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Institute of Medicine (US) Food Forum. Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges, Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2007.

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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges, Workshop Summary.

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CSpeaker, Moderator, and Discussant Biographies

Darlene Adkins Kerr is vice president of public policy at the National Consumers League (NCL). Ms. Adkins has been with the League since 1991 and is responsible for League policy, activities, public education, and publications related to nutrition/health issues, labor standards, and financial services.

Ms. Adkins’ projects have included a variety of nutrition/health issues, such as asthma, nutrition labeling, and obesity. She serves on the Advisory Council of the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN).

She has also written financial education materials on issues such as trial offers, debit and credit cards, and credit reports/personal budgets. Ms. Adkins coordinates the Child Labor Coalition for NCL, managing numerous advocacy campaigns, projects, and grants. She is the North American Coordinator and sits on the International Council of the Global March Against Child Labor.

Robert L. Buchanan, Ph.D., is currently Senior Science Advisor and Director of the Office of Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the Food and Drug Administration. Dr. Buchanan received his B.S, M.S., M.Phil, and Ph.D. degrees in Food Science from Rutgers University, and post-doctoral training in mycotoxicology at the University of Georgia. Since then he has 30 years experience teaching and conducting research in food safety, first in academia, then with the USDA Agricultural Research Service, and most recently with the FDA. His scientific interests are diverse, and include extensive experience in predictive microbiology, quantitative microbial risk assessment, microbial physiology, mycotoxicology, and HACCP systems. He has published approximately 300 manuscripts, book chapters, and abstracts on a wide range of subjects related to food safety, and is one of the co-developers of the widely used USDA Pathogen Modeling Program. He also has an ongoing interest in the development of science-based public health policy. In addition to currently serving as the FDA CFSAN Senior Science Advisor, he has served as Deputy Administrator for Science with the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, and is the U.S. Delegate to the Codex Alimentarius Commission Committee on Food Hygiene. Dr. Buchanan serves on the editorial boards of several journals, and is a member of the International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods. He has also served as a member of the National Academy of Science’s Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats and the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods.

Laina Bush, M.B.A., is Team Leader for Science Policy within the Office of the Science and Data Policy of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation at the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). As Team Leader, she serves as senior policy analyst, advisor, and supervisor with major responsibility for policy research, analysis, evaluation, leadership, and planning related to activities of the science based agencies in HHS (FDA, NIH, and CDC) as well as public health science policy issues generally.

Ms. Bush has previously worked at the FDA and at the Office of Management and Budget’s Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs.

Some of her research projects have included examinations of best practices within industry and state governments to manage costs of prescription drugs, international drug price comparisons, food labeling and weight management, medical and public health issues related to mercury, and the impacts of direct to consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals.

She has served on many work groups and task forces including the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans drafting committee, Toxics and Risk Subcommittee, Interagency Working Group on Mercury, Interagency Working Group on Dioxin, Katrina Environmental Impacts and Cleanup Workgroup, Women’s Health Committee on Breastfeeding, and the President’s Council for Food Safety Strategic Planning Task Force.

William Dietz, M.D., Ph.D., is the director of the Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity in the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prior to his appointment to the CDC, he was a professor of pediatrics at the Tufts University School of Medicine, and director of clinical nutrition at the Floating Hospital of New England Medical Center Hospitals. He received his B.A. from Wesleyan University in 1966 and his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1970. Following an internship at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, he spent 3 years in the Middle America Research Unit of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease in Panama studying insect-borne viruses. After the completion of his residency at Upstate Medical Center, he received a Ph.D. in Nutritional Biochemistry from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

In addition to his academic responsibilities in Boston, Dr. Dietz was a principal research scientist at the MIT/Harvard Division of Health Science and Technology, associate director of the Clinical Research Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and director of the Boston Obesity/Nutrition Research Center funded by NIDDK. He has been a counselor of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and past president of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity. In 1995 he received the John Stalker Award from the American School Food Service Association for his efforts to improve school lunches. Dr. Dietz served on the 1995 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. He is a past member of the NIDDK Task Force on Obesity and President-elect of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. In 1998, Dr. Dietz was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He is the author of over 100 publications in the scientific literature.

