Table 15Methodological quality of cross-sectional studies by meditation practice*

Quality criteriaMantra meditation (n = 60)Mindfulness meditation (n = 12)Meditation practices (ND) (n = 1)Miscellaneous meditation practices (n = 3)Qi Gong (n = 8)Tai Chi (n = 18)Yoga (n = 15)
Selection of the comparison groupsTruly representative of the community; n (%) 1 (1.7) ... ... ... ... ... ...
Somewhat representative of the community; n (%) 27 (45.0) 6* 1 3 6 13 5
Selected group of participants; n (%) 6 (10.0) 2 ... ... 2 2 2
No description of the derivation of the study group; n (%) 26 (46.3) 4 ... ... ... 3 8
Drawn from the same community as the study group; n (%) 14 (23.3) 2 1 2 1 2 2
Drawn from a different source; n (%) 25 (41.7) 6 ... 1 6 13 5
No description of the derivation of the comparison group; n (%) 21 (35.0) 4 ... ... 1 3 8
Secure record; n (%) ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Structured interview; n (%) ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Written self-report; n (%) 1 (1.7) 1 ... ... ... ... ...
No description of exposure ascertainment; n (%)59 (98.3)111381815
ComparabilityStudy controls for two or more confounding factors; n (%) 23 (38.3) 6 ... 2 3 8 8
Study controls for at least one confounding factor; n (%) 7 (11.7) 2 ... ... 3 1 1
No adjustment for confounding factors in the design or analysis of the study; n (%)30 (50)411296
Outcome assessmentIndependent blind assessment; n (%) ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Record linkage; n (%) 28 (46.7) 6 ... ... 4 16 8
Self-report; n (%) 29 (48.3) 6 1 3 4 2 7
No description of outcomes assessment; n (%)3 (5.0)..................
NOS total score (max 9); Median (IQR) 2 (1,3)3 (1,3)22 (2,3)2.5 (2,3)2 (2,4)3 (1,3)
Funding reported; n (%)6 (10)3...34113

From: 3, Results

Cover of Meditation Practices for Health
Meditation Practices for Health: State of the Research.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 155.
Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al.

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