7. Arslanian S. Type 2 diabetes in children: clinical aspects and risk factors. Hormone Research. 2002;57(Suppl 1):19–28. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 11979018]
  8. Bao W, Srinivasan S, Valdez R, Greenlund K, Wattigney WA, Berenson GS. Longitudinal changes in cardiovascular risk from childhood to young adulthood in offspring of parents with coronary artery disease: the Bogalusa Heart Study.[comment] JAMA. 1997;278(21):1749–1754. Wrong measure of OW. [PubMed: 9388151]
  9. Bao W, Srinivasan SR, Wattigney WA, Berenson GS. Persistence of multiple cardiovascular risk clustering related to syndrome X from childhood to young adulthood. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154(16):1842–1847. Poor data on obesity tracking Wrong age group. [PubMed: 8053753]
  10. Bao W, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Persistent elevation of plasma insulin levels is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Circulation. 1996;93(1):54–59. No report of childhood weight. [PubMed: 8616941]
  11. Barlow SE, Dietz WH. Obesity evaluation and treatment: Expert Committee recommendations. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services. Pediatrics. 1998;102(3):E29. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 9724677]
  12. Barnekow-Bergkvist M, Hedberg G, Janlert U, Jansson E. Adolescent determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in adult men and women. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2001;29(3):208–217. Non-US population. [PubMed: 11680773]
  13. Belamarich PF, Luder E, Kattan M, Mitchell H, Islam S, Lynn H, Crain EF. Do obese inner-city children with asthma have more symptoms than nonobese children with asthma? Pediatrics. 2000;106(6):1436–1441. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 11099600]
  14. Berenson GS, Wattigney WA, Tracy RE, Newman WP III, Srinivasan SR, Webber LS, Dalferes ER Jr, Strong JP. Atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries and cardiovascular risk factors in persons aged 6 to 30 years and studied at necropsy (The Bogalusa Heart Study) Am J Cardiol. 1992;70(9):851–858. Age at BMI measurement not reported. [PubMed: 1529936]
  15. Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Newman WP 3rd, Tracy RE, Wattigney WA. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jun 4;338(23):1650–1656. Age at BMI measurement not reported. [PubMed: 9614255]
  16. Bhargava SK, Sachdev HS, Fall CH, Osmond C, Lakshmy R, Barker DJ, Biswas SK, Ramji S, Prabhakaran D, Reddy KS. Relation of serial changes in childhood body-mass index to impaired glucose tolerance in young adulthood. New England Journal of Medicine. 2004;350(9):865–875. Non-US population. [PMC free article: PMC3408694] [PubMed: 14985484]
  17. Biro FM, Lucky AW, Simbartl LA, Barton BA, Daniels SR, Striegel-Moore R, Kronsberg SS, Morrison JA. Pubertal maturation in girls and the relationship to anthropometric changes: pathways through puberty. Journal of Pediatrics. 2003;142(6):643–646. Wrong measure of OW. [PubMed: 12838192]
  18. Blackett PR, Taylor T, Russell D, Lu M, Fesmire J, Lee ET. Lipoprotein changes in relation to body mass index in Native American adolescents. Pediatric Research. 1996;40(1):77–81. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 8798250]
  19. Bognetti E, Macellaro P, Novelli D, Meschi F, Ciralli F, Chiumello G. Prevalence and correlates of obesity in insulin dependent diabetic patients. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1995;73(3):239–242. Non-US population. [PMC free article: PMC1511289] [PubMed: 7492163]
  20. Boxer GH, Bauer AM, Miller BD. Obesity-hypoventilation in childhood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1988;27(5):552–558. Not a longitudinal study Limited to a specific disease. [PubMed: 3182617]
  21. Braddon FE, Rodgers B, Wadsworth ME, Davies JM. Onset of obesity in a 36 year birth cohort study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986;293(6542):299–303. Non-US population. [PMC free article: PMC1340984] [PubMed: 3089493]
  22. Bray GA. Overweight is risking fate. Definition, classification, prevalence, and risks. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987;499:14–28. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 3300479]
  23. Briend A, Zimicki S. Validation of arm circumference as an indicator of risk of death in one to four year old children. Nutrition Research. 1986;6:249–261. Non-US population.