Michael P. Doyle, Ph.D., is Regents Professor of Food Microbiology and director of the University of Georgia Center for Food Safety. Previously, he was Distinguished Professor of Food Microbiology and Toxicology at the University of Wisconsin. Dr. Doyle’s research program promotes collaboration among the food industry, the university, and federal and state agencies. His research focuses on developing methods to detect and control foodborne bacterial pathogens at all levels of the food continuum, from the farm to the table. He is internationally acknowledged as a leading authority on foodborne pathogens, especially Escherichia coli O157:H7. His National Academies service includes chairmanship of the Committee on the Review of the USDA E. coli 0157:H7 Farm-to-Table Process Risk Assessment and participation in the 2004 US-Iranian Workshop on Food Safety, the NRC Committee on National Needs for Research in Veterinary Science, and the IOM/NRC Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption. He currently chairs the Food and Nutrition Board’s Food Forum. He was elected to the IOM in 2003.

Kathleen Ellwood, Ph.D., is the Director of the Division of Nutrition Programs and Labeling, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, at the Food and Drug Administration. This Division is responsible for the development of policies, regulations, position papers, regulatory guidelines, and advisory opinions on issues related to nutrition and nutrition labeling (primarily health claims and nutrient content claims), dietary recommendations, food fortification, and related nutrition science issues. She was the National Program Leader for Human Nutrition with the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) from 1999 to 2002. In this position she provided strategic planning and guidance for the ARS human nutrition research program. Prior to joining ARS, Dr. Ellwood was the Director of the Human Nutrition and the Food Safety competitive grant programs for USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). Dr. Ellwood has held research positions at FDA, CFSAN, and USDA, ARS. She received her Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry from the University of Maryland. Dr. Ellwood is a member of several professional societies and has numerous publications.

Joanne M. Holden, M.S., received her M.S. in Human Nutrition from the University of Maryland. She joined the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, ARS, USDA as a support scientist in the Carbohydrate Metabolism Laboratory where she conducted research on the effects of carbohydrate intake and metabolism. Then, Ms. Holden worked as a Research Nutritionist in the Food Composition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center for 20 years before joining the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) as Research Leader in 1995. Her research interests include food sampling and the evaluation of data quality. As Research Leader of the NDL, Ms. Holden provides leadership in the acquisition, evaluation, compilation, and dissemination of food composition data and related research efforts. She has served as the Co-Director of the International Postgraduate Course for the Production, Management, and Use of Food Composition Data since 1994. The course which has been held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, and various regions around the world has trained more than 350 scientists from 50 countries since 1992. The NDL is one of seven units in the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center of the ARS in Beltsville, Maryland, USA. The primary responsibility of the NDL is to provide authoritative food composition data on foods available in the United States. The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) is the primary product of the NDL. The current release of the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR19) contains data on over 7,200 food items. It is the standard reference source for food composition data in the U.S. and provides the core data for most public and private sector databases. In addition, NDL develops and releases other Special Interest Databases, including carotenoids, choline, isoflavones, flavonoids, and fluoride databases, each containing data for 125–400 major food sources of these components. These various databases are available free of charge to all Internet users at NDL’s website ( Also, NDL releases data at a reasonable cost on a CD-ROM. SR is updated, in part, and re-released annually. To support the development of these database products NDL conducts research on sampling, sample handling, and data compilation. NDL has established the National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program to generate original analytical data and to support food composition research and estimation. NDL staff collaborates with analytical laboratories and with other national and regional database groups to keep abreast of new developments in analytical methodology and quality assurance, areas essential to the development of accurate and representative values.

Shiriki K. Kumanyika, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Associate Dean for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and professor of epidemiology in the Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology. Before coming to the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Kumanyika was professor of nutrition and epidemiology and head of the Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She has also held prior positions on the nutrition and epidemiology faculties of the Pennsylvania State University, Johns Hopkins University, and Cornell University. Her publications reflect over 20 years of research related to cardiovascular diseases, obesity, nutritional epidemiology, and the health of minority populations, older populations, and women. Dr. Kumanyika was a member of the IOM Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and Gender Differences and of the Committee on Legal and Ethical Issues in the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies. She served on the IOM Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth and currently serves on the IOM Committee on Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity. She is currently a member of the Advisory Council of the NIH’s National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. She earned an M.S. in social work from Columbia University, a Ph.D. in human nutrition from Cornell University, and an M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University.

