NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Whitlock EP, Green CA, Polen MR, et al. Behavioral Counseling Interventions in Primary Care to Reduce Risky/Harmful Alcohol Use [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2004 Mar. (Systematic Evidence Reviews, No. 30.)

Cover of Behavioral Counseling Interventions in Primary Care to Reduce Risky/Harmful Alcohol Use

Behavioral Counseling Interventions in Primary Care to Reduce Risky/Harmful Alcohol Use [Internet].

Show details

Reference List

McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA. 1993;270(18):2207–2212. [PubMed: 8411605]
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Tenth special report to the U.S. Congress on alcohol and health. NIH Publication No. 00-1583, 2000.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Ninth special report to the U.S. Congress on alcohol and health. NIH Publication No. 97-4017, 1997.
Corrao G, Bagnardi V, Zambon A, Arico S. Exploring the dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of several alcohol-related conditions: a meta-analysis. Addiction. 1999;94(10):1551–1573. [PubMed: 10790907]
Corrao G, Rubbiati L, Bagnardi V, Zambon A, Poikolainen K. Alcohol and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Addiction. 2000;95(10):1505–1523. [PubMed: 11070527]
Anderson P, Cremona A, Patton A, Turner C, Wallace P. The risk of alcohol. Addiction. 1993;88:1493–1508. [PubMed: 8286995]
Klatsky A. Alcohol, coronary disease, and hypertension. Annu Rev Med. 1996;47:149–160. [PubMed: 8712769]
Windham GC, Von Behren J, Fenster L, Schaefer C, Swan SH. Moderate maternal alcohol consumption and risk of spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology. 1997;8(5):509–514. [PubMed: 9270952]
Camacho TC, Kaplan GA, Cohen RD. Alcohol consumption and mortality in Alameda County. J Chronic Dis. 1987;40(3):229–236. [PubMed: 3818878]
Boffetta P, Garfinkel L. Alcohol drinking and mortality among men enrolled in an American Cancer Society prospective study. Epidemiology. 1990;1(5):342–348. [PubMed: 2078609]
Shaper AG. Alcohol and mortality: a review of prospective studies. Br J Addiction. 1990;85(7):837–847. [PubMed: 2204454]
Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA, Friedman GD. Alcohol and mortality. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117(8):646–654. [PubMed: 1530196]
Poikolainen K. Alcohol and mortality: a review. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;48(4):455–465. [PubMed: 7722599]
Rehm J, Sempos CT. Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Addiction. 1995;90(4):471–480. [PubMed: 7773106]
Serdula MK, Koong SL, Williamson DF, Anda RF, Madans JH, Kleinman JC. et al. Alcohol intake and subsequent mortality: findings from the NHANES I Follow-up Study. J Stud Alcohol. 1995;56(2):233–239. [PubMed: 7760571]
Fillmore KM, Golding JM, Graves KL, Kniep S, Leino EV, Romelsjo A. et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality. I. Characteristics of drinking groups. Addiction. 1998;93(2):183–203. [PubMed: 9624721]
Anderson P. Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Addiction. 1995;90(4):481–484. [PubMed: 7773107]
Fillmore KM, Golding JM, Graves KL, Kniep S, Leino EV, Romelsjo A. et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality. III. Studies of female populations. Addiction. 1998;93(2):219–229. [PubMed: 9624723]
Leino EV, Romelsjo A, Shoemaker C, Ager CR, Allebeck P, Ferrer HP. et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality. II. Studies of male populations. Addiction. 1998;93(2):205–218. [PubMed: 9624722]
Thun MJ, Peto R, Lopez AD, Monaco JH, Henley SJ, Heath CWJ. et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(24):1705–1714. [PubMed: 9392695]
Dawson DA. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence, and all-cause mortality. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24(1):72–81. [PubMed: 10656196]
Perreira KM, Sloan FA. Excess alcohol consumption and health outcomes: a 6-year follow-up of men over age 50 from the health and retirement study. Addiction. 2002;97(3):301–310. [PubMed: 11964106]
Liao Y, McGee DL, Cao G, Cooper RS. Alcohol intake and mortality: findings from the National Health Interview Surveys (1988 and 1990) Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151(7):651–9. [PubMed: 10752792]
Britton A, McPherson K. Mortality in England and Wales attributable to current alcohol consumption. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001;55(6):383–388. [PMC free article: PMC1731912] [PubMed: 11350993]
Dufour MC. Are there net health benefits from moderate alcohol consumption? Morbidity and other parameters of health. Contemp Drug Probl 1994; Spring:163–183.