  24. Bringer J, Lefebvre P, Boulet F, Grigorescu F, Renard E, Hedon B. et al. Body composition and regional fat distribution in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Relationship to hormonal and metabolic profiles. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993;687:115–123. Non-US population. [PubMed: 8323166]
  25. Brinton LA, Swanson CA. Height and weight at various ages and risk of breast cancer. Annals of Epidemiology. 1992;2(5):597–609. Wrong measure of OW. [PubMed: 1342311]
  26. Britz B, Siegfried W, Ziegler A, Lamertz C, Herpertz-Dahlmann BM, Remschmidt H. et al. Rates of psychiatric disorders in a clinical study group of adolescents with extreme obesity and in obese adolescents ascertained via a population based study. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 2000;24(12):1707–1714. Non-US population. [PubMed: 11126229]
  27. Burns TL, Moll PP, Lauer RM. The relation between ponderosity and coronary risk factors in children and their relatives. The Muscatine Ponderosity Family Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1989;129(5):973–987. Wrong measure of OW. [PubMed: 2495713]
  28. Byrnes SE, Baur LA, Bermingham M, Brock K, Steinbeck K. Leptin and total cholesterol are predictors of weight gain in pre-pubertal children. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 1999;23(2):146–150. Non-US population. [PubMed: 10078848]
  29. Campbell K, Waters E, O'Meara S, Summerbell C. Interventions for preventing obesity in childhood. A systematic review. Obesity Reviews. 2001;2(3):149–157. Non-US population. [PubMed: 12120100]
  30. Caprio S, Hyman LD, Limb C, McCarthy S, Lange R, Sherwin RS. et al. Central adiposity and its metabolic correlates in obese adolescent girls. Am J Physiol. 1995;269(1 Pt 1):E118–E126. Not a longitudinal study Wrong measure of OW. [PubMed: 7631766]
  31. Caprio S, Bronson M, Sherwin RS, Rife F, Tamborlane WV. Co-existence of severe insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in pre-adolescent obese children. Diabetologia. 1996;39(12):1489–1497. Wrong measure of OW Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 8960831]
  32. Caprio S, Hyman LD, McCarthy S, Lange R, Bronson M, Tamborlane WV. Fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescent girls: importance of the intraabdominal fat depot. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64(1Jul):12–17. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 8669407]
  33. Casey VA, Dwyer JT, Berkey CS, Bailey SM, Coleman KA, Valadian I. The distribution of body fat from childhood to adulthood in a longitudinal study population. Ann Hum Biol. 1994;21(1):39–55. No BMI tracking data. [PubMed: 8147576]
  34. Charney E, Goodman HC, McBride M, Lyon B, Pratt R. Childhood antecedents of adult obesity. Do chubby infants become obese adults? New England Journal of Medicine. 1976;295(1):6–9. Wrong age group. [PubMed: 1272299]
  35. Chen W, Srinivasan SR, Elkasabany A, Berenson GS. Cardiovascular risk factors clustering features of insulin resistance syndrome (Syndrome X) in a biracial (black-white) population of children, adolescents, and young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150(7):667–674. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 10512420]
  36. Chen Y, Dales R, Krewski D, Breithaupt K. Increased effects of smoking and obesity on asthma among female Canadians: the National Population Health Survey, 1994-1995. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150(3):255–262. Not a longitudinal study Wrong age OW measure. [PubMed: 10430229]
  37. Chervin RD, Clarke DF, Huffman JL, Szymanski E, Ruzicka DL, Miller V. et al. School performance, race, and other correlates of sleep-disordered breathing in children. Sleep Medicine. 2003;4(1):21–27. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 14592356]
  38. Chinn S. Obesity and asthma: evidence for and against a causal relation. Journal of Asthma. 2003;40(1):1–16. Non-US population. [PubMed: 12699207]
  39. Chinn S, Rona RJ. Can the increase in body mass index explain the rising trend in asthma in children? Thorax. 2001;56(11):845–850. Non-US population. [PMC free article: PMC1745960] [PubMed: 11641508]
  40. Chu NF, Rimm EB, Wang DJ, Liou HS, Shieh SM. Clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among obese schoolchildren: the Taipei Children Heart Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1998;67(6):1141–1146. Non-US population. [PubMed: 9625086]
