Table 37Summary of the analysis of effect modifiers for achieving benefits from meditation practice for substance abuse

Study, year, countryStudy design, duration, followup, ITTInterventionComparison groupsType of analysisAuthors' conclusions
Murphy TJ, 1986264RCT parallel 3 armsCSMExercise Subgroup analysis by compliance (post hoc)Statistically significant differences between high compliers and noncompliers in ethanol consumption and in VO2 gains among meditators
United StatesDuration: 8 wk.NT
Ramirez J, 1990267RCT parallel 2 armsTM®Control (NS)Subgroup analysis by regularity of practice (post hoc)Regular TM® practitioners showed a significantly greater increase in a measure of self-concept
United StatesDuration: NRNo differences between regular versus irregular TM® practitioners were found for measures of internality-externality
Rohsenow DJ, 1985268RCT parallel 2 armsRR + PMR + cognitive restructuringControl (NS)Subgroup analysis by level of drinking and social support (post hoc)Participants with heavier drinking behavior and greater social support at baseline obtained significantly greater decreases in alcohol consumption
United StatesDuration: 6 mo.
Wong MR, 1981274NRCT parallel 2 armsMeditation practice (NS)RelaxationSubgroup analysis by participation in AA (post hoc)Participants in the meditation group that took part in AA showed greater improvements in measures of impulsivity
United StatesDuration: 6 mo.

AA = Alcoholics Anonymous; CSM = clinically standardized meditation; ITT = intention-to-treat; mo = months; NRCT = nonrandomized controlled trial; NR = not reported; NS = not specified; PMR = progressive muscle relaxation; RR = relaxation response; TM = Transcendental Meditation; VO2 = oxygen consumption; wk = weeks

From: 3, Results

Cover of Meditation Practices for Health
Meditation Practices for Health: State of the Research.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 155.
Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al.

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.