Poikolainen K, Vartiainen E, Korhonen HJ. Alcohol intake and subjective health. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144(4):346–350. [PubMed: 8712191]
Marmot MG, North F, Feeney A, Head J. Alcohol consumption and sickness absence: From the Whitehall II study. Addiction. 1993;88(3):369–382. [PubMed: 8461854]
Nelson HD, Nevitt MC, Scott JC, Stone KL, Cummings SR. Smoking, alcohol, and neuromuscular and physical function of older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. JAMA. 1994;272(23):1825–1831. [PubMed: 7990216]
Cohen S, Tyrrell DA, Russell MA, Jarvis MJ, Smith AP. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and susceptibility to the common cold. Am J Public Health. 1993;83(9):1277–1283. [PMC free article: PMC1694990] [PubMed: 8363004]
Davies MJ, Baer DJ, Judd JT, Brown ED, Campbell WS, Taylor PR. Effects of moderate alcohol intake on fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;287(19):2559–2562. [PubMed: 12020337]
Bondy SJ, Rehm J, Ashley MJ, Walsh G, Single E, Room R. Low-risk drinking guidelines: the scientific evidence. Can J Public Health. 1999;90(4):264–270. [PubMed: 10489725]
Holman CD, English DR, Milne E, Winter MG. Meta-analysis of alcohol and all-cause mortality: a validation of NHMRC recommendations. Med J Aust. 1996;164(5):141–145. [PubMed: 8628131]
Rehm J, Ashley MJ, Room R, Single E, Bondy S, Ferrence R. et al. On the emerging paradigm of drinking patterns and their social and health consequences. Addiction. 1996;91(11):1615–1621. [PubMed: 8972920]
Kreitman N. Alcohol consumption and the preventive paradox. Br J Addict. 1986;81(3):353–363. [PubMed: 3461846]
Cherpitel CJ, Tam T, Midanik LT, Caetano R, Greenfield T. Alcohol and non-fatal injury in the U.S. general population: a risk function analysis. Accid Anal Prev. 1995;27(5):651–661. [PubMed: 8579696]
Anda RF, Williamson DF, Remington PL. Alcohol and fatal injuries among US adults. Findings from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. JAMA. 1988;260(17):2529–2532. [PubMed: 3172427]
Babor TF. The social and public health significance of individually directed interventions. In: Holder HD, Edwards G, editors. Alcohol and Public Policy: Evidence and Issues. Oxford University Press, 1995: 164–189.
Sanchez-Craig M, Wilkinson DA, Davila R. Empirically based guidelines for moderate drinking: 1-year results from three studies with problem drinkers. Am J Public Health. 1995;85(6):823–828. [PMC free article: PMC1615483] [PubMed: 7762717]
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Alcohol Alert No. 16: Moderate drinking. 1992. Rockville, MD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol Alert. 92, 1992.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). The physician's guide to helping patients with alcohol problems. NIH Pub. No.: 95-3769. 1995. Rockville, MD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). First ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Morse RM, Flavin DK. The definition of alcoholism. The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism. JAMA. 1992;268(8):1012–1014. [PubMed: 1501306]
Sobell MB, Sobell LC. Problem drinkers: Guided self-change treatment. New York: The Guilford Press, 1993.
Fiellin DA, Reid MC, O'Connor PG. Screening for alcohol problems in primary care: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(13):1977–1989. [PubMed: 10888972]
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010. 2 ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.
Saunders JB, Aasland OG, Babor TF, de la Fuente JR, Grant M. Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO Collaborative Project on Early Detection of Persons with Harmful Alcohol Consumption—II. Addiction. 1993;88(6):791–804. [PubMed: 8329970]
Fleming MF, Manwell LB, Barry KL, Johnson K. At-risk drinking in an HMO primary care sample: prevalence and health policy implications. Am J Public Health. 1998;88(1):90–93. [PMC free article: PMC1508398] [PubMed: 9584040]
Holtzman D, Powell-Griner E, Bolen JC, Rhodes L. State- and sex-specific prevalence of selected characteristics— Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1996 and 1997. Mor Mortal Wkly Rep CDC Surveill Summ. 2000;49(6):1–39. [PubMed: 10910404]
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Summary of findings from the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. DHHS Publication number (SMA) 00-3466. 2000. Washington, D.C., US Government Printing Office.
Dawson DA, Grant B, Chou PS. Gender differences in alcohol intake. In: Hunt WA, Zakhari S, editors. Stress, gender and alcohol-seeking behavior. Bethesda, Maryland: National Institute of Health, 1995: 3–21.
Dufour MC. What is moderate drinking? Defining “drinks” and drinking levels. Alcohol Res Health. 1999;23(1):5–14. [PubMed: 10890793]
Ashley MJ, Ferrence R, Room R, Rankin J, Single E. Moderate drinking and health: Report of an international symposium. CMAJ. 1994;151(6):1–16. [PMC free article: PMC1337142] [PubMed: 8087756]
Reid MC, Fiellin DA, O'Connor PG. Hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in primary care. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(15):1681–1689. [PubMed: 10448769]
O'Connor PG, Schottenfeld RS. Patients with alcohol problems. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(9):592–602. [PubMed: 9475768]
Fleming MF, Graham AW. Screening and brief interventions for alcohol use disorders in managed care settings. Recent Dev Alcohol. 2001;15:393–416. [PubMed: 11449755]
Whitlock EP, Orleans CT, Pender N, Allan J. Evaluating primary care behavioral counseling interventions. An evidence-based approach. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(4):267–284. [PubMed: 11988383]
Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC. Alcohol screening and brief intervention: dissemination strategies for medical practice and public health. Addiction. 2000;95(5):677–686. [PubMed: 10885042]
Edwards AG, Rollnick S. Outcome studies of brief alcohol intervention in general practice: the problem of lost subjects. Addiction. 1997;92(12):1699–704. [PubMed: 9581002]
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Alcohol Alert No. 43: Brief intervention for alcohol problems. 43. 1999. Rockville, MD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol Alert.
