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Schachter HM, Kourad K, Merali Z, et al. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Mental Health. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2005 Jul. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 116.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Mental Health.

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Table of Studies Investigating Each Question: organized by the order of presentation in the text

• QuestionINCLUDED STUDIES (i.e., THE primary report referred to in text)
Primary Treatment for Depression • Marangell et al., 2003:95 Marangell LB, Martinez JM, Zboyan HA, Kertz B, Kim HF, Puryear LJ. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160(5):996–998.
Supplemental Treatment for Depression • Peet & Horrobin, 2002:53 Peet M, Horrobin DF. A dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59(10):913–919.
• Nemets et al., 2002:97 Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH. Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159(3):477–479.
• Su et al., 2003:96 Su KP, Huang SY, Chiu CC, Shen WW. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2003;13(4):267–271.
Intake Associated with Onset of Depression (i.e., Primary Prevention) • Llorente et al., 2003:98 Llorente AM, Jensen CL, Voigt RG, Fraley JK, Berretta MC, Heird WC. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on postpartum depression and information processing. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;188(5):1348–1353.
• Wardle et al., 2000:99 Wardle J, Rogers P, Judd P, Taylor MA, Rapoport L, Green M et al. Randomized trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering dietary treatment on psychological function. Am J Med 2000;108(7):547–553.
• Ness et al., 2003:100 Ness AR, Gallacher JEJ, Bennett PD, Gunnell DJ, Rogers PJ, Kessler D et al. Advice to eat fish and mood: A randomised controlled trial in men with angina. Nutr Neurosci 2003;6(1):63–65.
• Hakkarainen et al., 2004:111 Hakkarainen R, Partonen T, Haukka J, Virtamo J, Albanes D, Lonnqvist J. Is low dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids associated with depression? Am J Psychiatry 2004;161(3):567–569.
• Tanskanen et al., 2001:81 Tanskanen A, Hibbeln JR, Tuomilehto J, Uutela A, Haukkala A, Viinamaki H et al. Fish consumption and depressive symptoms in the general population in Finland. Psychiatr Serv 2001;52(4):529–531.
• Tanskanen et al., 2001:80 Tanskanen A, Hibbeln JR, Hintikka J, Haatainen K, Honkalampi K, Viinamaki H. Fish consumption, depression, and suicidality in a general population.[comment]. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58(5):512–513.
• Woo et al., 2002:110 Woo J, Ho SC, Yu ALM. Lifestyle factors and health outcomes in elderly Hong Kong Chinese aged 70 years and over. Gerontology 2002;48(4):234–240.
• Suzuki et al., 2004:107 Suzuki S, Akechi T, Kobayashi M, Taniguchi K, Goto K, Sasaki S et al. Daily omega-3 fatty acid intake and depression in Japanese patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Br J Cancer 2004;90(4):787–793.
• Edwards et al., 1998:48 Edwards R, Peet M, Shay J, Horrobin D. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the diet and in red blood cell membranes of depressed patients. J Affect Disord 1998;48(2–3):149–155.
• Hibbeln, 1998:47 Hibbeln JR. Fish consumption and major depression.[comment]. Lancet 1998;351(9110):1213.
• Hibbeln, 2002:108 Hibbeln JR. Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers' milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis. J Affect Disord 2002;69(1–3):15–29.
• Peet, 2004:109 Peet M. International variations in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to national dietary practices: an ecological analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2004;184:404–408.
Biomarker Content Associated with Onset of Depression • Ellis & Sanders, 1977:105 Ellis FR, Sanders TAB. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in endogenous depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1977;40(2):168–169.
• Fehily et al., 1981:106 Fehily AMA, Bowey OAM, Ellis FR, Meade BW. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in endogenous depression. Neurochem Int 1981;3(1):37–42.
• Maes et al., 1996:103 Maes M, Smith R, Christophe A, Cosyns P, Desnyder R, Meltzer H. Fatty acid composition in major depression: decreased omega 3 fractions in cholesteryl esters and increased C20: 4 omega 6/C20:5 omega 3 ratio in cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. J Affect Disord 1996;38(1):35–46.
