Table 3Malaria prevalence and entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs) in African cities

Malaria prevalence EIR
Study setting, period (reference) Sample size Urban (%) Peri- urban (%) Urban (%) Peri- urban
Benin
Cotonou 198952 152 children 19.1 1.2* (Camp Guezo)
Cotonou 1989–1990, 200053 3,582 children 51.7–63.8 (seasonal variations) 70.1–91.7(seasonal variations) 29 47
Burkina Faso
Ouagadougou, 198428 2,117 children 3–26 (6 sites) 1.2*
Ouagadougou, 198454 0 23
Ouagadougou55 0.3 12
Ouagadougou, 199356 290 individuals (all age groups) 4,128 medical observations 4
Bobo-Dioulasso 198557, 58 0.1 4.6
Cameroon
Ebolowa, 1993–199559 206 children 30.9 1.2* 3.8 (well planned suburb); 30(densely populated suburb)
Edea, 199060
Limbe, 198761 407 children 33.1 1.8*
Yaoundé, 198662 336 children 9.2 1*
Yaoundé 1989–199031 960 individuals(all age groups) 10 (February)–42(May) 1.9* 3;13 (authors’ estimates)
Yaoundé 1989–199063 14–30
Yaoundé 1996–199764 576 children 52 3*
Congo
Talangai, Brazzaville 198065 125 children 22.4 1.3*
Brazzaville 1980–198266 555 schoolchildren (5–14 years old) 9–80 (5 sites with different degree of urbanization) 1–7.7
Brazzaville 1982–198466 0.3–101
Lubumbashi, 199767 625 children 60.9 4.9
Côte d’lvoire
Bouaké City 199268 88 (market garden districts), 126 (rice field districts
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa 198069 2,267 children 33 3.6
Kinshasa 198570 420 children 37 2.3*
Kinshasa 1988–198935 29 (poorly developed sector)
Kinshasa 1989–199071 2.9
Ethopia
Nazareth 1988–198972 3,890 individuals in 4 surveys (all age groups) 1.1 4 0.9*
Gabon
Franceville 199473 109 children 43.9
Franceville 1993–199574 81
Libreville64 507 children 65 6.4*
The Gambia
Bakau 1988–198975 500 children 2 0.28
Bakau 199076 29 adults 17.2 1.3*
Ghana
Accra 197877 413 individuals (all age groups) 1.4 0.9*
Nima, 1988–199078 506 children (6–15 years old) 18 1.3*
Sunyani, 1988–199078 715 children (6–15 years old) 21.3 1.2*
Ho, 1988–199078 451 children (6–15 years old) 29.9 1.6*
Bolgatanga, 1988–199078 706 children (6–15 years old) 39.7 2.1*
Guinea
Labe 198979 310 individuals (all age groups) 16.7
Guinea-Bissau
Bandim 199480 312 children 59 3.4*
Kenya
Kilifi town 1990–199148 81 children 17.1 1.5
Madagascar
Antananarivo, 1995–199691 1,545 children 932 patients 0.8 (school group) 2.6 (patients)
Mozambique
Matola, 1994–199681 6,000 individuals (all age groups) 33 (dry season) 63 (rainy season) 27
Matola, 1994–199582 3,199 individuals 5.4–59 (several sites) 0–20
Niger
Maradi 198583 182 individuals (all age groups) 1.6 0.9*
Niamey 1992–199530 Not known 0–5 5–50
Nigeria
Ibadan, 1989–199184 1,345 children 22.6 (dry season) 38.1 (rainy season) 6*
Ibadan City 199485 343 students (14–19 years old)
Senegal
Pikine 1979–198145 296 children in 7 surveys 8.8 14
Dakar (Pikine ancien) 1987–198886 2,465 individuals (all age groups) 3.8 0.120.9*
Dakar 1994–199751, 87 4,925 individuals (all age groups) 1 0
Sudan
Khartoum 199515 4,614 samples (all age groups) 3.7–5.5 (2 sites) 0.9*
United Republic of Tanzania
Dar es Salaam 1988–199688 6 primary schools 2.8 (February) 73 (September) 15 54
Ifakara 199989
Togo
Sokode 198690 707 children 37.2 1.9*
Zambia
Lusaka 1984–198532 423 children 2.4 (November) 10.3 (April)
*

Estimated EIR (see Materials and Methods for further details).

From: Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa and Implication for Malaria Control

Cover of The Intolerable Burden of Malaria II: What's New, What's Needed
The Intolerable Burden of Malaria II: What's New, What's Needed: Supplement to Volume 71(2) of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Breman JG, Alilio MS, Mills A, editors.
Copyright © 2004, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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