Miller WR, Wilbourne PL. Mesa Grande: a methodological analysis of clinical trials of treatments for alcohol use disorders. Addiction. 2002;97(3):265–277. [PubMed: 11964100]
West SL, Garbutt JC, Carey TS, Lux LJ, Jackman AM, Tolleson-Rinehart S et al. Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. 99-E003. 1999. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment.
Goldberg HI, Mullen M, Ries RK, Psaty BM, Ruch BP. Alcohol counseling in a general medicine clinic. A randomized controlled trial of strategies to improve referral and show rates. Med Care. 1991;29:JS49–JS56. [PubMed: 1857135]
Bullock KD, Reed RJ, Grant I. Reduced mortality risk in alcoholics who achieve long-term abstinence. JAMA. 1992;267(5):668–672. [PubMed: 1731133]
US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for problem drinking. In: DiGuiseppi C, Atkins D, Woolf SH, Kamerow DB, editors. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. Alexandria, Virginia: International Medical Services, 1996: 567–582.
Bradley KA, Boyd-Wickizer J, Powell SH, Burman ML. Alcohol screening questionnaires in women: a critical review. JAMA. 1998;280(2):166–171. [PubMed: 9669791]
Reinert DF, Allen JP. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): A Review of Recent Research. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26(2):272–279. [PubMed: 11964568]
Allen JP, Reinert DF, Volk RJ. The alcohol use disorders identification test: an aid to recognition of alcohol problems in primary care patients. Prev Med. 2001;33(5):428–433. [PubMed: 11676584]
Bradley KA, Bush KR, McDonell MB, Malone T, Fihn SD. Screening for problem drinking: comparison of CAGE and AUDIT. J Gen Intern Med. 1998;13(6):379–388. [PMC free article: PMC1496970] [PubMed: 9669567]
Conigrave KM, Saunders JB, Reznik RB. Predictive capacity of the AUDIT questionnaire for alcohol-related harm. Addiction. 1995;90(11):1479–1485. [PubMed: 8528033]
Bradley KA, Maynard C, Kivlahan DR, McDonell MB, Fihn SD. The relationship between alcohol screening questionnaires and mortality among male veteran outpatients. J Stud Alcohol. 2001;62(6):826–833. [PubMed: 11838920]
Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC. Brief intervention for hazardous and harmful drinking. A manual for use in primary care. 1–52. 2001. World Health Organization.
Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders JB, Monteiro MG. AUDIT: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Guidelines for use in primary care. Second edition. 1–40. 2001. World Health Organization.
Friedmann PD, Saitz R, Gogineni A, Zhang JX, Stein MD. Validation of the screening strategy in the NIAAA “Physicians' Guide to Helping Patients with Alcohol Problems” J Stud Alcohol. 2001;62(2):234–238. [PubMed: 11332444]
Aertgeerts B, Buntinx F, Ansoms S, Fevery J. Screening properties of questionnaires and laboratory tests for the detection of alcohol abuse or dependence in a general practice population. Br J Gen Pract. 2001;51(464):206–217. [PMC free article: PMC1313952] [PubMed: 11255902]
Volk RJ, Steinbauer JR, Cantor SB, Holzer CE III. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) as a screen for at-risk drinking in primary care patients of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Addiction. 1997;92(2):197–206. [PubMed: 9158231]
Steinbauer JR, Cantor SB, Holzer CE, Volk RJ. Ethnic and sex bias in primary care screening tests for alcohol use disorders. Ann Intern Med. 1998;129(5):353–362. [PubMed: 9735062]
Chang G, Wilkins-Haug L, Berman S, Goetz MA. The TWEAK: application in a prenatal setting. J Stud Alcohol. 1999;60(3):306–309. [PubMed: 10371256]
Chang G. Alcohol-screening instruments for pregnant women. Alcohol Res Health. 2001;25(3):204–209. [PubMed: 11810959]
Dawson DA, Das A, Faden VB, Bhaskar B, Krulewitch CJ, Wesley B. Screening for high- and moderate-risk drinking during pregnancy: a comparison of several TWEAK-based screeners. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25(9):1342–1349. [PubMed: 11584155]
Blow FC. Substance Abuse Among Older Adults. Rockville, Maryland: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1998.
