Table G7Type of control groups for intervention studies on meditation practices

Type of control groupN groupsN studiesReferences
Placebo/sham1818Mantra meditation (9 groups, 9 studies)
TM® (3);433793,1005 Mantra (NS) (3);434,472,531 RR (2);477,678 SRELAX (1)222
Meditation practices (ND) (3 groups, 3 studies) 484,651,987
Yoga (2 groups, 2 studies) 170,846
Mindfulness meditation (1 group, 1 study)
Zen Buddhist meditation (1) 554
Qi Gong (2 groups, 2 studies) 405,767
Tai Chi (1 group, 1 study) 999
No-treatment concurrent controlNT126123Mantra meditation (44 groups, 43 studies)
TM® (25);86,171,187,188,190,259,279,282,291293440,463,518,538,662,674,705,758,769,793,945,974,986,1005 Mantra (NS) (8);194,203,434,472,531,597,650,719 RR (6);92,192,284,394,480,673 CSM (2);264, 676 ACEM meditation (1);959 Cayce's meditation (1)680
Yoga (31 groups, 30 studies) 111,126,137,168,172,175,185,204,217,247,251,305,325,417,445,542,679,799,804,806,819,823,826,838,854,860,864,925,943,981
Mindfulness meditation (23 groups, 22 studies)
MBSR (9);167,244,245,272,419,575,593,691,930 MM (NS) (7);106,395,474,523,728,762,1011 Zen Buddhist meditation (5);70,225,554,629,920 MBCT (1) 455
Tai Chi (19 groups, 19 studies) 223,285,286,290,326,437,467,489,541,595,596,617,645,698,882,885,894,895,955
Meditation practices (ND) (6 groups, 6 studies) 215,431,656,730,915,987
Qi Gong (2 groups, 2 studies) 262,954
Miscellaneous meditation practices (1 group, 1 study) 791
WL6262Mantra meditation (24 groups, 24 studies)
TM® (10); 86,252,259,271,289,309,418,528,557,677 CSM (5);193,384,536,537,658 RR (5); 75,208,476,515,610 Mantra (NS) (3); 626,761,805 SRELAX (1) 222
Mindfulness meditation (21 groups, 21 studies)
MBSR (11);420,421,485,493,512,589,602,681,710,711196 MM (NS) (6); 386,395,403,430,447,532 MBCT (2); 553,984 Zen Buddhist meditation (2) 765,774
Yoga (10 groups, 10 studies) 120,169,175,280,584,666,764,825,946,971
Meditation practices (ND) (3 groups, 3 studies) 387,730,783
Qi Gong (2 groups, 2 studies) 213,214
Tai Chi (2 groups, 2 studies) 398,408
Active (positive) concurrent controls—interventions other than meditation practicesExercise/physical activity5245Yoga (23 groups, 18 studies) 233,266,280,281,415,417,461,462,618,666,811,834,836,837,839,844,998,1007
Tai Chi (14 groups, 14 studies) 235,248,287,307,409,413,435,541,603,631,665,713,789,1006
Mantra meditation (13 groups, 10 studies)
Mantra (NS) (3); 483,706,777 RR (3); 304,394,480 TM® (2); 78,282 ACEM meditation (1); 956 CSM (1) 264
Mindfulness meditation (1 group, 1 study) MBSR (1) 930
Meditation practices (ND) (1 group, 1 study) 514
Qi Gong (1 group, 1 study) 207
Rest and states of relaxation4745Mantra meditation (30 groups, 28 studies)
RR (14); 304,306,475,504b91,265,283,284,288,396,558,594,625,938 TM® (9); 186,279,392,424,519,677,683,782,796 Mantra (NS) (3); 260,503,965 CSM (2) 537,627
Yoga (9 groups, 9 studies) 134,177,181,204,219,224,615,858,868
Mindfulness meditation (6 groups, 6 studies)
Zen Buddhist meditation (3); 70,500,639 MM (NS) (2); 728,932 MBSR (1) 754
Meditation practices (ND) (2 groups, 2 studies) 274,539,915
Education4644Mantra meditation (19 groups, 17 studies)
TM® (9); 205,206,210,220,221,407,659,714,787 RR (5); 94,192,218,234,476 Mantra (NS) (2); 483,777 CSM (1)702
Mindfulness meditation (10 groups, 10 studies)
MBSR (5); 423,575,579,689,756 Zen Buddhist meditation (3); 197,225,237 MM (NS) (2) 403,448
Yoga (8 groups, 8 studies) 118,212,216,461,462,562,926,1007
Tai Chi (6 groups, 6 studies) 235,307,397,665,746,878
Meditation practices (ND) (2 groups, 2 studies) 656,910
Miscellaneous meditation practices (1 groups, 1 study) 791