• Peet et al., 1998:102 Peet M, Murphy B, Shay J, Horrobin D. Depletion of omega-3 fatty acid levels in red blood cell membranes of depressive patients. Biol Psychiatry 1998;43(5):315–319.
• Edwards et al., 1998:48 Edwards R, Peet M, Shay J, Horrobin D. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the diet and in red blood cell membranes of depressed patients. J Affect Disord 1998;48(2–3):149–155.
• Maes et al., 1999:101 Maes M, Christophe A, Delanghe J, Altamura C, Neels H, Meltzer HY. Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters of depressed patients. Psychiatry Res 1999;85(3):275–291.
• Tiemeier et al., 2003:104 Tiemeier H, van Tuijl HR, Hofman A, Kiliaan AJ, Breteler MMB. Plasma fatty acid composition and depression are associated in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78(1):40–46.
• Llorente et al., 2003:98 Llorente AM, Jensen CL, Voigt RG, Fraley JK, Berretta MC, Heird WC. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on postpartum depression and information processing. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;188(5):1348–1353.
Intake Associated with Onset of Suicidal Ideation or Behavior (i.e., Primary Prevention) • Hakkarainen et al., 2004:111 Hakkarainen R, Partonen T, Haukka J, Virtamo J, Albanes D, Lonnqvist J. Is low dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids associated with depression? Am J Psychiatry 2004;161(3):567–569.
• Tanskanen et al., 2001:80 Tanskanen A, Hibbeln JR, Hintikka J, Haatainen K, Honkalampi K, Viinamaki H. Fish consumption, depression, and suicidality in a general population.[comment]. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58(5):512–513.
Supplemental Treatment for Bipolar Disorder • Stoll et al., 1999:112 Stoll AL, Severus WE, Freeman MP, Rueter S, Zboyan HA, Diamond E et al. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.[comment]. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56(5):407–412.
• Akkerhuis & Nolen, 2003:93 Akkerhuis GW, Nolen WA. Lithium-associated psoriasis and omega-3 fatty acids. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160(7):1355.
Intake Associated with Onset of Bipolar Disorder (i.e., Primary Prevention) • Noaghiul & Hibbeln, 2003:90 Noaghiul S, Hibbeln JR. Cross-national comparisons of seafood consumption and rates of bipolar disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160(12):2222–2227.
Biomarker Content Associated with Onset of Bipolar Disorder • Mahadik et al., 1996:114 Mahadik SP, Mukherjee S, Horrobin DF, Jenkins K, Correnti EE, Scheffer RE. Plasma membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition of cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenic patients: comparison with bipolar patients and normal subjects. Psychiatry Res 1996;63(2–3):133–142.
• Chiu et al., 2003:113 Chiu CC, Huang SY, Su KP, Lu ML, Huang MC, Chen CC et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acid deficit in patients with bipolar mania. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2003;13(2):99–103.
Intake Associated with Onset of Anxiety (i.e., Primary Prevention) • Wardle et al., 2000:99 Wardle J, Rogers P, Judd P, Taylor MA, Rapoport L, Green M et al. Randomized trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering dietary treatment on psychological function. Am J Med 2000;108(7):547–553.
• Ness et al., 2003:100 Ness AR, Gallacher JEJ, Bennett PD, Gunnell DJ, Rogers PJ, Kessler D et al. Advice to eat fish and mood: A randomised controlled trial in men with angina. Nutr Neurosci 2003;6(1):63–65.
Supplemental Treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Fux et al., 2004:115 Fux M, Benjamin J, Nemets B. A placebo-controlled cross-over trial of adjunctive EPA in OCD. J Psychiatr Res 2004;38(3):323–325.
Biomarker Content Associated with Onset of Anorexia Nervosa • Langan & Farrell, 1985:117 Langan SM, Farrell PM. Vitamin E, vitamin A and essential fatty acid status of patients hospitalized for anorexia nervosa. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41(5):1054–1060.
• Holman et al., 1995:116 Holman RT, Adams CE, Nelson RA, Grater SJ, Jaskiewicz JA, Johnson SB et al. Patients with anorexia nervosa demonstrate deficiencies of selected essential fatty acids, compensatory changes in nonessential fatty acids and decreased fluidity of plasma lipids. J Nutr 1995;125(4):901–907.