  41. Chu NF, Wang DJ, Shieh SM, Rimm EB. Plasma leptin concentrations and obesity in relation to insulin resistance syndrome components among school children in Taiwan—The Taipei Children Heart Study. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 2000;24(10):1265–1271. Non-US population. [PubMed: 11093287]
  42. Clarke WR, Woolson RF, Lauer RM. Changes in ponderosity and blood pressure in childhood: the Muscatine Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;124(2):195–206. Wrong age group. [PubMed: 3728436]
  43. Cook DG, Mendall MA, Whincup PH, Carey IM, Ballam L, Morris JE. et al. C-reactive protein concentration in children: relationship to adiposity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis. 2000;149(1):139–150. Non-US population. [PubMed: 10704625]
  44. Cowell JM, Montgomery AC, Talashek M. Cardiovascular risk stability: from grade school to high school. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 1992;6(6):349–354. Wrong measure of OW Wrong age group. [PubMed: 1491318]
  45. Cowin I, Emmett P. Cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, birthweight and central obesity in pre-school children. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24(3):330–339. Non-US population. [PubMed: 10757627]
  46. Cronk CE, Roche AF, Kent R, Berkey C, Reed RB, Valadian I. et al. Longitudinal trends and continuity in weight/stature from 3 months to 18 years. Hum Biol. 1982;54(4):729–749. Trajectory study. [PubMed: 7166296]
  47. Dai S, Labarthe DR, Grunbaum JA, Harrist RB, Mueller WH. Longitudinal analysis of changes in indices of obesity from age 8 years to age 18 years. Project HeartBeat! American Journal of Epidemiology. 2002;156(8):720–729. Normative data only Trajectory study. [PubMed: 12370160]
  48. Daniels SR, Kimball TR, Morrison JA, Khoury P, Witt S, Meyer RA. Effect of lean body mass, fat mass, blood pressure, and sexual maturation on left ventricular mass in children and adolescents. Statistical, biological, and clinical significance. Circulation. 1995;92(11):3249–3254. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 7586311]
  49. Daniels SR, Obarzanek E, Barton BA, Kimm SY, Similo SL, Morrison JA. Sexual maturation and racial differences in blood pressure in girls: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Journal of Pediatrics. 1996;129(2):208–213. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 8765617]
  50. Datar A, Sturm R, Magnabosco JL. Childhood overweight and academic performance: national study of kindergartners and first-graders 4904. Obesity Research. 2004;12(1):58–68. No adult outcomes. [PubMed: 14742843]
  51. Davis SP, Arthur C, Davis M, Goldberg D, Moll G, Davis G. Assessing cardiovascular risk in children: the Jackson, Mississippi CRRIC Study. Journal of Cultural Diversity. 2002;9(3):67–72. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 12483999]
  52. Dietz WH. Childhood weight affects adult morbidity and mortality. Journal of Nutrition. 1998;128(2 Suppl):411S–414S. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 9478038]
  53. Dietz WH. Overweight in childhood and adolescence. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(9):855–857. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 14985480]
  54. DiPietro L, Mossberg HO, Stunkard AJ. A 40-year history of overweight children in Stockholm: life-time overweight, morbidity, and mortality. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 1994;18(9):585–590. Non-US population. [PubMed: 7812410]
  55. Douglas MB, Birrer RB, Medidi S, Schlussel YR. Obese children should be screened for hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Health Care for the Poor & Underserved. 1996;7(1):24–35. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 8645782]
  56. Dowling AM, Steele JR, Baur LA. Does obesity influence foot structure and plantar pressure patterns in prepubescent children? International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 2001;25(6):845–852. Non-US population. [PubMed: 11439299]
  57. Dyer AR, Stamler J, Garside DB, Greenland P. Long-term consequences of body mass index for cardiovascular mortality: The Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry Study. Ann Epidemiol. 2003;14:101–108. Wrong age group. [PubMed: 15018882]
  58. Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet. 2002;360(9331):473–482. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 12241736]