PMR3939Mantra meditation (27 groups, 27 studies)
TM® (10); 86,220,221,429,528,545,769,945,986,1005 RR (8); 191,265,288,475,477,569,616,988 Mantra (NS) (5);472,531,577,626,736 CSM (3); 97,193,627 ACEM meditation (1) 961
Yoga (6 groups, 6 studies) 122,204,389,549,615,991
Mindfulness meditation (5 groups, 5 studies)
MBSR (2); 196,263 MM (NS) (2); 696,751 Zen Buddhist meditation (1) 765
Meditation practices (ND) (1 group, 1 study) 494b
Cognitive behavioral techniques2220Mantra meditation (9 groups, 9 studies)
TM® (3); 545,674,677; RR (3) 476,616,637 CSM (2); 410,702 Mantra (NS) (1) 483
Mindfulness meditation (7 groups, 7 studies)
MM (NS) (4); 241,444,474,775 MBSR (3) 482,579,687
Meditation practices (ND) (3 groups, 2 studies) 656,987
Yoga (3 groups, 2 studies) 120946
Miscellaneous active controls2319Yoga (7 groups, 6 studies) 138,226,273,679,825,943
Mantra meditation (6 groups, 6 studies)
RR (3);396,558,592 Mantra (NS) (2);494a719 TM® (1) 270
Mindfulness meditation (6 groups, 4 studies)
MBSR (2);195,754 Zen Buddhist meditation (1);225 MM (NS) (1) 490
Miscellaneous meditation practices (2 groups, 1 study) 507
Meditation practices (ND) (1 group, 1 study) 198
Tai Chi (1 group, 1 study) 1001
Group therapy1413Mantra meditation (6 groups, 6 studies)
RR (3);236,394,637 TM® (2);261,816 ACEM meditation (1) 961
Mindfulness meditation (3 groups, 3 studies)
MBSR (1); 482 MM (NS) (2) 241,738
Tai Chi (3 groups, 2 studies): 391,768
Yoga (2 groups, 2 studies) 269,618
Psychotherapy33Mantra meditation (1 group, 1 study) TM® (1) 478
Mindfulness meditation (1 group, 1 study) MBSR (1) 752
Yoga (1 group, 1 study) 273
BF1312Mantra meditation (12 groups, 11 studies)
RR (6);208,306b306a191,209,228 Mantra (NS) (3);194,503,531 TM® (2); 270,683
Yoga (1 group, 1 study) 273
Reading88Mantra meditation (6 groups, 6 studies)
RR (4); 521,567,572,592 TM® (2) 587,759
Tai Chi (1 group, 1 study) 307
Yoga (1 group, 1 study) 615
Pharmacological interventions 8 8 Yoga (6 groups, 6 studies) 138,217,806,809,818,841 Qi Gong (2 groups, 2 studies) 211,262
Hypnosis44Mantra meditation (2 groups, 2 studies) TM® (2) 75,460
Meditation practices (ND) (2 groups, 2 studies) 494b198
Massage32Mantra meditation (2 groups, 1 study) RR (1) 558
Mindfulness meditation (1 group, 1 study) MBSR (1) 556
Acupuncture11Tai Chi (1 group, 1 study) 1001
Active (positive) concurrent controls—meditation practices as comparison groupsYoga55Mantra meditation (4 groups, 4 studies)
TM® (3); 793,796,816 Mantra (NS) (1) 597
Meditation practices (ND) (1 group, 1 study) 656
Mantra meditation 3 3 Yoga (3 groups, 3 studies) 169,174,175
Mindfulness meditation33Mantra meditation (2 groups, 2 studies)
TM® (1); 279 Mantra (NS) (1) 494a
Meditation practices (ND) (1 group, 1 study) 783
Meditation practices (ND)22Mantra meditation (2 groups, 2 studies)
RR (1); 530 TM® (1) 1005
Tai Chi11Mantra meditation (1 group, 1 study) RR (1) 480
Different dose or regimen of meditation practices—concurrent control groupsYoga 15 14 Yoga (15 groups, 14 studies) 111,127,140,175185
Mantra meditation99Mantra meditation (9 groups, 9 studies)
TM® (5); 186190 RR (2); 191,192 CSM (1); 193 Mantra (NS) (1) 194
Mindfulness meditation54Mindfulness meditation (5 groups, 4 studies)
MBSR (2); 195,196 Zen Buddhist meditation (1); 197 MM (NS) (1) 395
Meditation practices (ND)22Meditation practices (ND) (2 groups, 2 studies) 198,199
Usual care3737Mindfulness meditation (9 groups, 9 studies)
MM (NS) (2); 249,258; MBSR (2)556,773,934
MBCT (3); 929427,940 Zen Buddhist (1) 227
Qi Gong (3 groups, 3 studies) 243,900,919
