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Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); Office of the Surgeon General (US). Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health [Internet]. Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services; 2016 Nov.

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Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health [Internet].

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Illustration shows the regions of the brain and the corresponding stage of the addiction cycle. The basal ganglia are near the top of the brain, the extended amygdala is near the bottom, and the prefrontal cortex is towards the front. The binge/intoxication stage is associated with the basal ganglia, the withdrawal/negative affect stage is associated with the extended amygdala, and the preoccupation/anticipation stage is associated with the prefrontal cortex.

Figure 2.3The Three Stages of the Addiction Cycle and the Brain Regions Associated with Them

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