TABLE 13-4Proportion Drinking 5 or More Drinks on 3 or More Occasions in Past 30 Days, Proportion Drinking at All on 3 or More Occasions in the Past 30 Days, Ratio of These, and Minimum Drinking Age, European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD), 1999

Country and Hazardous Drinking ScoreA. 5+ Drinks on 3 or More Occasions in Past 30 DaysB. Any Drinking on 3 or More Occasions in Past 30 DaysA/BMinimum Drinking Age (Any Beverage and Form)Has Been Drunk by Age 13Has Been Drunk in Past 30 Days
Iceland (3)16151.00*201735
Norway (3)24231.00*181739
Poland (3)31330.94181130
Finland (3)18210.86183351
Sweden (3)17210.81182442
Slovenia (3)25320.78181735
Latvia (3)14230.61181627
Ireland (3)31520.60182550
Macedonia (3)9150.6016817
United Kingdom (2)30550.55163850
Hungary (3)12220.52181021
Croatia (3)12230.52181919
Estonia (3)14280.50181931
U.S.A. (2) 10 a 21 0.48 21 25 b 23
Denmark (2)30620.48154264
Russia (Moscow) (4)16340.47183324
Bulgaria (2)11250.44161526
Ukraine (3)10230.43212235
Malta (1)22520.42161419
Cyprus (1)12320.3818710
France (1)12330.36161218
Czech Republic (2)17490.35181639
Portugal (1)7240.29181214
Romania (3)5180.28182210
Slovakia (3)8300.27181426
Lithuania (3)8370.22181633
Greece (2)9490.1818915

Rounding error resulted in ratio >1; reset at maximum possible (1.00).


Drunk 3+ times in past 30 days.


Has been drunk in lifetime, eighth graders.

SOURCES: Drinking behaviors: Hibell et al. (2000); except U.S. data from Johnston et al. (2000). Hazardous drinking score: Rehm et al. (in press).

From: 13, Drinking and Coming of Age in a Cross-Cultural Perspective

Cover of Reducing Underage Drinking
Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility.
National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Developing a Strategy to Reduce and Prevent Underage Drinking; Bonnie RJ, O'Connell ME, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2004.
Copyright © 2004, National Academy of Sciences.

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