Clay SW. Comparison of AUDIT and CAGE questionnaires in screening for alcohol use disorders in elderly primary care outpatients. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1997;97(10):588–592. [PubMed: 9357232]
Conigliaro J, Kraemer K, McNeil M. Screening and identification of older adults with alcohol problems in primary care. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2000;13(3):106–114. [PubMed: 11001132]
Fink A, Hays RD, Moore AA, Beck JC. Alcohol-related problems in older persons. Determinants, consequences, and screening. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(11):1150–1156. [PubMed: 8639009]
Morton JL, Jones TV, Manganaro MA. Performance of alcoholism screening questionnaires in elderly veterans. Am J Med. 1996;101(2):153–159. [PubMed: 8757354]
Jones TV, Lindsey BA, Yount P, Soltys R, Farani-Enayat B. Alcoholism screening questionnaires: are they valid in elderly medical outpatients? J Gen Intern Med. 1993;8(12):674–678. [PubMed: 8120683]
Moore AA, Beck JC, Babor TF, Hays RD, Reuben DB. Beyond alcoholism: identifying older, at-risk drinkers in primary care. J Stud Alcohol. 2002;63(3):316–324. [PubMed: 12086132]
Knight JR, Goodman E, Pulerwitz T, DuRant RH. Reliabilities of short substance abuse screening tests among adolescent medical patients. Pediatrics. 2000;105(4 Pt 2):948–953. [PubMed: 10742352]
Chung T, Colby SM, Barnett NP, Rohsenow DJ, Spirito A, Monti PM. Screening adolescents for problem drinking: performance of brief screens against DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses. J Stud Alcohol. 2000;61(4):579–587. [PubMed: 10928728]
Aertgeerts B, Buntinx F, Bande-Knops J, Vandermeulen C, Roelants M, Ansoms S. et al. The value of CAGE, CUGE, and AUDIT in screening for alcohol abuse and dependence among college freshmen. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24(1):53–57. [PubMed: 10656193]
Clements R. A critical evaluation of several alcohol screening instruments using the CIDI-SAM as a criterion measure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998;22(5):985–993. [PubMed: 9726267]
Daeppen JB, Yersin B, Landry U, Pecoud A, Decrey H. Reliability and validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) imbedded within a general health risk screening questionnaire: results of a survey in 332 primary care patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24(5):659–665. [PubMed: 10832907]
Cutler SF, Wallace PG, Haines AP. Assessing alcohol consumption in general practice patients—a comparison between questionnaire and interview (findings of the Medical Research Council's general practice research framework study on lifestyle and health) Alcohol Alcohol. 1988;23(6):441–450. [PubMed: 3072961]
Fleming MF, Barry KL. A three-sample test of a masked alcohol screening questionnaire. Alcohol Alcohol. 1991;26(1):81–91. [PubMed: 1854376]
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Alcohol Alert No. 56: Screening for alcohol problems—An update. 56. 2002. Rockville, MD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol Alert.
Conigrave KM, Degenhardt LJ, Whitfield JB, Saunders JB, Helander A, Tabakoff B. CDT, GGT, and AST as markers of alcohol use: the WHO/ISBRA collaborative project. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26(3):332–339. [PubMed: 11923585]
Kahan M, Wilson L, Becker L. Effectiveness of physician-based interventions with problem drinkers: a review. CMAJ. 1995;152(6):851–859. [PMC free article: PMC1337758] [PubMed: 7697578]
Wilk AI, Jensen NM, Havighurst TC. Meta-analysis of randomized control trials addressing brief interventions in heavy alcohol drinkers. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12(5):274–283. [PMC free article: PMC1497107] [PubMed: 9159696]
Poikolainen K. Effectiveness of brief interventions to reduce alcohol intake in primary health care populations: A meta-analysis. Prev Med. 1999;28(5):503–509. [PubMed: 10329341]
Moyer A, Finney JW, Swearingen CE, Vergun P. Brief interventions for alcohol problems: a meta-analytic review of controlled investigations in treatment-seeking and non-treatment- seeking populations. Addiction. 2002;97(3):279–292. [PubMed: 11964101]
Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM. et al. Current methods of the US Preventive Services Task Force: a review of the process. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20(3 Suppl):21–35. [PubMed: 11306229]
Dinh-Zarr T, DiGuiseppi C, Heitman E, Roberts I. Preventing injuries through interventions for problem drinking: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Alcohol Alcohol. 1999;34(4):609–621. [PubMed: 10456590]
Cochrane Drug and Alcohol Group. Guidelines to assess study quality. www​ , 2002.
Committee on the Future of Primary Care. Primary Care: America's Health in a New Era. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996.
Altman DG, Schulz KF, Moher D, Egger M, Davidoff F, Elbourne D. et al. The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: explanation and elaboration. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134(8):663–694. [PubMed: 11304107]
Allen JP, Maisto SA, Connors GJ. Self-report screening tests for alcohol problems in primary care. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(16):1726–1730. [PubMed: 7654105]
Hays WL. Statistics. 4th ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, Inc., 1988.