Mantra meditation (2 groups, 2 studies)
RR (1)268 TM® (2) 78,270
Tai Chi (4 groups, 4 studies) 246,566,573,904
Yoga (16 groups, 16 studies)238240,250,278,308,404,543,544,642,794,824,829,832,852,866
Meditation practices (ND) (1 group, 1 study) 274
Miscellaneous meditation practices (1 group, 1 study)726
Control groups (ND)66Mantra meditation (2 groups, 2 studies)
RR (1);234 TM® (1) 267
Qi Gong (2 groups, 2 studies) 953,977
MM (NS) (1); 242
Tai Chi (1 groups, 1 studies) 871
Number of controls per studySingle control275275Yoga (80 groups, 80 studies) 118,120,126,127,134,137,168,170,172,174,176,178180,182184,212,216,219,224,226,233,238240,247,250,251,266,269,278,281,308,325,389,404,415,445,542544,549,562,584,642,764,794,799,804,809,811,818,819,823,824,826,829,832,834,836839,841,844,846,852,854,858,860,864,866,868,925,926,971,981,991,998
Mantra meditation (77 groups, 77 studies)
TM® (34); 171,189,205,206,210,252,261,267,271,289,291293,309,392,407,418,424,429,433,440,463,478,518,519,538,557,587,662,705,714,758,759,782,787,974 RR (23);236,306,460,504a92,94,209,218,268,283,515,521,530,567,569,572,594,610,625,673,678,938,988 Mantra (NS) (9);203,260,577,650,706,736,761,805,965 CSM (6); 97,384,410,536,658,676 ACEM meditation (2); 956,959 Cayce's meditation (1) 680
Mindfulness meditation (55 groups, 55 studies)
MBSR (25) 167,244,245,263,272,419421,423,485,493,512,589,593,602,681,687,689,691,710,711,752,756,773,934 MM (NS) (18) 106,242,249,258,386,430,444,447,448,523,532,696,738,751,762,775,932,1011; MBCT (6); 427,455,553,929,940,984 Zen Buddhist meditation (6); 227,237,500,639,774,920
Tai Chi (40 groups, 40 studies) 223,246,248,285287,290,326,391,397,398,408,409,413,435,437,467,489,566,573,595,596,603,617,631,645,698,713,746,789,871,878,882,885,894,895,904,955,999,1006
Qi Gong (12 groups, 12 studies) 207,211,213,214,243,405,767,900,919,953,954,977
Meditation practices (ND) (10 groups, 10 studies) 199,215,274,387,431,484,514,539,651,910
Miscellaneous meditation practices (1 group, 1 study) 726
Multiple controls296127Mantra meditation (152 groups, 65 studies)
TM® (25); 78,86,186188,190,220,221,259,270,279,282,528,545,659,674,677,683,769,793,796,816,945,986,1005 RR (22);208,234,304,306,394,475477,480b75,91,191,192,228,265,284,288,396,558,592,616,637 Mantra (NS) (11); 472,483,494a194,434,503,531,597,626,719,777; CSM (5) 193,264,537,627,702
ACEM meditation (1); 961 SRELAX (1) 222,
Yoga (63 groups, 26 studies) 111,122,138,140,169,175,177,181,185,204,217,273,280,305,417,461,462,615,618,666,679,806,825,943,946,1007
Mindfulness meditation (45 groups, 20 studies)
MBSR (8); 195,196,482,556,575,579,754,930 MM (NS) (6); 241,395,403,474,490,728 Zen Buddhist meditation (6)70,197,225,554,629,765
Meditation practices (ND) (17 groups, 7 studies) 494b198,656,730,783,915,987
Tai Chi (13 groups, 6 studies) 235,307,541,665,768,1001
Miscellaneous meditation practices (4 groups, 2 studies) 507,791
Qi Gong (2 groups, 1 study) 262
®

BF = Biofeedback; CSM = Clinically Standardized Meditation; MBCT = mindfulness-based cognitive therapy; MBSR = Mindfulness-based stress reduction; MM = mindfulness meditation; = ND = not described; NS = not specified; NT = no treatment; PMR = progressive muscle relaxation; RR = Relaxation Response; TM = Transcendental Meditation; WL = waiting list

From: Appendix G. Summary Tables for Topic II

Cover of Meditation Practices for Health
Meditation Practices for Health: State of the Research.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 155.
Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al.

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