Alice H. Lichtenstein, Ph.D., is the Stanley N. Gershoff Professor of Nutrition Science and Policy in the Gerald J. and Dorothy R. Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University and Senior Scientist and Director of the Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging. Dr. Lichtenstein holds a secondary appointment as Professor of Family Medicine and Community Health at Tufts University School of Medicine. Dr. Lichtenstein completed her undergraduate work at Cornell University in Nutrition. She earned her masters and doctoral degrees in nutrition from Harvard University. Dr. Lichtenstein received her postdoctoral training in the field of lipid metabolism at the Cardiovascular Institute at Boston University School of Medicine. Dr. Lichtenstein’s research is focused on assessing the interplay of diet and heart disease risk factors. Current studies focus on trans–fatty acids, soy protein and isoflavones, sterol/stanol esters, genetically modified/selectively bred oils and glycemic index in postmenopausal females and older males.

Dr. Lichtenstein is a member of the American Society for Nutrition; and the Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, as well as the Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism Councils of the American Heart Association. She is immediate past-chair of the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. She has served on the USDA/HHS 2000 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee and the Dietary Reference Intake Macronutrient Panel of the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board.

Julie Mares, Ph.D., is a Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and part of Interdepartmental Faculty in Nutritional Sciences and Population Health. Dr. Mares earned a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in Nutritional Sciences in 1987, an M.S. in Public Health from the University of Illinois, School of Public Health in 1980 and a B.S. in Foods and Nutrition from the University of Illinois in 1976. She is a member of several professional organizations, including the American Society for Nutritional Sciences and the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology and the International Carotenoid Society. Over the past eighteen years, she and her research team have published over 60 manuscripts and book chapters that describe relationships of nutrition to common age-related chronic diseases of the eye to clinicians, scientists and the general public. Her epidemiologic research team has used several techniques to assess diet and nutritional status and has used them to investigate relationships of these to age-related macular degeneration and cataract and to diabetic retinopathy in several large populations. Her current research focuses on measuring carotenoids in the retina and examining relationships with levels in the diet and blood and with the occurrence of age-related cataract and macular degeneration.

Linda D. Meyers, Ph.D., is the Director of the IOM’s Food and Nutrition Board. She has also served as FNB Deputy Director and as a Senior Program Officer. Prior to joining the IOM in 2001, she worked for 15 years in the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) where she was a Senior Nutrition Advisor, Deputy Director, and Acting Director. Dr. Meyers has received a number of awards for her contributions to public health, including the Secretary’s Distinguished Service Award for Healthy People 2010 and the Surgeon General’s Medallion. Her research interests include indicators of nutrition in populations, nutrition monitoring, and nutrition policy. Dr. Meyers has a B.A. in health and physical education from Goshen College in Indiana, M.S. in food and nutrition from Colorado State University, and Ph.D. in nutritional sciences from Cornell University.

Sanford A. Miller, Ph.D., is currently a Senior Fellow at the Center for Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture Policy in College Park, MD, and was named Professor and Dean Emeritus of The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA) in December 2000. From 1987–2000, Dr. Miller was the Dean of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Professor in the Departments of Biochemistry and Medicine at the UTHSCSA. He is the former Director of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the FDA. Previously, he was a Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Miller has served on many national and international government and professional society advisory committees, including the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) Expert Committee on GRAS Substances, the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council of NIH, the Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board and the Food Forum, the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Advisory Panel on Food Safety (Chairman), and the Steering Committees of several WHO/FAO panels. He has served as a member of the Food and Nutrition Board’s Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. In 1998, Dr. Miller was elected a Fellow of The American Society for Nutritional Sciences, and was also a member of the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council’s Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption. More recently, he has been named to three additional National Academy of Sciences committees, including the Committee on Agricultural Biotechnology, Health and the Environment of the National Research Council, the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine, and chairs the Dietary Reference Intakes Panel on Macronutrients of the IOM. In June 2000, he became the first recipient of the FDA’s Distinguished Alumni Award. He is author or co-author of more than 200 original scientific publications. Dr. Miller received a B.S. in chemistry from the City College of New York, and a M.S. and Ph.D. from Rutgers University in physiology and biochemistry.