Kristenson H, Osterling A, Nilsson JA, Lindgarde F. Prevention of alcohol-related deaths in middle-aged heavy drinkers. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26(4):478–484. [PubMed: 11981123]
Fleming MF, Mundt MP, French MT, Manwell LB, Stauffacher EA, Barry KL. Brief physician advice for problem drinkers: Long-term efficacy and benefit-cost analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002;26(1):36–43. [PubMed: 11821652]
Berglund G, Nilsson P, Eriksson KF, Nilsson JA, Hedblad B, Kristenson H. et al. Long-term outcome of the Malmo preventive project: mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. J Intern Med. 2000;247(1):19–29. [PubMed: 10672127]
Wutzke SE, Conigrave KM, Saunders JB, Hall WD. The long-term effectiveness of brief interventions for unsafe alcohol consumption: a 10-year follow-up. Addiction. 2002;97(6):665–675. [PubMed: 12084136]
Fleming MF, Barry KL, Manwell LB, Johnson K. et al. Brief physician advice for problem alcohol drinkers: A randomized controlled trial in community-based primary care practices. JAMA. 1997;277(13):1039–1045. [PubMed: 9091691]
Kristenson H, Trell E, Hood B. Serum-gamma-glutamyltransferase in screening and continuous control of heavy drinking in middle-aged men. Am J Epidemiol. 1981;114(6):862–872. [PubMed: 6119025]
Petersson B, Krantz P, Kristenson H, Trell E, Sternby NH. Alcohol-related death: a major contributor to mortality in urban middle-aged men. Lancet. 1982;10:1088–1090. [PubMed: 6127552]
Petersson B, Trell E, Krantz P, Hood B. Major determinants of premature mortality in middle-aged urban males. Alcohol-related deaths and degree of participation in a preventive population program against alcohol and its complications. Am J Epidemiol. 1984;120(2):265–272. [PubMed: 6147086]
Kristenson H, Ohlin H, Hulten-Nosslin MB, Trell E, Hood B. Identification and intervention of heavy drinking in middle-aged men: results and follow-up of 24–60 months of long-term study with randomized controls. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1983;7(2):203–209. [PubMed: 6135365]
Anderson P, Scott E. The effect of general practitioners' advice to heavy drinking men. Br J Addict. 1992;87(6):891–900. [PubMed: 1525531]
Richmond R, Heather N, Wodak A, Kehoe L. et al. Controlled evaluation of a general practice-based brief intervention for excessive drinking. Addiction. 1995;90(1):119–132. [PubMed: 7888970]
Scott E, Anderson P. Randomized controlled trial of general practitioner intervention in women with excessive alcohol consumption. Drug Alcohol Rev. 1990;10:313–321. [PubMed: 16818295]
WHO Brief Intervention Study Group. A cross-national trial of brief interventions with heavy drinkers. Am J Public Health. 1996;86(7):948–955. [PMC free article: PMC1380435] [PubMed: 8669518]
Fleming MF, Manwell LB, Barry KL, Adams W, Stauffacher EA. Brief physician advice for alcohol problems in older adults: A randomized community-based trial. J Fam Pract. 1999;48(5):378–384. [PubMed: 10334615]
Manwell LB, Fleming MF, Mundt MP, Stauffacher EA, Barry KL. Treatment of problem alcohol use in women of childbearing age: Results of a brief intervention trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24(10):1517–1524. [PubMed: 11045860]
Maisto SA, Conigliaro J, McNeil M, Kraemer K, Conigliaro RL, Kelley ME. Effects of two types of brief intervention and readiness to change on alcohol use in hazardous drinkers. J Stud Alcohol. 2001;62(5):605–614. [PubMed: 11702799]
Kraemer K, Maisto SA, Conigliaro J, McNeil M, Gordon AJ, Kelley ME. Decreased alcohol consumption in outpatient drinkers is associated with improved quality of life and fewer alcohol-related consequences. J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17:382–386. [PMC free article: PMC1495050] [PubMed: 12047737]
Senft RA, Polen MR, Freeborn DK, Hollis JF. Brief intervention in a primary care setting for hazardous drinkers. Am J Prev Med. 1997;13(6):464–470. [PubMed: 9415794]
Nilssen O. The Tromso Study: identification of and a controlled intervention on a population of early-stage risk drinkers. Prev Med. 1991;20:518–528. [PubMed: 1678518]
Curry SJ, Ludman EJ, Grothaus LC, Donovan D, Kim E. A randomized trial of a brief primary care based intervention for reducing at-risk drinking practices. Health Psychol. 2003;22(2):156–165. [PubMed: 12683736]
Ockene JK, Adams A, Hurley TG, Wheeler EV, Hebert JR. Brief physician- and nurse practitioner-delivered counseling for high-risk drinkers: does it work? Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(18):2198–2205. [PubMed: 10527297]
Wallace P, Cutler S, Haines A. Randomised controlled trial of general practitioner intervention in patients with excessive alcohol consumption. BMJ. 1988;297(6649):663–668. [PMC free article: PMC1834369] [PubMed: 3052668]
Sobell LC, Sobell MB. Timeline Followback: A calendar method for assessing alcohol and drug use. User' guide. 1996. Toronto, ON, Addiction Research Foundation.