  59. Ellis KJ, Abrams SA, Wong WW. Monitoring childhood obesity: assessment of the weight/height index. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1999;150(9):939–946. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 10547139]
  60. Engeland A, Bjorge T, Sogaard AJ, Tverdal A. Body mass index in adolescence in relation to total mortality: 32-year follow-up of 227,000 Norwegian boys and girls. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(6):517–523. Non-US population. [PubMed: 12631541]
  61. Erickson SJ, Robinson TN, Haydel KF, Killen JD. Are overweight children unhappy?: Body mass index, depressive symptoms, and overweight concerns in elementary school children.[comment] Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2000;154(9):931–935. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 10980798]
  62. Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Tuomilehto J, Osmond C, Barker DJ. Early adiposity rebound in childhood and risk of Type 2 diabetes in adult life. Diabetologia. 2003;46(2):190–194. Non-US population. [PubMed: 12627317]
  63. Ferraro KF, Thorpe RJ Jr, Wilkinson JA. The life course of severe obesity: does childhood overweight matter? Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences. 2003;58(2):S110–S119. Wrong measure of OW. [PMC free article: PMC3358723] [PubMed: 12646600]
  64. Figueroa-Munoz JI, Chinn S, Rona RJ. Association between obesity and asthma in 4–11 year old children in the UK. Thorax. 2001;56(2):133–137. Non-US population. [PMC free article: PMC1745999] [PubMed: 11209102]
  65. Ford ES, Galuska DA, Gillespie C, Will JC, Giles WH, Dietz WH. C-reactive protein and body mass index in children: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. J Pediatr. 2001 Apr;138(4):486–92. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 11295710]
  66. Freedman DS, Srinivasan SR, Burke GL, Shear CL, Smoak CG, Harsha DW. et al. Relation of body fat distribution to hyperinsulinemia in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;46(3):403–410. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 3307372]
  67. Freedman DS, Srinivasan SR, Harsha DW, Webber LS, Berenson GS. Relation of body fat patterning to lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;50(5):930–939. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 2816800]
  68. Freedman DS, Srinivasan SR, Valdez RA, Williamson DF, Berenson GS. Secular increases in relative weight and adiposity among children over two decades: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics. 1997;99(3):420–426. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 9041299]
  69. Freedman DS, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics. 1999;103(6 Pt 1):1175–1182. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 10353925]
  70. Freedman DS, Serdula MK, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Relation of circumferences and skinfold thicknesses to lipid and insulin concentrations in children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(2):308–317. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 9989697]
  71. Freedman DS, Dietz WH, Tang R, Mensah GA, Bond MG, Urbina EM. et al. The relation of obesity throughout life to carotid intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 2004;28(1):159–166. Not an outcome of interest. [PubMed: 14581934]
  72. Friedman MA, Brownell KD. Psychological correlates of obesity: moving to the next research generation. Psychol Bull. 1995;117(1):3–20. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 7870862]
  73. Fung KP, Lee J, Lau SP, Chow OK, Wong TW, Davis DP. Properties and clinical implications of body mass indices. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1990;65(5):516–519. Non-US population. [PMC free article: PMC1792168] [PubMed: 2357091]
  74. Garn SM, Clark DC. Trends in fatness and the origins of obesity Ad Hoc Committee to Review the Ten-State Nutrition Survey. Pediatrics. 1976;57(4):443–456. Wrong measure of OW. [PubMed: 1264536]
  75. Garn SM, Cole PE. Do the obese remain obese and the lean remain lean? Am J Public Health. 1980 Apr;70(4):351–2. Not a longitudinal study. [PMC free article: PMC1619387] [PubMed: 7361952]
  76. Garn SM, Pilkington JJ, Lavelle M. Relationship between initial fatness level and long-term fatness change. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 1984;14:85–92. No clear age at OW measurement.