John Milner, Ph.D., is chief of the Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute. In this position he promotes research that deals with the physiological importance of dietary bioactive compounds as modifiers of cancer risk and tumor behavior. Previously, Dr. Milner was Professor and Head in the Department of Nutrition at The Pennsylvania State University, where he also served as Director of the Graduate Program in Nutrition. Dr. Milner received his Doctorate in nutrition, with a minor in biochemistry and physiology, from Cornell University in 1974. He is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, American Association of Cancer Research, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Chemical Society’s Food and Chemistry Division and the Institute of Food Technology. Dr. Milner is a fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Medical Food, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Nutrition and Cancer, Comprehensive Reviews of Food Science/Food Safety and Nutrition, Nutrition and Foods, and the Journal of Nutrition.

Suzanne P. Murphy, Ph.D., R.D., is a researcher (professor) at the Cancer Research Center of Hawaii at the University of Hawaii (Honolulu, HI) and director of the Nutrition Support Shared Resource at the center. Previously, Dr. Murphy was state director of the California Expanded Food and Nutrition Program at the University of California—Davis. Dr. Murphy’s research interests include dietary assessment methodology, development of food and supplement composition databases, and nutritional epidemiology of chronic diseases (with emphasis on cancer and obesity). Dr. Murphy has served as a member of the National Nutrition Monitoring Advisory Council and the year 2000 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Currently, she serves on editorial boards for the Journal of Food Composition and Analysis and Nutrition Today and serves as contributing editor for Nutrition Reviews. She is a member of various professional organizations including the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the American Public Health Association, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the Society for Nutrition Education, the Society for Epidemiological Research, and the Society for International Nutrition Research. Dr. Murphy has served on several IOM panels including the Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes (as chair then member), the Subcommittee on Upper Safe Reference Levels of Nutrients (as member, and the Panel on Calcium and Related Nutrients (as member). She is currently completing service as chair of the Committee to Review the WIC Food Packages. Dr. Murphy earned a B.S. degree in mathematics from Temple University, Philadelphia, an M.S. degree in molecular biology from San Francisco State University, and a Ph.D. degree in nutrition from the University of California-Berkeley. She is a registered dietitian.

Greg Paoli, M.A., leads a consulting firm (Decisionalysis Risk Consultants) specializing in risk assessment and risk management in the field of public health and safety. He has experience in diverse risk domains including microbiological and toxicological hazards, climate change impact assessment, air and water quality, medical and engineering devices as well as risk-based priority-setting across multiple hazards. Mr. Paoli is currently serving as a Councilor of the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA). He has served as Chair of SRA’s Biological Stressors Specialty Group and serves on SRA’s Internationalization Task Force. Within Canada, Greg has served on Expert Committees of the National Roundtable on the Environment and the Economy and is a member of Health Canada’s Expert Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance Risk Assessment. Mr. Paoli has provided guest lectures at the Queen’s University’s Public Sector Executive Programme and School of Public Policy, University of Calgary’s Faculty of Management and the University of Ottawa’s Institute of Population Health. In the United States, he has served on an Institute of Medicine Committee tasked to Review the USDA E. coli 0157:H7 Farm-to-Table Process Risk Assessment. He was recently appointed to a NRC Committee entitled, Improving Risk Analysis Approaches Used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. He served for several years on an Expert Panel to develop a Risk Ranking Framework for the FDA and was on the Peer Review Panel for the Harvard BSE Risk Assessment. Mr. Paoli has served on several international expert panels including Expert Consultations as part of the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Activities on Microbial Risk Assessment. He has provided training in risk assessment approaches across North America, Japan and South America. Mr. Paoli also provides lectures as part of the Harvard School of Public Health continuing education course in Probabilistic Risk Assessment. Mr. Paoli earned a Master of Applied Science degree in Systems Design Engineering and a Bachelor’s Degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of Waterloo.

