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Last Update: October 27, 2018.


Gynecomastia relates to any condition in which the male breast volume is enlarged due to an increase in ductal tissue, stroma, or fat. Gynecomastia is derived from the Greek terms gyne and masto, gyne meaning feminine and masto meaning breasts. This condition most often occurs during times of hormonal change such as birth, adolescence and old age. There are many etiologies for this condition which include morbid obesity, steroid use, pharmacologic agents, medical conditions including hypogonadism, liver, and kidney failure. However, the majority of patients present with idiopathic gynecomastia. The treatment of this condition consists of treating the underlying condition, lab work, imaging, and surgical intervention, when necessary.


The cause of most cases of gynecomastia is idiopathic. However, it has been proven to be associated with imbalances in the hormones estrogen and testosterone.

This condition can appear transient at birth; this is thought to be due to an increased level of circulating maternal estrogens. Adolescent boys may also suffer from this condition due to an imbalance of estradiol and testosterone. In men older than 65 years, hypertrophy is thought to be due to a decline in testosterone levels and a shift in the ratio of testosterone to estrogen.

Underlying medical conditions such as breast cancer, obesity, hypogonadism, adrenal disease, thyroid disease, cirrhosis, renal failure, and malnutrition may contribute to this condition. Tumors of the adrenal glands, pituitary, lungs, and testes can impact hormonal changes resulting in imbalances and ultimately gynecomastia. Medications that have been shown to contribute to this condition include digoxin, thiazides, estrogens, phenothiazines, and theophylline. Use of certain recreational drugs including marijuana has also been associated with this disease.


Gynecomastia appears more within certain age groups of the male population. Newborns can suffer from this condition until their hormonal imbalances normalize. 

Adolescence hypertrophy occurs in boys beginning around age 13 and can last into early adulthood. The incidence of this condition again increases in men 65 years of age and older.


Gynecomastia is a result of enlargement of glandular breast tissue and adipose tissue. The hormone estrogen is responsible for the growth of glandular tissue, as well as the suppression of testosterone secretion. Estrogen suppresses luteinizing hormone, the hormone that is responsible for testicular secretion of testosterone. This process of hormonal imbalance leads to gynecomastia.

Pubertal gynecomastia is thought to be caused by a faster rise in estradiol than the rise of testosterone, causing an imbalance that normally regresses with time as testosterone increases.  

Medical conditions such as tumors of the adrenal, pituitary, and testes can cause increases in estrogen and decrease testosterone. These imbalances lead to hormonal imbalances resulting in gynecomastia in some males.

Diseases of the liver, adrenal, thyroid, and testes can produce imbalances, along with the above-listed medications.  

Three types of gynecomastia, florid, fibrous and intermediate, have been identified. The type seen is usually related to the length of the condition. Florid gynecomastia is usually seen in early stages of the condition, four months or less. This type is characterized by an increase in ductal tissue and vascularity. Fibrous gynecomastia is seen after a year duration and is noted to have more stromal fibrosis and few ducts. After one year, intermediate gynecomastia is present which is thought to be a progression from florid to fibrous.

History and Physical

Important factors in the history from the patient include onset and duration of gynecomastia, associated symptoms, problems with certain organ systems such as liver, renal, adrenal, prostate, pulmonary, testicular or thyroid. A careful review of family history, genetic history, medications, and recreational drug use should also be taken into consideration. A complete and thorough physical exam should be done. The head and neck exam should evaluate for any abnormal masses or thyroid abnormalities. Assess breasts for the nature of the tissue, masses, skin changes, nipple discharge, asymmetries, and tenderness, along with an axillary examination. The testes should be examined to look for asymmetry, masses, enlargement, or atrophy. Those males with feminizing characteristics should have endocrine testing and genetic testing. Any other positive findings on physical examination should be treated in an appropriate manner.


The history and physical will guide the remainder of the workup. Healthy males with no associated symptoms or physical abnormalities other than long-standing gynecomastia (more than 12 months) need no further workup. However, if symptoms are present, or if there are positive physical exam findings, these should be investigated first.