Programme on substance abuse: Project on identification and management of alcohol-related problems. Report on phase ii: a randomized clinical trial of brief interventions in primary health care. Babor TF, Grant M, editors. 1–266. 1992. World Health Organization.
Heather N, Campion PD, Neville RG, Maccabe D. Evaluation of a controlled drinking minimal intervention for problem drinkers in general practice (the DRAMS scheme) J R Coll Gen Pract. 1987;37(301):358–363. [PMC free article: PMC1711039] [PubMed: 3448228]
Cochrane Injuries Group. Interventions for preventing injuries in problem drinkers. http://www​.cochrane-injuries​ , 2002.
Rosenthal R. Parametric measures of effect size. In: Cooper H, Hedges LV, editors. Handbook of Research Synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1994: 231–244.
Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988.
Romelsjo A, Andersson L, Barrner H, Borg S, Granstrand C, Hultman O. et al. A randomized study of secondary prevention of early stage problem drinkers in primary health care. Br J Addict. 1989;84(11):1319–1327. [PubMed: 2597808]
Oliansky DM, Wildenhaus KJ, Manlove K, Arnold T, Schoener EP. Effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing substance use among at-risk primary care patients in three community-based clinics. Substance Abuse. 1997;18(3):95–103.
Tomson Y, Romelsjoe A, Aberg H. Excessive drinking—brief intervention by a primary health care nurse: A randomized control trial. Scan J Prim Health Care. 1998;16(3):188–192. [PubMed: 9800234]
Cordoba R, Delgado M, Pico V, Altisent R, Fores D, Monreal A. et al. Effectiveness of brief intervention on non-dependent alcohol drinkers (EBIAL): A Spanish multi-centre study. Fam Pract. 1998;15(6):562–568. [PubMed: 10078798]
Dimeff LA, McNeely M. Computer-enhanced primary care practitioner advice for high-risk college drinkers in a student primary health-care setting. Cognitive & Behavioral Practice. 2000;7(1):82–100.
Blair KE. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a physician intervention program to reduce alcohol consumption among college students. The Pennsylvania State University, 2000.
McIntosh MC, Leigh G, Baldwin NJ, Marmulak J. Reducing alcohol consumption. Comparing three brief methods in family practice. Can Fam Physician. 1997;43:1959–1962. [PMC free article: PMC2255191] [PubMed: 9386883]
Burton LC, Paglia MJ, German PS, Shapiro S, Damiano AM. The effect among older persons of a general preventive visit on three health behaviors: smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, and sedentary lifestyle. The Medicare Preventive Services Research Team. Prev Med. 1995;24:492–497. [PubMed: 8524724]
Aalto M, Saksanen R, Laine P, Forsstroem R, Raikaa M, Kiviluoto M. et al. Brief intervention for female heavy drinkers in routine general practice: A 3-year randomized, controlled study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000;24(11):1680–1686. [PubMed: 11104115]
Aalto M, Seppa K, Mattila P, Mustonen H, Ruuth K, Hyvarinen H. et al. Brief intervention for male heavy drinkers in routine general practice: A three-year randomized controlled study. Alcohol Alcohol. 2001;36(3):224–230. [PubMed: 11373259]
Logsdon DN, Lazaro CM, Meier RV. The feasibility of behavioral risk reduction in primary medical care. Am J Prev Med. 1989;5(5):249–256. [PubMed: 2789846]
Persson J, Magnusson PH. Early intervention in patients with excessive consumption of alcohol: a controlled study. Alcohol. 1989;6(5):403–408. [PubMed: 2573364]
Heather N, Robertson I, MacPherson B, Allsop S, Fulton A. Effectiveness of a controlled drinking self-help manual: one-year follow-up results. Br J Clin Psychol. 1987;26(4):279–287. [PubMed: 3427250]
Israel Y, Hollander O, Sanchez-Craig M, Booker S, Miller V, Gingrich R. et al. Screening for problem drinking and counseling by the primary care physician-nurse team. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996;20(8):1443–1450. [PubMed: 8947323]
Waterson EJ, Murray-Lyon IM. Preventing fetal alcohol effects; a trial of three methods of giving information in the antenatal clinic. Health Educ Res. 1990;5(1):53–61.