  77. Gasperino J. Ethnic differences in body composition and their relation to health and disease in women. Ethnicity & Health. 1996;1(4):337–347. Not a longitudinal study Wrong age group. [PubMed: 9395578]
  78. Gasser T, Ziegler P, Seifert B, Molinari L, Largo RH, Prader A. Prediction of adult skinfolds and body mass from infancy through adolescence. Annals of Human Biology. 1995;22(3):217–233. Non-US population. [PubMed: 7574447]
  79. Giacchi M, Mattei R, Rossi S. Correction of the self-reported BMI in a teenage population. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 1998;22(7):673–677. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 9705028]
  80. Gidding SS, Bao W, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Effects of secular trends in obesity on coronary risk factors in children: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of Pediatrics. 1995;127(6):868–874. Wrong outcome measure. [PubMed: 8523181]
  81. Gidding SS, Leibel RL, Daniels S, Rosenbaum M, Van Horn L, Marx GR. Understanding obesity in youth. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on Atherosclerosis and Hypertension in the Young of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young and the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Writing Group. Circulation. 1996;94(12):3383–3387. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 8989156]
  82. Gillum RF, Taylor HL, Brozek J, Polansky P, Blackburn H. Indices of obesity and blood pressure in young men followed 32 years. J Chronic Dis. 1982;35(3):211–219. Wrong age group. [PubMed: 7061678]
  83. Golan M, Weizman A. Reliability and validity of the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1998;52(10):771–777. No link between OW and subsequent health measures. [PubMed: 9805227]
  84. Goodman E, Adler NE, Daniels SR, Morrison JA, Slap GB, Dolan LM. Impact of objective and subjective social status on obesity in a biracial cohort of adolescents. Obesity Research. 2003;11(8):1018–1026. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 12917508]
  85. Goran MI. Measurement issues related to studies of childhood obesity: assessment of body composition, body fat distribution, physical activity, and food intake. Pediatrics. 1998;101(3 Pt 2):505–518. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 12224657]
  86. Gortmaker SL, Dietz WH Jr, Sobol AM, Wehler CA. Increasing pediatric obesity in the United States. Am J Dis Child. 1987;141(5):535–540. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 3578167]
  87. Grilo CM, Wilfley DE, Brownell KD, Rodin J. Teasing, body image, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of obese women. Addict Behav. 1994;19(4):443–450. Wrong age group Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 7992678]
  88. Gunnell DJ, Frankel SJ, Nanchahal K, Peters TJ, Davey SG. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular mortality: a 57-y follow-up study based on the Boyd Orr cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1998;67(6):1111–1118. Non-US population. [PubMed: 9625081]
  89. Gutin B, Owens S, Treiber F, Islam S, Karp W, Slavens G. Weight-independent cardiovascular fitness and coronary risk factors. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997;151(5):462–465. Not a longitudinal study Wrong measure of OW. [PubMed: 9158437]
  90. Gutin B, Treiber F, Owens S, Mensah GA. Relations of body composition to left ventricular geometry and function in children. J Pediatr. 1998;132(6):1023–1027. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 9627597]
  91. Hales CN, Barker DJ, Clark PM, Cox LJ, Fall C, Osmond C. et al. Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. BMJ. 1991;303(6809):1019–1022. Non-US population. [PMC free article: PMC1671766] [PubMed: 1954451]