Primary Treatment for Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder • Richardson & Puri, 2002:119 Richardson AJ, Puri BK. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2002;26(2):233–239.
• Hirayama et al., 2004:120 Hirayama S, Hamazaki T, Terasawa K. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-containing food administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A placebo-controlled double-blind study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58(3):467–473.
• Brue et al., 2001:118 Brue AW, Oakland TD, Evans RA. The use of a dietary supplement combination and an essential fatty acid as an alternative and complementary treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Sci Rev Altern Med 2001;5(4):187–194.
• Harding et al., 2003:121 Harding KL, Judah RD, Gant CE. Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin versus food-supplement treated children with AD/HD. Altern Med Rev 2003;8(3):319–330.
Supplemental Treatment for Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder • Brue et al., 2001:118 Brue AW, Oakland TD, Evans RA. The use of a dietary supplement combination and an essential fatty acid as an alternative and complementary treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Sci Rev Altern Med 2001;5(4):187–194.
• Voight et al., 2001:122 Voigt RG, Llorente AM, Jensen CL, Fraley JK, Berretta MC, Heird WC. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.[comment]. J Pediatr 2001;139(2):189–196.
• Stevens et al., 2003:123 Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L, Kuczek T, Grevstad N, Mahon A et al. EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors. Lipids 2003;38(10):1007–1021.
Intake Associated with Onset of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (i.e., Primary Prevention) • Yang et al., 1999:94 Yang S-C, Chiu W-C, Chen J-R, Lee J-C, Shieh M-J. Dietary intakes of 4–8 years old children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutr Sci J 1999;24(2):153–165.
Biomarker Content Associated with Onset of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder • Mitchell et al., 1983:126 Mitchell EA, Lewis S, Cutler DR. Essential fatty acids and maladjusted behaviour in children. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 1983;12(3):281–287.
• Mitchell et al., 1987:125 Mitchell EA, Aman MG, Turbott SH, Manku M. Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1987;26(8):406–411.
• Stevens et al., 1995:124 Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, Abate ML, Watkins BA, Lipp SR et al. Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62(4):761–768.
Intake Associated with Onset of Mental Health Difficulties (i.e., Primary Prevention) • Silvers & Scott., 2002:127 Silvers KM, Scott KM. Fish consumption and self-reported physical and mental health status. Public Health Nutr 2002;5(3):427–431.
Intake Associated with Onset or Continuation of Tendencies or Behaviors with the Potential to Harm Others (i.e., Primary or Secondary Prevention) • Hamazaki et al., 1996:130 Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Itomura M, Asaoka E, Nagao Y, Nishimura N et al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults. A placebo-controlled double-blind study. J Clin Invest 1996;97(4):1129–1133.
• Hamazaki et al., 1998:129 Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Nagao Y, Kuwamori T, Yazawa K, Mizushima Y et al. Docosahexaenoic acid does not affect aggression of normal volunteers under nonstressful conditions. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Lipids 1998;33(7):663–667.
• Hamazaki et al., 2002:128 Hamazaki T, Thienprasert A, Kheovichai K, Samuhaseneetoo S, Nagasawa T, Watanabe S. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in elderly Thai subjects--a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutr Neurosci 2002;5(1):37–41.
• Wardle et al., 2000:99 Wardle J, Rogers P, Judd P, Taylor MA, Rapoport L, Green M et al. Randomized trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering dietary treatment on psychological function. Am J Med 2000;108(7):547–553.
• Iribarren et al., 2004:132 Iribarren C, Markovitz JH, Jacobs Jr DR, Schreiner PJ, Daviglus M, Hibbeln JR. Dietary intake of n-3, n-6 fatty acids and fish: Relationship with hostility in young adults - The CARDIA study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58(1):24–31.
• Gesch et al., 2002:131 Gesch CB, Hammond SM, Hampson SE, Eves A, Crowder MJ. Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners. Randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 2002;181:22–28. [Secondary Prevention]
• Hibbeln, 2001:133 Hibbeln JR. Seafood consumption and homicide mortality: A cross-national ecological analysis. 4th Congress of the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL 2000). World Rev Nutr Diet 2001;88:41–46.