Antti-Poika I, Karaharju E, Roine R, Salaspuro M. Intervention of heavy drinking—a prospective and controlled study of 438 consecutive injured male patients. Alcohol Alcohol. 1988;23(2):115–121. [PubMed: 3390235]
Blondell RD, Looney SW, Northington AP, Lasch ME, Rhodes SB, McDaniels RL. Can recovering alcoholics help hospitalized patients with alcohol problems? J Fam Pract. 2001;50(5):447. [PubMed: 11350721]
Elvy GA, Wells JE, Baird KA. Attempted referral as intervention for problem drinking in the general hospital. Br J Addict. 1988;83(1):83–89. [PubMed: 3345386]
Forsberg L, Ekman S, Halldin J, Roennberg S. Brief interventions for risk consumption of alcohol at an emergency surgical ward. Addict Behav. 2000;25(3):471–475. [PubMed: 10890304]
Gentilello LM, Rivara FP, Donovan DM, Jurkovich GJ, Daranciang E, Dunn CW. et al. Alcohol interventions in a trauma center as a means of reducing the risk of injury recurrence. Ann Surg. 1999;230(4):473–480. [PMC free article: PMC1420896] [PubMed: 10522717]
Heather N, Rollnick S, Bell A, Richmond R. Effects of brief counselling among male heavy drinkers identified on general hospital wards. Drug Alcohol Rev. 1996;15(1):29–38. [PubMed: 16203349]
Monti PM, Colby SM, Barnett NP, Spirito A, Rohsenow DJ, Myers M. et al. Brief intervention for harm reduction with alcohol-positive older adolescents in a hospital emergency department. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67(6):989–994. [PubMed: 10596521]
Watson H. A study of minimal interventions for problem drinkers in acute care settings. Int J Nurs Stud. 1999;36(5):425–434. [PubMed: 10519687]
Welte JW, Perry P, Longabaugh R, Clifford PR. An outcome evaluation of a hospital-based early intervention program. Addiction. 1998;93(4):573–581. [PubMed: 9684395]
Gentilello LM. Alcohol interventions in a trauma center. Abstract Book/Association for Health Services Research. 1997;14:226.
Saitz R, Horton NJ, Sullivan LM, Moskowitz MA, Samet JH. Addressing alcohol problems in primary care: a cluster randomized, controlled trial of a systems intervention. The screening and interevntion in primary care (SIP) study. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(5):372–382. [PubMed: 12614089]
Handmaker NS, Miller WR, Manicke M. Findings of a pilot study of motivational interviewing with pregnant drinkers. J Stud Alcohol 1999; 60(2). [PubMed: 10091968]
Chang G, Wilkins-Haug L, Berman S, Goetz MA. Brief intervention for alcohol use in pregnancy: A randomized trial. Addiction. 1999;94(10):1499–1508. [PubMed: 10790902]
Reynolds KD, Coombs DW, Lowe JB, Peterson PL. et al. Evaluation of a self-help program to reduce alcohol consumption among pregnant women. Int J Addict. 1995;30(4):427–443. [PubMed: 7607777]
Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing. Preparing people to change addictive behavior. New York: Guilford Press, 1991.
Werch CE, Carlson JM, Pappas DM, Edgemon P, DiClemente CC. Effects of a brief alcohol preventive intervention for youth attending school sports physical examinations. Subst Use Misuse. 2000;35(3):421–432. [PubMed: 10714454]
Freeborn DK, Polen MR, Hollis JF, Senft RA. Screening and brief intervention for hazardous drinking in an HMO: Effects on medical care utilization. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2000;27(4):446–453. [PubMed: 11070638]
Breslin FC, Sobell MB, Sobell LC, Cunningham JA, Sdao-Jarvie K, Borsoi D. Problem drinkers: evaluation of a stepped-care approach. J Subst Abuse. 1998;10(3):217–32. [PubMed: 10689656]
Freemantle N, Gill P, Godfrey C, Long A, Richards C, Sheldon TA. et al. Brief interventions and alcohol use. Qual Health Care. 1993;2(4):267–273. [PMC free article: PMC1055159] [PubMed: 10132464]
Heather N. Cost-effective treatment in Brazil and elsewhere. Addiction. 2001;96(7):1069–1070. [PubMed: 11440617]
Coffield AB, Maciosek MV, McGinnis JM, Harris JR, Caldwell MB, Teutsch SM. et al. Priorities among recommended clinical preventive services. Am J Prev Med. 2001;21(1):1–9. [PubMed: 11418251]
Higgins-Biddle JC, Babor TF, Mullahy J, Daniels J, McRee B. Alcohol screening and brief intervention: where research meets practice. Conn Med. 1997;61(9):565–575. [PubMed: 9334512]
Horrigan TJ, Piazza N. The substance abuse subtle screening inventory minimizes the need for toxicology screening of prenatal patients. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1999;17(3):243–247. [PubMed: 10531631]
Sobell LC, Agrawal S, Sobell MB. Utility of liver function tests for screening “alcohol abusers” who are not severely dependent on alcohol. Subst Use Misuse. 1999;34(12):1723–1732. [PubMed: 10499417]
Cisler R, Holder HD, Longabaugh RSRZ. Actual and estimated replication costs for alcohol treatment modalities: case. J Stud Alcohol. 1998;59:503–512. [PubMed: 9718102]