  • Testicular masses require the following: testicular ultrasound, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and DHEAS. If a thyroid mass is present the following are required: thyroid function tests, thyroid ultrasound (US), and endocrine evaluation.
  • If a breast mass is palpated, the patient needs the following: mammography or US, biopsy, and possible surgical consultation.
  • If hypogonadism is present, order the following: serum LH/follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, testosterone, DHEAS + karyotype +/- adrenal scan with the endocrine consult.
  • If abdominal masses or hepatomegaly are present order the following: liver function tests, serum LH/FSH, estradiol, testosterone, DHEAS +/- abdominal CT, and an endocrine consultation.

Treatment / Management

Gynecomastia is classified into three grades depending on the amount of breast enlargement, skin excess, and ptosis. The treatment for each Grade differs depending on the amount of skin excess and ptosis.

  • Grade I: Small enlargement, no skin excess
  • Grade II: Moderate enlargement, no skin excess
  • Grade IIb: Moderate enlargement with extra skin
  • Grade III: Marked enlargement with extra skin

Treatment of this condition consists first of treating any underlying condition if this is contributing to the condition. If the condition has been present less than one year, and the history and physical are within normal limits, observation can be done with close follow-up. If an underlying medication is noted within the history, this should be discontinued. If anything abnormal is found on physical exam, treatment depends on this finding.  If the underlying condition is treated, and the condition persists longer than a year, surgical treatment is suggested.

Patients with grade I or grade IIa can be treated with liposuction and surgical excision.

If the patient presents with grade IIb gynecomastia, open surgical excision with possible skin resection is indicated if a large amount of ptosis is present.


To access free multiple choice questions on this topic, click here.


Choi BS, Lee SR, Byun GY, Hwang SB, Koo BH. The Characteristics and Short-Term Surgical Outcomes of Adolescent Gynecomastia. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2017 Oct;41(5):1011-1021. [PubMed: 28451801]
Fricke A, Lehner GM, Stark GB, Penna V. Editor's Invited Commentary on "Discussion: Long-Term Follow-Up of Recurrence and Patient Satisfaction After Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia". Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2017 Oct;41(5):1244-1245. [PubMed: 28451798]
Tian M, Liu Y, Zhi Z, Li Y. Multiple symmetric lipomatosis and gynecomastia: A case report and relative literature review. J Clin Lipidol. 2017 May - Jun;11(3):763-767. [PubMed: 28438575]
Innocenti A, Melita D, Ciancio F, Innocenti M. Discussion: "Long-Term Follow-Up of Recurrence and Patient Satisfaction After Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia". Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2017 Oct;41(5):1242-1243. [PubMed: 28374297]
Innocenti A, Melita D, Mori F, Ciancio F, Innocenti M. Comment to "Postero-Inferior Pedicle Surgical Technique for the Treatment of Grade III Gynecomastia". Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2017 Jun;41(3):747-748. [PubMed: 28374294]
Khalil AA, Ibrahim A, Afifi AM. Response to: Comment to "No-Drain Single Incision Liposuction Pull-Through Technique for Gynecomastia". Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2017 Aug;41(4):992. [PubMed: 28374289]
Chang HP, Lee DW. Discussion: Surgical Management of Gynecomastia: Subcutaneous Mastectomy and Liposuction. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2017 Aug;41(4):985-986. [PubMed: 28341951]
Zavlin D, Jubbal KT, Friedman JD, Echo A. Complications and Outcomes After Gynecomastia Surgery: Analysis of 204 Pediatric and 1583 Adult Cases from a National Multi-center Database. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2017 Aug;41(4):761-767. [PubMed: 28341949]
Cardenas-Camarena L, Dorado C, Guerrero MT, Nava R. Surgical Masculinization of the Breast: Clinical Classification and Surgical Procedures. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2017 Jun;41(3):507-516. [PubMed: 28341946]
Gupta V, Yeslev M, Winocour J, Bamba R, Rodriguez-Feo C, Grotting JC, Higdon KK. Aesthetic Breast Surgery and Concomitant Procedures: Incidence and Risk Factors for Major Complications in 73,608 Cases. Aesthet Surg J. 2017 May 01;37(5):515-527. [PubMed: 28333172]
Fricke A, Lehner GM, Stark GB, Penna V. Long-Term Follow-up of Recurrence and Patient Satisfaction After Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2017 Jun;41(3):491-498. [PubMed: 28280898]
Leung AKC, Leung AAC. Gynecomastia in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2017;10(2):127-137. [PubMed: 28260521]
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Bookshelf ID: NBK430812PMID: 28613563


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