Biomarker Content Associated with Onset of Tendencies or Behaviors with the Potential to Harm Others • Virkkunen et al., 1987:135 Virkkunen ME, Horrobin DF, Jenkins DK, Manku MS. Plasma phospholipid essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in alcoholic, habitually violent, and impulsive offenders. Biol Psychiatry 1987;22(9):1087–1096.
• Hibbeln et al., 1998:134 Hibbeln JR, Umhau JC, Linnoila M, George DT, Ragan PW, Shoaf SE et al. A replication study of violent and nonviolent subjects: cerebrospinal fluid metabolites of serotonin and dopamine are predicted by plasma essential fatty acids. Biol Psychiatry 1998;44(4):243–249.
• Buydens-Branchey et al., 2003:136 Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, McMakin DL, Hibbeln JR. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status and aggression in cocaine addicts. Drug Alcohol Depend 2003;71(3):319–323.
Biomarker Content Associated with Onset of Alcoholism • Alling et al., 1984:138 Alling C, Gustavsson L, Kristensson-Aas A, Wallerstedt S. Changes in fatty acid composition of major glycerophospholipids in erythrocyte membranes from chronic alcoholics during withdrawal. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1984;44(4):283–289.
• Hibbeln et al., 1998:137 Hibbeln JR, Linnoila M, Umhau JC, Rawlings R, George DT, Salem N, Jr. Essential fatty acids predict metabolites of serotonin and dopamine in cerebrospinal fluid among healthy control subjects, and early- and late-onset alcoholics. Biol Psychiatry 1998;44(4):235–242.
Primary Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder • Zanarini et al., 2003:139 Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR. omega-3 Fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160(1):167–169.
Primary Treatment for Schizophrenia • Peet et al., 2001:58 Peet M, Brind J, Ramchand CN, Shah S, Vankar GK. Two double-blind placebo-controlled pilot studies of eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2001;49(3):243–251.
Supplemental Treatment for Schizophrenia • Peet et al., 2001:58 Peet M, Brind J, Ramchand CN, Shah S, Vankar GK. Two double-blind placebo-controlled pilot studies of eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2001;49(3):243–251.
• Fenton et al., 2001:89 Fenton WS, Dickerson F, Boronow J, Hibbeln JR, Knable M. A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.[comment]. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158(12):2071–2074.
• Emsley et al., 2002:140 Emsley R, Myburgh C, Oosthuizen P, van Rensburg SJ. Randomized, placebo-controlled study of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid as supplemental treatment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159(9):1596–1598.
• Peet et al., 2002:87 Peet M, Horrobin DF, Study Group E-EM. A dose-ranging exploratory study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with persistent schizophrenic symptoms. J Psychiatr Res 2002;36(1):7–18.
Intake Associated with Onset of Schizophrenia (i.e., Primary Prevention) • Peet et al., 1997:92 Peet M, Poole J, Laugharne J. Infant feeding and the development of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1997;24:255–256.
• McCreadie, 1997:143 McCreadie RG. The Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys. 16. Breast-feeding and schizophrenia: preliminary results and hypotheses. Br J Psychiatry 1997;170:334–337.
• Leask et al., 2000:142 Leask SJ, Done DJ, Crow TJ, Richards M, Jones PB. No association between breast-feeding and adult psychosis in two national birth cohorts. Br J Psychiatry 2000;177:218–221.
• Sasaki et al., 2000:144 Sasaki T, Okazaki Y, Akaho R, Masui K, Harada S, Lee I et al. Type of feeding during infancy and later development of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2000;42(1):79–82.
• Amore et al., 2003:141 Amore M, Balista C, McCreadie RG, Cimmino C, Pisani F, Bevilacqua G et al. Can breast-feeding protect against schizophrenia? Case-control Study. Biol Neonate 2003;83(2):97–101.
• Mellor et al., 1996:91 Mellor JE, Laugharne JDE, Peet M. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in schizophrenic patients. Hum Psychopharm 1996;11(1):39–46.
• Christensen & Christensen, 1988:145 Christensen O, Christensen E. Fat consumption and schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1988;78(5):587–591.
• Noaghiul & Hibbeln, 2003:90 Noaghiul S, Hibbeln JR. Cross-national comparisons of seafood consumption and rates of bipolar disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160(12):2222–2227.