Holder H, Longabaugh R, Miller WR, Rubonis AV. The cost effectiveness of treatment for alcoholism: a first approximation. J Stud Alcohol. 1991;52(6):517–540. [PubMed: 1661799]
Fals-Stewart W, O'Farrell TJ, Birchler GR. Behavioral couples therapy for male substance-abusing patients: a cost outcomes analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;65(5):789–802. [PubMed: 9337498]
O'Farrell TJ, Choquette KA, Cutter HS, Floyd FJ, Bayog R, Brown ED. et al. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral marital therapy as an addition to outpatient alcoholism treatment. J Subst Abuse. 1996;8(2):145–166. [PubMed: 8880657]
Downs SM, Klein JD. Clinical preventive services efficacy and adolescents' risky behaviors. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149(4):374–9. [PubMed: 7704164]
Fleming MF, Mundt MP, French MT, Manwell LB, Stauffacher EA, Barry KL. Benefit-cost analysis of brief physician advice with problem drinkers in primary care settings. Med Care. 2000;38(1):7–18. [PubMed: 10630716]
Wutzke SE, Shiell A, Gomel MK, Conigrave KM. Cost effectiveness of brief interventions for reducing alcohol consumption. Soc Sci Med. 2001;52(6):863–870. [PubMed: 11234861]
Lindholm L. Alcohol advice in primary health care—is it a wise use of resources? Health Policy. 1998;45(1):47–56. [PubMed: 10183012]
Orwin RG. Assessing program fidelity in substance abuse health services research. Addiction. 2000;95(Suppl 3):309–327. [PubMed: 11132360]
Fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SJ, Dorfman SF, Goldstein MG, Gritz ER et al. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence, Clinical Practice Guideline. 2000. Rockville, MD, US Department of Health and Juman Services, Punlic Health Service.
Caetano R. Non-response in alcohol and drug surveys: A research topic in need of further attention. Addiction. 2001;96:1541–1545. [PubMed: 11784451]
Babor TF, Steinberg K, Anton R, Del Boca F. Talk is cheap: Measuring drinking outcomes in clinical trials. J Stud Alcohol. 2000;61(1):55–63. [PubMed: 10627097]
Del Boca FK, Noll JA. Truth or consequences: the validity of self-report data in health services research on addictions. Addiction. 2000;95(Suppl 3):S347–S360. [PubMed: 11132362]
Smart RG, Mann RE. The impact of programs for high-risk drinkers on population levels of alcohol problems. Addiction. 2000;95(1):37–51. [PubMed: 10723824]
Dawson DA, Archer LD, Grant BF. Reducing alcohol-use disorders via decreased consumption: a comparison of population and high-risk strategies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1996;42(1):39–47. [PubMed: 8889402]
Lock CA, Kaner EF. Use of marketing to disseminate brief alcohol intervention to general practitioners: promoting health care interventions to health promoters. J Eval Clin Pract. 2000;6(4):345–357. [PubMed: 11133118]
Kaner EF, Lock CA, McAvoy BR, Heather N, Gilvarry E. A RCT of three training and support strategies to encourage implementation of screening and brief alcohol intervention by general practitioners. Br J Gen Pract. 1999;49(446):699–703. [PMC free article: PMC1313496] [PubMed: 10756610]
Adams A, Ockene JK, Wheller EV, Hurley TG. Alcohol counseling: physicians will do it. J Gen Intern Med. 1998;13(10):692–698. [PMC free article: PMC1500899] [PubMed: 9798817]
Gordon AJ, Maisto SA, McNeil M, Kraemer KL, Conigliaro RL, Kelley ME. et al. Three questions can detect hazardous drinkers. J Fam Pract. 2001;50(4):313–320. [PubMed: 11300982]
Bradley KA, Kivlahan DR, Bush KR, McDonell MB, Fihn SD. Variations on the CAGE alcohol screening questionnaire: strengths and limitations in VA general medical patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25(10):1472–1478. [PubMed: 11696667]
Williams R, Vinson DC. Validation of a single screening question for problem drinking. J Fam Pract. 2001;50(4):307–312. [PubMed: 11300981]
Taj N, Devera-Sales A, Vinson DC. Screening for problem drinking: does a single question work? J Fam Pract. 1998;46(4):328–335. [PubMed: 9564375]
Bush KR, Kivlahan DR, McDonell MB, Fihn SD, Bradley KA. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): an effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(16):1789–1795. [PubMed: 9738608]
Miller WR, Heather N, Hall W. Calculating standard drink units: international comparisons. Br J Addiction. 1991;86(1):43–47. [PubMed: 2009396]
Heather N, Campion PD, Neville RG, Maccabe D. Evaluation of a controlled drinking for minimal intervention for problem drinkers in general practice (the DRAMS scheme) J R Coll Gen Pract. 1987;37(301):358–363. [PMC free article: PMC1711039] [PubMed: 3448228]
Bookshelf ID: NBK42868


  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page

Related information

  • PMC
    PubMed Central citations
  • PubMed
    Links to PubMed

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...