Table 27Summary of outcomes by meditation practice and by comparison group included in meta-analyses of the efficacy and effectiveness of meditation practices for hypertension

InterventionComparatorOutcomeNo. studiesMeta-analysisOutcomes for Meta-analysis
TM®HETC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, BP changes, anger, stress, personal efficacy, diet, physical activity, pulse rate2055YesBP changes (DBP, SBP)205,206,210,220,221
cIMT, BP changes, weight, PR, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, pulse pressure, smoking, exercise206Total cholesterol205,206
LVMI, BP changes (DBP, SBP), weight, PR, PWT, LVIDD, LVIDS, IVST, E/A ratio, energy, stress impact, sleep, positive affect, sleep pattern, anxiety, depression, anger, self-efficacy, locus of control, diet, activity level, compliance210HDL-C 205,206
BP changes (DBP, SBP)221LDL-C 205,206
BP changes (DBP, SBP), change in AHM220Body weight205,206,210
Pulse rate205,206,210
Diet (calories, fat, sodium)205,210
Physical activity205,210
PMRBP changes (DBP, SBP), compliance2212YesBP changes (DBP, SBP)220,221
BP changes (DBP, SBP), change in AHM220
PLBBP changes (DBP, SBP)2221NoNA
SRELAX (technique modeled after TM®)WLBP changes (DBP, SBP)2221NoNA
RRHE BP changes (DBP, SBP), TC, smoking, morbidity, mortality2181 No NA
BFBAttention (field independence, attention deployment, absorption), BP changes (DBP, SBP)2083YesBP changes (DBP, SBP)208,209,228
BP changes (DBP, SBP)209
BP changes (DBP, SBP)228
WLAttention (field independence, attention deployment, absorption), BP2081NoNA
Qi GongAHM Plasma 18-OH-DOC levels, BP changes(DBP, SBP)2111 No NA
Exercise BP, health status, anxiety, depression, HR, weight, BMI, body fat, waist/hip circumference, renin excretion, urinary albumin excretion, Na, K, urea, Cr, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, aldosterone, urine cortisol, urine Cr, urine Na, urine protein, LVMI, ejection fraction2071 No NA
WLBP changes (DBP, SBP, RPP), HR, PR, EPI, NE, FVC, FEV1, cortisol2142YesBP changes (DBP, SBP)213,214
BP changes (DBP, SBP), APO-A1, TC, HDL-C, TG, self-efficacy213
Tai ChiRestBP changes (DBP, SBP), HR, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, BMI, anxiety2231NoNA
YogaAHM Stress, BP changes (DBP, SBP), PR, weight2171 No NA
NTBP changes (DBP, SBP), anxiety, GSR2043YesBP changes (DBP, SBP)185,204,217
BP changes (DBP, SBP), hostility, assertive behavior, psychological symptoms185
Stress, BP changes (DBP, SBP), PR, weight217
HEBP changes (DBP, SBP), AHM intake, stress control, negative responses to stress, coping behavior, somatic symptoms, symptom severity2122YesBP changes (DBP, SBP)212,216
Stress, BP changes (DBP, SBP), BMI, HR216Stress212,216
Orthostatic tilt BP changes (DBP, SBP), AI-EEG, CO, HR, NE, EPI, PRA, urine K, urine Na, CPR2261 No NA
PMR BP changes (DBP, SBP), anxiety, GSR2041 No NA
RestBP changes (DBP, SBP), anxiety, GSR2042YesBP changes (DBP, SBP)204,219
BP changes (DBP, SBP)219
Relaxation BP changes (DBP, SBP), body weight, urine Na, TC2241 No NA
Yoga + BFBP changes (DBP, SBP), hostility, assertive behavior, anxiety, depression1851NoNA
Zen Buddhist meditationBlood pressure checksBP changes (DBP, SBP), changes in plasma DBH, plasma volume, PRA2272YesBP changes (DBP, SBP) 225,227
BP changes (DBP, SBP)225
NTBP changes (DBP, SBP)2251NoNA
Mantra (NS)NTBP changes (DBP, SBP); time of BP restoration, HRQL, emotional stress, number of sick leaves2031NoNA
Meditation practices (NS)NTBP changes (DBP, SBP)2151NoNA

AHM = antihypertensive medication; AI = alpha index; APO-A1 = apolipoprotein A1; BF = biofeedback; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; cIMT = carotid intima media thickness; CO = cardiac output; CPR = cold pressor response; Cr = creatinine; DBH = dopamine beta hydroxylase; DBP = diastolic blood pressure; E/A ratio = early filling divided by atrial constriction; EEG = electroencephalogram; EMG = electromyography; EPI = epinephrine; FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FVC = forced vital capacity; GSR = galvanic skin response; HDL-C = high density lipoprotein cholesterol; HE = health education; HR = heart rate; HRQL = health-related quality of life; IVST = intraventricular septal thickness; K = potassium; LDL-C = low density lipoprotein cholesterol; LVIDD = left ventricular internal dimension at diastole; LVDIS = left ventricular internal dimension at systole; LVMI = left ventricular mass index; NA = not applicable; Na = sodium; NE = norepinephrine; NS = not specified; NT = no treatment; PLB = placebo; PMR = progressive muscle relaxation; PRA = plasma renin activity; PR = pulse rate; PWT = posterior wall thickness; RPP = rate pressure product; RR = Relaxation Response; SBP = systolic blood pressure; TC = total cholesterol; TG = triglycerides; TM = Transcendental Meditation; WL = waiting list

From: 3, Results

Cover of Meditation Practices for Health
Meditation Practices for Health: State of the Research.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 155.
Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al.

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