• Peet, 2004:109 Peet M. International variations in the outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to national dietary practices: an ecological analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2004;184:404–408.
Biomarker Content Associated with Onset of Schizophrenia • Obi & Nwanze, 1979:153 Obi FO, Nwanze EA. Fatty acid profiles in mental disease. Part 1. Linolenate variations in schizophrenia. J Neurol Sci 1979;43(3):447–454.
• Horrobin et al., 1989:152 Horrobin DF, Manku MS, Morse-Fisher N, Vaddadi KS, Courtney P, Glen AI et al. Essential fatty acids in plasma phospholipids in schizophrenics. Biol Psychiatry 1989;25(5):562–568.
• Kaiya et al., 1991:151 Kaiya H, Horrobin DF, Manku MS, Fisher NM. Essential and other fatty acids in plasma in schizophrenics and normal individuals from Japan. Biol Psychiatry 1991;30(4):357–362.
• Fischer et al., 1992:150 Fischer S, Kissling W, Kuss HJ. Schizophrenic patients treated with high dose phenothiazine or thioxanthene become deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids in their thrombocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 1992;44(2):317–323.
• Peet et al., 1995:149 Peet M, Laugharne J, Rangarajan N, Horrobin D, Reynolds G. Depleted red cell membrane essential fatty acids in drug-treated schizophrenic patients. J Psychiatr Res 1995;29(3):227–232.
• Vaddadi et al., 1996:157 Vaddadi KS, Gilleard CJ, Soosai E, Polonowita AK, Gibson RA, Burrows GD. Schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia and essential fatty acids. Schizophr Res 1996;20(3):287–294.
• Mahadik et al., 1996:114 Mahadik SP, Mukherjee S, Horrobin DF, Jenkins K, Correnti EE, Scheffer RE. Plasma membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition of cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenic patients: comparison with bipolar patients and normal subjects. Psychiatry Res 1996;63(2–3):133–142.
• Assies et al., 2001:148 Assies J, Lieverse R, Vreken P, Wanders RJ, Dingemans PM, Linszen DH. Significantly reduced docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations in erythrocyte membranes from schizophrenic patients compared with a carefully matched control group. Biol Psychiatry 2001;49(6):510–522.
• Yao et al., 2002:154 Yao J, Stanley JA, Reddy RD, Keshavan MS, Pettegrew JW. Correlations between peripheral polyunsaturated fatty acid content and in vivo membrane phospholipid metabolites. Biol Psychiatry 2002;52(8):823–830.
• Khan et al., 2002:147 Khan MM, Evans DR, Gunna V, Scheffer RE, Parikh VV, Mahadik SP. Reduced erythrocyte membrane essential fatty acids and increased lipid peroxides in schizophrenia at the never-medicated first-episode of psychosis and after years of treatment with antipsychotics. Schizophr Res 2002;58(1):1–10.
• Arvindakshan et al., 2003:146 Arvindakshan M, Sitasawad S, Debsikdar V, Ghate M, Evans D, Horrobin DF et al. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acid and lipid peroxide levels in never-medicated and medicated schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry 2003;53(1):56–64.
•Arvindakshan et al., 2003:155 Arvindakshan M, Ghate M, Ranjekar PK, Evans DR, Mahadik SP. Supplementation with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants (vitamins E and C) improves the outcome of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2003;62(3):195–204.
• Evans et al., 2003:158 Evans DR, Parikh VV, Khan MM, Coussons C, Buckley PF, Mahadik SP. Red blood cell membrane essential fatty acid metabolism in early psychotic patients following antipsychotic drug treatment. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2003;69(6):393–399.
• Ranjekar et al., 2003:156 Ranjekar PK, Hinge A, Hegde MV, Ghate M, Kale A, Sitasawad S et al. Decreased antioxidant enzymes and membrane essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in schizophrenic and bipolar mood disorder patients. Psychiatry Res 2003;121(2):109–122.
Biomarker Content Associated with Onset of Autism • Vancassel et al., 2001:159 Vancassel S, Durand G, Barthelemy C, Lejeune B, Martineau J, Guilloteau D et al. Plasma fatty acid levels in autistic children. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2001;65(1):1–7.

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