Barbara Petersen, M.P.H., Ph.D., is a Principal and serves as Director of Exponent’s Food & Chemicals practice. Dr. Petersen is internationally recognized for her expertise in exposure assessment methodology, food consumption profile modeling, and applications of Monte Carlo techniques to conduct risk assessments. Dr. Petersen has pioneered the technical methods for incorporating information about dietary practices, actual agricultural practices and commercial food processing technologies into regulatory science issues. Dr. Petersen has successfully applied these approaches to develop software that maximizes the utility of data and provides realistic risk assessments that allow the user to understand the sources of potential exposure. Applications include FQPA compliance, regulatory strategies for existing products, intake calculations to support new pesticides, GRAS self-affirmations and preparation of food additive petitions, nutrition labeling justifications, new food product designs and marketing strategies, and product stewardship program designs. Dr. Petersen has directed the design and conduct of seven statistically based national market basket studies. These studies were designed for different purposes, including acute and chronic assessments for pesticides, compliance assessments under Proposition 65, and market research.

Joseph V. Rodricks, Ph.D., was a Founding Principal of ENVIRON International Corporation in 1982. He is an internationally recognized expert in the field of toxicology and risk analysis and in their uses in regulation and in the evaluation of toxic tort and product liability cases. Since 1980, he has consulted for hundreds of manufacturers, for government agencies and the World Health Organization, and he has served on 20 Boards and Committees of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. In 2003, he was elected a National Associate of the National Academies. He has more than 150 publications on toxicology and risk analysis, and has lectured nationally and internationally on these topics. Dr. Rodricks was formerly Deputy Associate Commissioner, Health Affairs, and Toxicologist, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (1965–1980); and is a Visiting Professor, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health. He has been certified as a Diplomate, American Board of Toxicology, since 1982. Dr. Rodricks’ experience includes chemical products and contaminants in foods, food ingredients, air, water, hazardous wastes, the workplace, consumer products, and medical devices and pharmaceutical products. In 2005 Dr. Rodricks received the Outstanding Practioner Award from the Society for Risk Analysis. He is the author of Calculated Risks (Cambridge University Press), a nontechnical introduction to toxicology and risk analysis that is now in its sixth printing, and which won an award from the American Medical Writers Association. A second edition is now in press.

Robert M. Russell, M.D., is a professor of medicine and nutrition at Tufts University and director of the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston. He has served on national and international advisory boards including the USDA Human Investigation Committee (Chairman), the FDA, U.S. Pharmacopoeia Convention, National Dairy Council Advisory Board, and the American Board of Internal Medicine. He has worked on international nutrition programs in several countries including Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Guatemala, China, and the Philippines. Dr. Russell is a member of numerous professional societies, on the editorial boards of five professional journals, a councilor to the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and a member of the Board of Directors of the American College of Nutrition. Dr. Russell co-authored the standards for parenteral and enteral nutrition to be used in U.S. long-term care facilities. He is a staff gastroenterologist at the New England Medical Center Hospitals. Dr. Russell’s primary work involves studying the effects of aging on gastrointestinal absorptive function. He is a noted expert in the area of human metabolism of retinoids and carotenoids. Dr. Russell served as a member of the FNB’s Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline, and chair of the Panel on Micronutrients. Dr. Russell received his B.S. from Harvard University and M.D. from Columbia University. He is currently a member of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes.

Barbara O. Schneeman, Ph.D., is Director, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements (ONPLDS), in the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), with the FDA. She oversees the development of policy and regulations for dietary supplements, nutrition labeling and food standards, infant formula, and medical foods. Prior to joining FDA, she served as a member of the faculty and administration at the University of California, Davis. She held appointments as professor in the Departments of Nutrition, Food Science and Technology, and Internal Medicine in the School of Medicine. Dr. Schneeman has served as Assistant Administrator for Nutrition in the Agricultural Research Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. She has many professional activities and honors to her credit. Dr. Schneeman received her B.S. from the University of California, Davis in food science and technology, and her Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California, Berkeley.