  92. Halpern CT, Udry JR, Campbell B, Suchindran C. Effects of body fat on weight concerns, dating, and sexual activity: a longitudinal analysis of black and white adolescent girls. Developmental Psychology. 1999;35(3):721–736. Not an outcome of interest. [PubMed: 10380863]
  93. Hansson LE, Nyren O, Bergstrom R, Wolk A, Lindgren A, Baron J. et al. Nutrients and gastric cancer risk. A population-based case-control study in Sweden. Int J Cancer. 1994;57(5):638–644. Non-US population. [PubMed: 8194870]
  94. Hardy R, Wadsworth M, Kuh D. The influence of childhood weight and socioeconomic status on change in adult body mass index in a British national birth cohort. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24(6):725–734. Non-US population. [PubMed: 10878679]
  95. Hartz AJ, Rimm AA. Natural history of obesity in 6,946 women between 50 and 59 years of age. Amer J Pub Health. 1980;70(4):385–8. Wrong measure of OW. [PMC free article: PMC1619382] [PubMed: 7361956]
  96. He Q, Karlberg J. Prediction of adult overweight during the pediatric years. Pediatric Research. 1999;46(6):697–703. Non-US population. [PubMed: 10590026]
  97. He Q, Karlberg J. Probability of adult overweight and risk change during the BMI rebound period. Obesity Research. 2002;10(3):135–140. Non-US population. [PubMed: 11886935]
  98. He Q, Ding ZY, Fong DY, Karlberg J. Blood pressure is associated with body mass index in both normal and obese children. Hypertension. 2000;36(2):165–170. Non-US population. [PubMed: 10948072]
  99. Health implications of obesity. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference. 11–13 February 1985. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Dec:103(6 ( Pt 2));1073–1077. Wrong age group Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 4062129]
  100. Higgins PB, Gower BA, Hunter GR, Goran MI. Defining health-related obesity in prepubertal children. Obes Res. 2001;9(4):233–240. Not a longitudinal study. [PubMed: 11331426]
  101. Himes JH, Dietz WH. Guidelines for overweight in adolescent preventive services: recommendations from an expert committee. The Expert Committee on Clinical Guidelines for Overweight in Adolescent Preventive Services. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(2):307–316. Not an outcome of interest. [PubMed: 8310979]
  102. Himes JH, Roche AF. Subcutaneous fatness and stature: relationship from infancy to adulthood. Hum Biol. 1986;58(5):737–750. Wrong outcome measure Wrong measure of OW. [PubMed: 3804295]
  103. Hoffmans MD, Kromhout D, de Lezenne Coulander C. The impact of body mass index of 78,612 18-year old Dutch men on 32-year mortality from all causes. J Clin Epidemiol. 1988;41(8):749–56. Non-US population. [PubMed: 3418364]
  104. Hoffmans MD, Kromhout D, Coulander CD. Body Mass Index at the age of 18 and its effects on 32-year-mortality from coronary heart disease and cancer. A nested case-control study among the entire 1932 Dutch male birth cohort. J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42(6):513–520. Non-US population. [PubMed: 2738614]
  105. Holbrook TL, Barrett-Connor E, Wingard DL. The association of lifetime weight and weight control patterns with diabetes among men and women in an adult community. Int J Obes. 1989;13(5):723–729. Wrong age group. [PubMed: 2583926]
  106. Hwang HK, Chen MR, Lee YJ, Lee HC, Huang CY, Kao HA. et al. Metabolic disturbance in obese children: glucose, insulin levels and lipid profile. Acta Paediatrica Taiwanica. 2001;42(2):75–80. Non-US population. [PubMed: 11355068]
  107. Hypponen E, Virtanen SM, Kenward MG, Knip M, Akerblom HK. Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group. Obesity, increased linear growth, and risk of type 1 diabetes in children. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(12):1755–1760. Non-US population. [PubMed: 11128347]
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