Amy F. Subar, Ph.D., M.P.H., R.D., is a research nutritionist at the National Cancer Institute. She received her B.S. in Dietetics at the State University College at Buffalo; an M.P.H. at the University of Minnesota; and a Ph.D. at Syracuse University. Her research interests include developing, designing, and carrying out nutrition research related to dietary methods, development of dietary instruments, measurement error, dietary surveillance, and nutritional epidemiology. Dr. Subar recently directed the development and evaluation of a new food frequency questionnaire, the Diet History Questionnaire. This work encompassed all areas of questionnaire development: cognitive issues, methods to determine food and portion size lists, methods for creating nutrient databases for frequency questionnaires, testing of response rates, and comparative validation. This food frequency questionnaire has recently been modified to be web-based for use in nutrition research. Dr. Subar’s more recent research has focused on understanding measurement error in the biomarker-based, Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition, or OPEN Study. She has focused on analyses of underreporting, methods for surveillance of usual dietary intake, and development of short dietary screener instruments. Currently, Dr. Subar is leading a project to develop a web-based automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall using multimedia computer technology. Dr. Subar serves as a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

Christine Lewis Taylor, Ph.D., is a scholar at the IOM where she is now working on issues related to Dietary Reference Intakes. She came to IOM in 2006 with a wealth of experience in nutrition science and policy, having served for more than 20 years in the US government, most recently as Director of FDA’s Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and Dietary Supplements. From 2004 through 2006 Dr. Taylor was assigned to the risk assessment group within the World Health Organization where she was the Project Director for their most recent nutrient risk assessment work.

Dr. Taylor holds numerous Public Health Service Awards including the Meritorious Service Award and the Outstanding Service Medal. She has been a member of various intragovernment working groups and liaison activities on science and policy, and she has represented FDA on a variety of panels ranging from the American Heart Association to the White House Commission on Alternative and Complementary Medicines FDA’s in 2000–2002. She has served as Head of Delegation to the Codex Alimentarius Committee on Food Labeling and as Alternate Delegate to the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses.

Kathryn Wiemer, M.S., R.D., is director/Fellow, Regulatory and Issues Management General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition. She has been employed at General Mills for over 28 years. In her current position, she is responsible for ensuring that General Mills’ products comply with existing government and corporate nutrition regulations and policies. She leads the development of Corporate positions and comments to government regulatory agencies on nutrition issues and serves as a liaison with these agencies, trade associations and health professional organizations in the area of nutrition.

Ms. Wiemer has extensive experience in providing direction to marketing and divisional research concerning nutrition issues and opportunities; coordinating product-related nutrition research studies and developing nutrition education materials and communication programs for health professionals and consumers.

She has been honored to receive two General Mills Champion’s Award for her role in two major efforts: conducting clinical research and a communication campaign to consumers and health professionals related to the heart health benefits of Cheerios and securing the whole grain health claim and related communication programs.

After receiving her Bachelor of Science Degree in Nutrition and Dietetics from Iowa State University in 1976, she completed her Master’s Degree in Human Nutrition at the University of Nebraska in 1978. Her area of research was iron bioavailability and interactions of dietary fiber, iron, and lead. Early in her career at General Mills, she co-edited the book entitled Iron Fortification of Foods and has coauthored several scientific papers.

Ms. Wiemer just completed serving as chair of the Grocery Manufacturers of America (GMA) Nutrition & Labeling Committee and serves as vice chair on the Board of Directors of the Wheat Foods Council. She serves on several committees of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and the International Food Information Council (IFIC), is a Registered Dietitian, a member of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), the Dietitians in Business and Communications practice group of the ADA and the Minnesota Dietetic Association.

Catherine E. Woteki, Ph.D., is global director of scientific affairs at Mars, Incorporated. Prior to coming to Mars she was dean of the College of Agriculture at Iowa State University. Dr. Woteki also held the appointments of senior research scientist with the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Maryland and professor of nutrition and food safety at the University of Nebraska. Her extensive government experience includes service as USDA undersecretary for food safety and USDA deputy undersecretary for research, education, and economics, as well as leadership positions in the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President and the National Center for Health Statistics in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She is a member of professional associations for nutrition, dietetics, public health, food technology, and nutrition education. Her awards include the Elijah White Award from the National Center for Health Statistics, the Special Recognition Award from the U.S. Public Health Service, and the Staff Achievement Award from the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Woteki received a B.S. in biology and chemistry from Mary Washington College and M.S. and PhD in human nutrition from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. She is an IOM member and a former director and chair of the Food and Nutrition Board. She is also a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Copyright © 2007, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK37553


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